Emotions are critical factor in employee behavior.
The “myth of rationality”
Emotions of any kind are disruptive to organizations.
Original OB focus was solely on the effects of strong negative emotions that interfered with individual and organizational efficiency.
What Are Emotions? Moods Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus Emotions Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something Affect A broad range of emotions that people experience
Believe that displaying emotions is inconsistent with the male image
Are innately less able to read and to identify with others’ emotions
Have less need to seek social approval by showing positive emotions
External Constraints on Emotions Organizational Influences Cultural Influences Individual Emotions
Emotional Labor A situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions. Emotional dissonance — Inconsistencies between the emotions we feel and the emotions we project.
Felt vs. Displayed Emotions Felt Emotions An individual’s actual emotions Displayed Emotions Emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job
Internals (Internal locus of control) Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them.
Note: Higher emotional labor equals more highly paid jobs (with high cognitive requirements)
Affective Events Theory (AET)
Work events trigger positive and negative emotional reactions
Personality and mood determine the intensity of the emotional response.
Emotions can influence a broad range of work performance and job satisfaction variables.
Implications of the theory ACT
Individual response reflects emotions and mood cycles.
Current and past emotions affect job satisfaction.
Emotional fluctuations create variations in job satisfaction and performance.
Both negative and positive emotions can distract workers and reduce job performance.
Affective Events Theory (AET) E X H I B I T 8 –6 Source: Based on N.M. Ashkanasy and C.S. Daus, “Emotion in the Workplace: The New Challenge for Managers,” Academy of Management Executive , February 2002, p. 77.
Self-awareness = Know how you feel
Self-management = Manage your emotions and impulses
Self-motivation = Can motivate yourself and persist
Empathy = Sense and understand what others feel
Social Skills = Can handle the emotions of others
Research Findings: Characterize high performers, high EI scores, not high IQ scores.
OB Applications of Emotions and Moods
Emotions and Selection
Emotions affect employee effectiveness.
Emotions are an important part of the decision-making process in organizations.
Positive mood increases creativity.
Emotional commitment to work and high motivation are strongly linked.
Emotions are important to acceptance of messages from organizational leaders.
OB Applications . . . (cont’d)
Conflict in the workplace and individual emotions are strongly intertwined.
Emotions can impair negotiations.
Emotions affect service quality delivered to customers which, in turn, affects customer relationships.
Can carry over to home
Deviant Workplace Behaviors
Negative emotions lead to employee deviance (actions that violate norms and threaten the organization).
Lucy has a high need for achievement and likes to come to work and focus on her job only. If you were Lucy’s manager, how could you get her to feel more emotion at work? Would you want her to? Why or why not? Discuss with a classmate.
Roberto comes to class and sits quietly looking content and relaxed. The teacher is guessing that Roberto is:
Low on negative affect High on positive affect High on negative affect Low on positive affect Chapter Check-up: Emotions and Moods Discuss with a neighbor why Roberto, who is seemingly happy but calm, isn’t just low on positive affect.