Theileria
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Theileria Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Introduction Life Cycle Pathogenesis Diagnosis Control Questions
  • 2. Introduction Life Cycle Pathogenesis Diagnosis Control Questions Common Names • Tick-brone Disease • Caused by Theileria • Theileriasis • Zimbabwean Tick Fever • African Coast Fever • Corridor Disease • January Disease • East Coast Fever (ECF)
  • 3. Introduction Life Cycle Pathogenesis Diagnosis Control Questions
  • 4. Introduction Life Cycle Pathogenesis Diagnosis Control Questions Life cycle in tick similar to that of Babesia. But no transovarial transmission (Multi-host ticks). Two different cell types are infected in the mammalian blood stream (initially leukocytes, later on RBCs). Infection of RBCs is important for transmission and infection of lymphocytes is important for pathology.
  • 5. Introduction Life Cycle Pathogenesis Diagnosis Control Two stages are found in the Bovine host: • Koch’s bodies • Piroplasms Questions
  • 6. Introduction Life Cycle Pathogenesis Diagnosis Control Questions Theileria hijacks and exploits two key features of the lymphocyte’s cell biology: Cell Division Growth Control Parasites do not egress from (and in the process destroy) their host cells and infect new lymphocytes but proliferate along with them. A recently divided infected lymphocyte The tight association of parasites with host cell microtubules ensures that they are segregated by the host cell mitotic spindle between the two daughter cells. The arrow indicates the cleavage furrow at which cytokinesis occurred. Blue (DNA), red (host cell centrioles), green (parasite surface membrane), HN (host nucleus)
  • 7. Introduction Infiltration of kidney by Theileria parva infected lymphocytes Life Cycle Pathogenesis Diagnosis Control Questions Abdominal ulcers due to transformed lymphocytes • Lymphocytes proliferate heavily invading multiple organs causing disease similar to a lymphoma (cancer of lymphocytes). • Death is in most cases due to infiltration of the lung resulting in lung edema (the abnormal build up of fluid within the lung)
  • 8. Introduction Life Cycle Pathogenesis Diagnosis Control Questions Theileria infection seems to share many of the features seen in the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells: • Uncontrolled growth • Loss of differentiation • Immortalization (infected cells taken into culture will grow indefinitely) • Growth in the absence of external growth factors • Enhanced ability to migrate and to infiltrate organs • When cells are cured from parasite infection they die (by apoptosis -this suicide response is usually suppressed in cancer cells)
  • 9. Introduction Life Cycle Pathogenesis Diagnosis Anemia Swelling of the Superficial Lymph Nodes Anorexia Questions Generalized Lymphadenopathy High Fever Control Decreased milk production Diagnosis Tachycardia (Rapid Heartbeat) Weakness/Loss of Condition Lacrimation & Corneal Opacity Nasal Discharge Terminal dyspnea Diarrhea • Stained Blood Smears • Serological Examination • Biopsy • Gene Diagnosis
  • 10. Introduction Life Cycle Pathogenesis Diagnosis Control Questions Buparvaquone Tick Control Vaccination Oxytetracycline Drug Treatment Parvaquone Halofuginone lactate
  • 11. Introduction Life Cycle Pathogenesis Diagnosis Control Questions