Fat Soluble Vitamins


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Fat Soluble Vitamins

  1. 1. VITAMINS Umar Hayat RCVetS
  2. 2. Classification • Water Soluble – – – – – – – – – – B Complex: Thiamin - Vitamin B1 Riboflavin - Vitamin B2 Niacin - Nicotinic acid, Nicotinamide Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine Pantothenic Acid Biotin Folic Acid Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin Choline Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
  3. 3. Fat Soluble vitamins – Vitamin A – Vitamin D – Vitamin E – Vitamin K Prec Carotene Prec Cholesterol and ergosterol Tocoferols antioxidants of PUFA production of blood clotting factors Cooagulation Vitamin Intestinal mucosa converts the precursors to vit A.
  4. 4. Vitamin A • Vitamin A is important for many functions that control cell growth and differentiation. Without vitamin A abnormal cells develop. • Deficiency of this vitamin results in defects in vision, bone growth, nervous system functions, reproduction, skin growth, and overall growth. • Vision defects result from loss of retinal pigment that leads to night blindness and ultimately total blindness. Early pigment loss is in retinal rods, structures sensitive to dim light. • Vitamin A deficiency in young, growing animals leads to bone overgrowth, resulting in secondary nerve damage. Inappropriate deposition of bone causes the bony changes
  5. 5. Vitamin A • Vitamin A deficiency affects reproduction in both sexes. Deficiency in males causes testicular atrophy and failed sperm production. Deficiency in females causes heat cycle irregularities, conception and embryo implantation failures, and inability to maintain pregnancy and lactation. • Death of the unborn and spontaneous abortion are common. Newborns can have many different congenital malformations. Vitamin A deficiency changes growth and differentiation of epithelial cells. • Skin becomes highly cornified. Respiratory tract epithelium changes so that an often fatal pneumonia develops. • Digestive tract epithelium also changes and its functions are affected. Similar changes develop in epithelium of the urinary tract and reproductive system of females, and in the eye.
  6. 6. Vitamin D Deficiency • Vitamin D is most important during growth. It is essential for normal bone development; its deficiency causes rickets. • Fortunately, rickets is rare. Cats need less dietary vitamin D because ultraviolet irradiation of precursors in skin produces vitamin D. Dogs need dietary vitamin D because ultraviolet light does not make that conversion in skin. Puppies raised in sunlight and receiving no dietary vitamin D develop rickets. Despite these species differences sunlight is unimportant in producing vitamin D in the cat as well as the dog; the dietary amount is important.
  7. 7. Vitamin E • Vitamin E deficiency appears in cats consuming large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and inadequate amounts of vitamin E. • Steatitis results and shows signs of inappetance, weight loss, fever and pain. Inadequate vitamin E absorption or high dietary levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids with low levels of vitamin E causes brown bowel syndrome in dogs. • Deficiency of vitamin E with or without deficiency of selenium causes many additional problems in other animals. They do not appear in dogs or cats, except vitamin E deficiency can cause male sterility in dogs. • Steatitis (yellow fat disease) in human cats, reptiles and mink fed on a fat-laden diet, high in polyunsaturated fat and low in tocopherols. . It is not seen in ruminants.
  8. 8. Vitamin K • Vitamin K deficiency is uncommon. It occurs most commonly after ingesting a vitamin K antagonist such as warfarin. • Deficiency can also develop when digestive tract disease reduces fat absorption. • For an unknown reason vitamin K deficiency sometimes develops in cats fed fish diets (salmon and tuna).