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  • Photo credit: Richard Hutchings/Photo Researchers, Inc.
  • Photo credit: ©Leonard Lessin/Peter Arnold, Inc
  • Gene therapy is the process of changing the genes that cause a genetic disorder. This drawing shows how a virus might be used to deliver the gene for normal hemoglobin into a person’s bone marrow.
  • Gene therapy is the process of changing the genes that cause a genetic disorder. This drawing shows how a virus might be used to deliver the gene for normal hemoglobin into a person’s bone marrow.
  • Gene therapy is the process of changing the genes that cause a genetic disorder. This drawing shows how a virus might be used to deliver the gene for normal hemoglobin into a person’s bone marrow.
  • Transcript

    • 1. <ul><li>Biology </li></ul>Biology
    • 2. <ul><li>14–3 Human Molecular Genetics </li></ul>14-3 Human Molecular Genetics
    • 3. Human DNA Analysis <ul><li>Human DNA Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are roughly 6 billion base pairs in your DNA. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biologists search the human genome using sequences of DNA bases. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 4. Human DNA Analysis <ul><li>Genetic tests are available for hundreds of disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA testing can pinpoint the exact genetic basis of a disorder. </li></ul>
    • 5. Human DNA Analysis <ul><ul><li>DNA Fingerprinting  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA fingerprinting analyzes sections of DNA that have little or no known function but vary widely from one individual to another. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only identical twins are genetically identical. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA samples can be obtained from blood, sperm, and hair strands with tissue at the base. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 6. Human DNA Analysis <ul><li>Chromosomes contain large amounts of DNA called repeats that do not code for proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>This DNA pattern varies from person to person. </li></ul>
    • 7. Human DNA Analysis <ul><li>Restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA into fragments containing genes and repeats. </li></ul>
    • 8. Human DNA Analysis <ul><li>DNA fragments are separated using gel electrophoresis. </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments containing repeats are labeled. </li></ul><ul><li>This produces a series of bands—the DNA fingerprint. </li></ul>
    • 9. Human DNA Analysis <ul><li>DNA Fingerprint </li></ul>
    • 10. The Human Genome Project <ul><li>The Human Genome Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the goal of the Human Genome Project? </li></ul></ul>
    • 11. The Human Genome Project <ul><ul><li>In 1990, scientists in the United States and other countries began the Human Genome Project . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Human Genome Project is an ongoing effort to analyze the human DNA sequence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In June 2000, a working copy of the human genome was essentially complete. </li></ul></ul>
    • 12. The Human Genome Project <ul><li>Research groups are analyzing the DNA sequence, looking for genes that may provide clues to the basic properties of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Biotechnology companies are looking for information that may help develop new drugs and treatments for diseases. </li></ul>
    • 13. The Human Genome Project <ul><ul><li>A Breakthrough for Everyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data from publicly supported research on the human genome have been posted on the Internet on a daily basis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can read and analyze the latest genome data. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 14. Gene Therapy <ul><li>Gene Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is gene therapy? </li></ul></ul>
    • 15. Gene Therapy <ul><ul><li>In gene therapy, an absent or faulty gene is replaced by a normal, working gene. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The body can then make the correct protein or enzyme, eliminating the cause of the disorder. </li></ul></ul>
    • 16. Gene Therapy <ul><li>Viruses are often used because of their ability to enter a cell’s DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Virus particles are modified so that they cannot cause disease. </li></ul>Normal hemoglobin gene Genetically engineered virus
    • 17. Gene Therapy <ul><li>A DNA fragment containing a replacement gene is spliced to viral DNA. </li></ul>Chromosomes Bone marrow cell Nucleus Genetically engineered virus
    • 18. Gene Therapy <ul><li>The patient is then infected with the modified virus particles, which should carry the gene into cells to correct genetic defects. </li></ul>
    • 19. 14–3
    • 20. 14–3 <ul><ul><li>DNA fingerprinting analyzes sections of DNA that have </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little or no known function but are identical from one individual to another. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>little or no known function but vary widely from one individual to another. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a function and are identical from one individual to another. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a function and are highly variable from one individual to another. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 21. 14–3 <ul><ul><li>DNA fingerprinting uses the technique of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gene therapy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allele analysis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gel electrophoresis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gene recombination. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 22. 14–3 <ul><ul><li>Repeats are areas of DNA that </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>do not code for proteins. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>code for proteins. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>are identical from person to person. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cause genetic disorders. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 23. 14–3 <ul><ul><li>Data from the human genome project is available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>only to those who have sequenced the DNA. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to scientists who are able to understand the data. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>by permission to anyone who wishes to do research. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to anyone with Internet access. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 24. 14–3 <ul><ul><li>Which statement most accurately describes gene therapy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It repairs the defective gene in all cells of the body. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It destroys the defective gene in cells where it exists. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It replaces absent or defective genes with a normal gene. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It promotes DNA repair through the use of enzymes. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 25. END OF SECTION

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