< 1% of fresh water is readily accessible for direct human uses (U.S. Geological Survey, 2009)
The 10 largest water users are India, China, USA, Pakistan, Japan, Thailand, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Mexico and Russia
The real crisis is one of poverty, access, and unbalanced power, not supply (UN)
Water withdrawals to increase by 50% by 2025 in developing countries, and 18% in developed countries (UNEP)
Scarcity Causes Implications Solutions Risks & Opps Strategy More stats Pam Muckosy 30 11 2009 Poverty CAUSES Industry Population growth Climate change Access Inequality Weak infrastructure & institutions
Scarcity Causes Implications Solutions Risks & Opps Strategy More stats Pam Muckosy 30 11 2009 Socio-economic impacts: Disease – 1/10 th global disease burden could be prevented by improving water supply, sanitation, hygiene and management (UN) Access – 884m people – about half of whom live in Asia – still rely on drinking water from unimproved sources such as ponds, streams, irrigation canals and unprotected dug wells (WHO & UNICEF) Demand will outstrip supply - by 2030 D>S by 40%, and 1/2 could be in water-stressed areas (McKinsey) IMPLICATIONS
Scarcity Causes Implications Solutions Risks & Opps Strategy More stats Pam Muckosy 30 11 2009 MDG 7, Target 10 Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by 2015. Halve by 2015, the proportion of people who do not have access to basic sanitation. SOLUTIONS
Scarcity Causes Implications Solutions Risks & Opps Strategy More stats Pam Muckosy 30 11 2009 SURPRISING STATISTICS Women - > 2x as likely to collect (WHO & UNICEF) Inefficient use and piping - In many places, 30 to 40% goes unaccounted for due to water leakages in pipes and canals and illegal tapping (UN) Individual needs - basic need is 20 to 50 L of water free from harmful contaminants each and every day (UN) Access - > 5b people – 67% of the world population – may still be without access to adequate sanitation in 2030 (OECD) In slums - the poor often pay 5-10x more than wealthy people living in the same city (UNDP) Private sector's proportion - manage, on ave, 35% of water and sewage market in developed countries vs 80% (UN) Natural disasters - almost 2b people were affected in the 90s; 86% of them by floods and droughts (WHO) CC - 3-4°C could cause 1.8b people to live in a water scarce environment by 2080 (UNDP)
263 transboundary river and lake basins and around 300 transboundary aquifers worldwide.
Transboundary lake and river basins account for an estimated 60% of global freshwater flow and is home to 40% of the world´s population.
> 75% of all countries, 145 in total, have shared river basins within their boundaries. 33 nations have > 95% of their territory within international river basins.
In the 20th century, only seven minor skirmishes took place between nations over shared water resources, while over 300 treaties were signed during the same period.
158 of the world’s 263 international river basins, plus transboundary aquifer systems, lack any type of cooperative management framework.
Joint management may be the solution for generating ‘public goods’ such as flood and drought protection, increased biodiversity and improved conservation, enhanced water quality, and even greater possibilities for peace and regional stability.
Thank you If you would like internal training, or to be added to our research mailing list, please email me at Pam.Muckosy@ethicalcorp.com or visit www.ethicalcorp.com/training WWW.ETHICALCORP.COM/WATER