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  • Photo credit: Richard Hutchings/Photo Researchers, Inc.
  • Photo credit: ©Leonard Lessin/Peter Arnold, Inc
  • Gene therapy is the process of changing the genes that cause a genetic disorder. This drawing shows how a virus might be used to deliver the gene for normal hemoglobin into a person’s bone marrow.
  • Gene therapy is the process of changing the genes that cause a genetic disorder. This drawing shows how a virus might be used to deliver the gene for normal hemoglobin into a person’s bone marrow.
  • Gene therapy is the process of changing the genes that cause a genetic disorder. This drawing shows how a virus might be used to deliver the gene for normal hemoglobin into a person’s bone marrow.
  • Transcript

    • 1.
      • Biology
      Biology
    • 2.
      • 14–3 Human Molecular Genetics
      14-3 Human Molecular Genetics
    • 3. Human DNA Analysis
      • Human DNA Analysis
          • There are roughly 6 billion base pairs in your DNA.
          • Biologists search the human genome using sequences of DNA bases.
    • 4. Human DNA Analysis
      • Genetic tests are available for hundreds of disorders.
      • DNA testing can pinpoint the exact genetic basis of a disorder.
    • 5. Human DNA Analysis
        • DNA Fingerprinting 
          • DNA fingerprinting analyzes sections of DNA that have little or no known function but vary widely from one individual to another.
          • Only identical twins are genetically identical.
          • DNA samples can be obtained from blood, sperm, and hair strands with tissue at the base.
    • 6. Human DNA Analysis
      • Chromosomes contain large amounts of DNA called repeats that do not code for proteins.
      • This DNA pattern varies from person to person.
    • 7. Human DNA Analysis
      • Restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA into fragments containing genes and repeats.
    • 8. Human DNA Analysis
      • DNA fragments are separated using gel electrophoresis.
      • Fragments containing repeats are labeled.
      • This produces a series of bands—the DNA fingerprint.
    • 9. Human DNA Analysis
      • DNA Fingerprint
    • 10. The Human Genome Project
      • The Human Genome Project
        • What is the goal of the Human Genome Project?
    • 11. The Human Genome Project
        • In 1990, scientists in the United States and other countries began the Human Genome Project .
        • The Human Genome Project is an ongoing effort to analyze the human DNA sequence.
        • In June 2000, a working copy of the human genome was essentially complete.
    • 12. The Human Genome Project
      • Research groups are analyzing the DNA sequence, looking for genes that may provide clues to the basic properties of life.
      • Biotechnology companies are looking for information that may help develop new drugs and treatments for diseases.
    • 13. The Human Genome Project
        • A Breakthrough for Everyone
          • Data from publicly supported research on the human genome have been posted on the Internet on a daily basis.
          • You can read and analyze the latest genome data.
    • 14. Gene Therapy
      • Gene Therapy
        • What is gene therapy?
    • 15. Gene Therapy
        • In gene therapy, an absent or faulty gene is replaced by a normal, working gene.
        • The body can then make the correct protein or enzyme, eliminating the cause of the disorder.
    • 16. Gene Therapy
      • Viruses are often used because of their ability to enter a cell’s DNA.
      • Virus particles are modified so that they cannot cause disease.
      Normal hemoglobin gene Genetically engineered virus
    • 17. Gene Therapy
      • A DNA fragment containing a replacement gene is spliced to viral DNA.
      Chromosomes Bone marrow cell Nucleus Genetically engineered virus
    • 18. Gene Therapy
      • The patient is then infected with the modified virus particles, which should carry the gene into cells to correct genetic defects.
    • 19. 14–3
    • 20. 14–3
        • DNA fingerprinting analyzes sections of DNA that have
          • Little or no known function but are identical from one individual to another.
          • little or no known function but vary widely from one individual to another.
          • a function and are identical from one individual to another.
          • a function and are highly variable from one individual to another.
    • 21. 14–3
        • DNA fingerprinting uses the technique of
          • gene therapy.
          • allele analysis.
          • gel electrophoresis.
          • gene recombination.
    • 22. 14–3
        • Repeats are areas of DNA that
          • do not code for proteins.
          • code for proteins.
          • are identical from person to person.
          • cause genetic disorders.
    • 23. 14–3
        • Data from the human genome project is available
          • only to those who have sequenced the DNA.
          • to scientists who are able to understand the data.
          • by permission to anyone who wishes to do research.
          • to anyone with Internet access.
    • 24. 14–3
        • Which statement most accurately describes gene therapy?
          • It repairs the defective gene in all cells of the body.
          • It destroys the defective gene in cells where it exists.
          • It replaces absent or defective genes with a normal gene.
          • It promotes DNA repair through the use of enzymes.
    • 25. END OF SECTION

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