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Sarcocystis
Sarcocystis
Sarcocystis
Sarcocystis
Sarcocystis
Sarcocystis
Sarcocystis
Sarcocystis
Sarcocystis
Sarcocystis
Sarcocystis
Sarcocystis
Sarcocystis
Sarcocystis
Sarcocystis
Sarcocystis
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Sarcocystis

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  • 1. Sarcocystis  Sarcocystis is a genus of protozoa.  Species in this genus are parasites, the majority infecting mammals, and some infecting reptiles and birds.  It was first found in a mouse by Miescher in 1843. Www.RCVetS.com
  • 2. Scientific Classification Kingdom Chromalveolata Phylum Apicomplexa Class Conoidasida Order Eucoccidiorida Family Sarcocystidae Genus Sarcocystis
  • 3. Geographical Distribution  These are parasites which live in a number of hosts; therefore their distribution is wide, varied and infect animals worldwide.  Most prominent cases are observed in: North America  South Africa  Australia  Canada 
  • 4. Major Species        It has more than 130 recognized species so far. Some of them that are quite important are; Sarcocystis cruzi( Ducks, cattle & birds) Sarcocystis rileyi( Sheep, Pigs, & waterfowl) Sarcocystis neurona(Equines) Sarcocystis fusiformis(Humans) The most common species is Sarcocystis rileyi, which causes the disease known as "rice breast disease" in waterfowl
  • 5. Hosts  It’s hosts are;  Ducks Sheep  Cattle  Pigs  Rats   Raccoons Horse  Water fowls  Humans 
  • 6. Transmission in Host  The mode of transmission from animal to animal is incompletely understood.  For many years it was believed Sarcocystis was transmitted by ingestion of flesh containing sarcocysts.  Now another indirect method of infection has been proven whereby carnivores and omnivores pass an infective stage of the parasite in their feces.  An animal is infected by ingesting material contaminated by the infected feces.
  • 7. Life cycle of Sarcocystis
  • 8. Life Cycle  The Sarcocystis sp. parasites have an indirect life cycle that requires a paratentic or transport host animal (a bird), in which they live for a time before they are transported to a definitive host animal (a carnivore), in which they reach maturity.  Birds ingest the eggs or oocysts of the mature parasite in food or water that is contaminated by carnivore feces, which contain the oocysts.  The oocysts develop in the intestine of the bird into an intermediate form, the sporozoites, that enter the bird’s bloodstream and infect specific
  • 9.  Multiplication of these cells gives rise to a second intermediate form, merozoites, that are carried by the blood to the voluntary muscles, where elongated cysts or macrocysts are eventually produced.  The life cycle is completed when a carnivore ingests the infected muscle tissue of a bird and the parasite reaches maturity and releases oocysts in the intestines of the carnivore.  The carnivore is infected only in its intestine. Macrocysts do not develop in the carnivore, and the Sarcocystis sp. parasite rarely causes the carnivore illness or other forms of disease.
  • 10.  For some species, humans are the definitive host i.e. the host in which sexual reproduction is completed.  In this case there is intestinal sarcocystosis. Humans may also act as accidental deadend intermediate hosts for several other species and in these cases there is muscular sarcocystosis.  In horses infected with Sarcocystis neurona, the sporozoites enter the endothelial cells and replicate asexually, developing into tachyzoites, which then migrate to the animal's central nervous system
  • 11. Signs & Symptoms  Sarcocystis is a nonfatal, usually asymptomatic infection.  There are no recognizable signs of the infection in most living animals.  In heavy infections, Lameness  Weakness  paralysis  Muscle pain  Mild fever Painful muscular swelling
  • 12. Diagnosis  Diagnosis is usually made by finding the striated muscle after the animal's death.  Further diagnostic methods include; Complement-fixation  Dermal sensitivity tests  Frozen muscle tissue  Muscle biopsy  cysts in
  • 13. Treatment  No effective treatment is known. Since the disease can be transmitted by the ingestion of feces containing sporocysts.  Good sanitation and hygiene are important in preventing the disease. Cotrimoxazole  Primaquine  Both these drugs are appears to be a logical -but unproven-choice till present…. Www.RCVetS.com 

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