Presentation of Dr. Fazli Sattar DurraniPresentation Transcript
Culture Assistant Professor FazliSattarDurrani Head DEPARTMENT OF ART , DESIGN & CULTURAL STUDIES, SCHOOL OF CULTURAL HERITAGE AND CREATIVE TECNOLOGIES, GARDEN CAMPUS, HAZARA UNIVERSITY, MANSEHRA PH: +92-997-414188, Fax: +92-997-530046 http://www.hu.edu.pk
The way of Life
all the ways of life that passed from one generation to the other
What is left by the ancestors, used by the present generation
and preserved for the future Generation
It is Latin word from cultura and stemming fromColere meaning to cultivate.
comprises of manners, dress, language, food, religion, rituals, traditions, norms, customs and art
UNESCO definition UNESCO defines culture as............”culture should be regarded as the as the set of distinctive spiritual, material ,intellectual and emotional features of society or social group, and that it encompasses, in addition to art and literature, life styles, ways of living together, value system, traditions and beliefs. The culture is always at the heart of contemporary debates about identity social cohesion and the development of the knowledge based economy”------- UNESCO (2002), Universal declaration on Cultural diversity
Anthropological culture is composed of music, literature, lifestyle, food and arts and to other scholars it is consumption and consumer goods i.e. high culture, low culture, folk culture and popular culture.
Cultural Heritage Cultural heritage can be defined as the legacy of the physical artifacts and intangible traditions of a group of society inherited from the past generations, practiced and maintained in the present and preserved for the benefit of the future generations
Cultural Heritage A. physical or tangible cultural heritage B. intangible cultural heritage C. natural heritage
Cultural Economics In economics, heritage is an important source as it clarifies, cultural and social value, economic potentials like multiple sources of income, job creation, more affordable products and non positive image of the territory
Tangible C H It includes buildings and historic monuments, places, artifacts etc what are considered worthy of preservation for the future, including archaeological, scientific, technological and specific cultures
Intangible C H The intangible cultural heritage means the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artifacts and cultural spaces associated therewith – that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage
UNESCO (2003), charter on intangible heritage A. Oral traditions and expressions, including language as a vehicle of the intangible cultural heritage. B. Performing arts C. Social practices, rituals and festive events. D. Knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe. E. Traditional craftsmanship
Creation of Intangible Cultural Heritage This intangible cultural heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history, and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity. For the purposes of this Convention, consideration will be given solely to such intangible cultural heritage as is compatible with existing international human rights instruments, as well as with the requirements of mutual respect among communities, groups and individuals, and of sustainable development
Natural Cultural Heritage Before the use of term biodiversity this term was in use, it means, the legacy of natural, not manmade, places, objects and attributes encompassing the country side and natural environment, including flora and fauna ... scientifically is known as bio diversity of natural heritage.
Local Development The activities of the advancement of the society undertaken at the district, Tehsil, Union council and community level is considered as local development Communication Culture and environment Cultural tourism and community involvement Institutional and human resource development Cultural tourism and poverty reduction Cultural tourism policy/ices
Cultural Tourism By cultural tourism we generally mean tourism for the uniqueness and distinguishing character of a certain area. It usually includes art and artistic heritage, visits to museums and archaeological sites, gastronomy and cultural landscape. Sometimes it can be based on the ethnic or linguistic importance and indigenceness of the area
Tourism According to WTO standards “it is travel for recreational and leisure purpose”. In other words it is the movement of persons to cultural attractions, away from their normal place of residence with the intention to gather information and experience to satisfy their cultural needs. Tourism is an old phenomenon as we always find travellers in, Like FaHian of China, Christopher Columbus, IbneBatuta, Marco Polo of Italy, captain Cook of UK, and Saifulmalook of Egypt
Tourist According to Professor Antonio Polo Russo;”anybody who goes in a different place of his/her usual residence for different purpose from his/her professional life. It is person which is defined above and always goes out in different way. The result is always the increase in knowledge and vision it can be normal tourist, an adventurer, a cultural tourist, a student etc.
Hazara The history of Hazara goes back to the Stone Age. The ancient name of Hazara was Aroosa from which the word Vrash is driven. In Mahabharata it is named as Uraga that means lake. The Iranian ruled over this region from 558 to 529 B.C. Then it was amalgamated in to Taxila during 521- 484 B.C. Alexander the Great got control of this region in 326 B.C. and handed over it to Raja Ambhi. After that it was called as Abhisara. The Mauryan started their rule over Hazara in 319 B.C. Chander Gupta who was the founder of the Mauryan was followed by his son Bindosar and grand-son Asoka. At this time Taxila was the capital of Hazara. The Asokan Rock Edicts at MansehraButtandBrari provide us a great source of information on the extension, rule and philosophy of Buddhist religion. The Hindus used to climb on Brari Mountain in order to worship Siva. In 484 A.D this area came under Raja Rasalu (a Scythian King) who defeated Sirkap. Rasalu also fought against Hodi and captured the area from Swat to Attock. In 7th Century A.D Hiun Tsang, the famous Chinese pilgrim came to the Sub continent. At that time Hazara was a part of Kashmir and was ruled by DarlbhaVardana. Hazara was then known as Vilashi (p.15; WadiKaghanTarikh, log, Saqafat and sayahat, S.Khan).azra aca Kalhana, a Chinese pilgrim visited this region in 1000 A.D and has mentioned in his account the name as Drash. He has further written that from 1062 A.D to 1089 A.D Hazara was under Kalash the ruler of Kashmir, then the Kahmiries were followed by the Turk Shahi and Hindu Shahi dynasty and they were defeated by Mehmood of Ghazna. But soon after the death of Mehmood the Kahmiries captured this region. The Turk Ghaznavid dynasty ruled here from 988 to 1186 A.D. They were followed by the Ghorid (Pathan) who ruled over this area and then the slave dynasty from 1206 to 1290 A.D. The Khilji from 1290 to 1320, followed region from 1188 A.D to 1206 A.D. Then, they were followed by the Tughlaq dynasty in the subcontinent. In 1399 A.D Taimur attacked the Subcontinent (Watson: 1907, 118). The disintegration of the Taimurid dynasty started in 17th century AD. As a result of this, the region came under the Afghan (Swatis) and they captured Pakhli region.