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  1. 1. Incubation Temperature • Maintain the temperature in the 99-102° F. temperature range (100-101° F., if possible). Place the thermometer to measure the temperature at a level at or slightly above where the center of the egg will be. • Overheating the embryo is much more damaging than is under heating it; overheating speeds up embryo development, lowers the percentage of hatchability, and causes abnormal embryos.
  2. 2. Incubation Temperature • Although a short cooling period may not be harmful, longer periods of low temperatures will reduce the rate of embryo development. Excessively low temperatures will kill the embryos. • Avoid temperatures outside the 97-103° F. range. If the temperature remains beyond either extreme for several days, hatchability may be severely reduced.
  3. 3. Humidity • The moisture level in the incubator should be about 50 to 55 percent relative humidity, with an increase to about 65 percent for the last 3 days of incubation. • Moisture is provided by a pan of water under the egg tray. The water surface should be at least half as large as the surface of the egg tray. Add warm water to the pan as necessary. • If more humidity is needed, increase the size of the pan or add a wet sponge. Humidity adjustment can also be made by increasing or decreasing ventilation.
  4. 4. Ventilation • Ventilation is crucial because the embryo is a living organism which exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide through the shell during the incubation process. The amount of air exchange needed increases as the embryo develops. • The vents, which are located above and below the eggs, should be opened gradually until they are fully open the final three days of incubation. Ventilation rates that are too low prevent normal moisture evaporation and cause large weak chicks or death. • High ventilation rates remove too much moisture and can cause the shell to stick to the chick, making hatching difficult.
  5. 5. Humidity • Humidity is also important because of the egg’s porosity. Keeping adequate humidity in the incubator will help insure that no more moisture than necessary is lost by the developing embryo. • Humidity should be adequate for the first 18 days of incubation if the water pan is kept full and covers an area greater than half the floor of the incubator. • During the last three days of incubation, adding a large sponge inside the incubator should increase the surface area of water and give the necessary boost to humidity.
  6. 6. Humidity • Low humidity can cause the shell to stick to chicks, rough navels, small chicks, short down, and/or death. • High humidity can cause an unabsorbed yolk sac, resulting in the chicks being smeared with yolk. • The relative humidity inside the incubator should be between 50 percent and 55 percent during the first 18 days and between 60 percent and 65 percent during the remainder of the incubation period.
  7. 7. Incubators • If you use the incubator for the first time it is recommended that you operate the incubator with a small quantity of inexpensive eggs to be assured of your operating procedure and the performance of the incubator, before attempting to hatch large quantities of eggs or expensive eggs.
  8. 8. Incubators • An incubator or brooder is designed to bring normal room temperature to the desired temperature. Room temperature of 60 degrees F. or below will reduce the temperature in the incubator. Room temperature changes of 10 degrees or more will change the temperature in the incubator. The change is more pronounced below a temperature of 70 degrees F.
  9. 9. Setting eggs • Temperature may not be set to the correct temperature from factory. Check against thermometer supplied. Allow 2 hours to stabilize the temperature before setting eggs. Ensure that the bulb is adjusted just clear of the top of the eggs. • Fine adjustments can be made the control to increase or decrease the temperature.
  10. 10. Temperature • The Thermometer will always be sitting on the wire floor of the incubator. In a still air incubator, the closer you get to the top of the incubator, the higher the actual temperature. • We have worked out scientifically the proper thermometer reading for different size eggs, when on their side on the floor and when they are in the automatic turner. When setting eggs of different sizes, you will have to use an average half way between temperature in the chart below.
  11. 11. Recommended Incubation temperatures & Incubation period Hens: 39.2°C 102.5°F Pheasant : 39.5°C 103°F Quail: 39.2°C 102.5°F Ducks: 39°C 102°F  Geese : 39°C 102°F 21 days 24 days 17 days 28 days 28-32 days
  12. 12. Moisture • Moisture in an incubator prevents excessive drying out of the natural moisture in the egg. It is impossible to give any set rule for supplying moisture. If the incubator is operated in a damp cellar or in a room with considerable natural moisture, then it may not be necessary to supply artificial moisture. If operating in a dry climate or in dry room, moisture will be needed. The important thing to watch is the air space in the egg. When testing eggs for fertility, note the size of the air space. If the air space is too large, provide moisture.
  13. 13. Moisture • Moisture in the incubator is controlled by putting water in the small inner trough of the bottom. The small trough by itself will increase the humidity to take care of most climates. If you live in an extremely dry climate you may need moisture in the larger outer trough instead of the small trough. During time of hatching, you need higher humidity that is usually provided from moisture of hatched chicks drying off. Check and fill water trough twice a week.
  14. 14. Moisture • Important: In the winter time, three days before time to hatch, put water in both troughs of bottom to compensate for extra dryness of air. • Special Notice: Spray duck and goose eggs thoroughly with water twice each week, and spray at least three times a week during the last ten days.
  15. 15. Plastic Vent Plugs • The front vent plug (just below label) is used to regulate humidity and the back vent plug (by electric cord) is used when there is excessive humidity, as follows: • When incubator is over 75 percent of capacity, remove the front vent plug one week before hatch date. • The day that chicks start to hatch, remove the back vent plug.
  16. 16. Plastic Vent Plugs • If incubator is over 90 percent of capacity and contains large chicks, it may be necessary to prop one side of the incubator top up about 1/8 inch to get chicks dry. Leave side propped up just long enough for most of moisture to clear on windows, but no longer than one hour at a time.
  17. 17. Plastic Vent Plugs • When incubator is from 25 to 75 percent of capacity, remove the front vent plug the day chicks start to hatch. • When there is moisture condensed on the windows, remove front vent plug. • Be sure to replace vent plugs before next setting of eggs.
  18. 18. Plastic Vent Plugs • If vent plug should be lost, close the vent hole with scotch tape. • Chicks may be removed 24 hours after they start to hatch. Extremely wet chicks should be left in incubator to dry.