Understanding culture


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By: Arshad Hussain

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  • A manager assigned to a foreign subsidiary, for example, must expect to find large and small differences in the behavior of individuals and groups within that organization. As depicted on this slide, these differences result from the societal, or sociocultural, variables of the culture, such as religion and language, in addition to prevailing national variables, such as economic, legal, and political factors. National and sociocultural variables thus provide the context for the development and perpetuation of cultural variables. These cultural variables, in turn, determine basic attitudes toward work, time, materialism, individualism, and change. Such attitudes affect an individual’s motivation and expectations regarding work and group relations, and they ultimately affect the outcomes that can be expected from that individual
  • Managers should recognize, of course, that generalizations in cultural profiles will produce only an approximation, or stereotype, of national character. Many countries comprise diverse subcultures whose constituents conform only in varying degrees to the national character.
  • To develop cultural profiles we first need to be familiar with the kinds of universal cultural variables found in most societies that make up unique clusters and provide a snapshot of the overall character of a specific group. Although there are countless individual variables, one approach to categorizing interdependent variables is given by Harris and Moran, who have identified eight categories that form the subsystems in any society.
  • Understanding culture

    1. 1. Understanding the Role of Culture PowerPoint by Mr. Arshad Hussain Tourism Corporation KPK 3-
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Understanding The Role of Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Journalists & Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Project RICH </li></ul>3-
    3. 3. Culture and Its Effects on Organizations 3-
    4. 4. Subcultures <ul><li>Residents of the country only conform to the national character to a certain degree </li></ul><ul><li>Could be from ethnic, geographic, or other variables </li></ul><ul><li>Good managers treat people as individuals and they avoid any form of stereotyping </li></ul>3-
    5. 5. Influences on National Culture <ul><li>Kinship – guides family relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Education – formal or informal education of workers affects workplace expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Economy – means of production and distribution in a society influences all aspects of the resource allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Politics – system of government imposes varying constraints on an organization </li></ul>3-
    6. 6. Influences on National Culture <ul><li>Religion – spiritual beliefs of a society are so powerful that they overpower all other cultural aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Associations – the formal and informal groups that make up a society </li></ul><ul><li>Health – system of health care affects employee productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation – the use, attitude, and choice of how to use leisure time </li></ul>3-
    7. 7. Cultural Value Dimensions <ul><li>Values are a society’s ideas about what is good or bad, right or wrong </li></ul>3-
    8. 8. Critical Operational Value Differences <ul><li>Time: temporal vs non linear </li></ul><ul><li>Change: some forms of control over the future vs destiny or will of Allah </li></ul><ul><li>Material factors </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul>3-
    9. 9. Culture Savvy <ul><li>A working knowledge of the cultural variables affecting management decisions </li></ul>3- Return
    10. 10. Cultural Sensitivity or Cultural Empathy <ul><li>An awareness and an honest caring about another individual’s culture. </li></ul>3- Return
    11. 11. Culture of a society <ul><li>Comprises the shared values, understandings, assumptions, and goals that are learned from earlier generations, imposed by present members of a society, and passed on to succeeding generations. </li></ul>3- Return
    12. 12. Self reference criterion <ul><li>The unconscious reference point of one’s own cultural values </li></ul>3- Return
    13. 13. Ethnocentrism <ul><li>Describes the attitude of those who operate from the assumption that their ways of doing things are best – no matter where or under what conditions they are applied </li></ul>3- Return
    14. 14. Jouranlist <ul><li>A  journalist  collects and disseminates  information  about current events, people,  trends , and issues. His or her work is acknowledged as  journalism . </li></ul>3-
    15. 15. Journalist and Culture <ul><li>Information spreading </li></ul><ul><li>Using cultural values as a tool for promotion of peace </li></ul><ul><li>Creating Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing people together </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting </li></ul>3-
    16. 16. Revival of Indigenous Cultural Heritage (RICH) <ul><li>The Peace and Culture Promotion Project is a series of events or programs designed to stimulate traditional activities for the purpose of prevailing peace and our rich tradition by providing financial, moral and technical support to the people living in different areas of KPK. The ultimate objectives of the project are </li></ul>3-
    17. 17. <ul><li>To assist with initiatives in the cultural industries that are deemed a priority based on their potential for stimulating economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>To stimulate the sustainable development of the province's heritage resources </li></ul><ul><li>To adhere to the principles outlined in Creative Newfoundland and Labrador: The Blueprint for Development and Investment in Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Help prevailing peace. </li></ul>3-
    18. 18. <ul><li>Identifying the real heroes of the society those who are working for the promotion of culture and tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>Help promote the local heritage and professional art activities. </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve job growth and to increase earned incomes for professional artists within the sector over the long-term </li></ul><ul><li>To increase capacity for market access and expansion of cultural products </li></ul>3-
    19. 19. <ul><li>To contribute to the stability of cultural infrastructures </li></ul><ul><li>To contribute to the growth of self-sustaining economic activity within the sector </li></ul><ul><li>To support growth of the cultural tourism industry </li></ul>3-