Balantidium Coli
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Balantidium Coli






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Balantidium Coli Balantidium Coli Presentation Transcript

  • Balantidium coli is a parasitic species of ciliate protozoan responsible for the disease Balantidiasis. Balantidium coli is the largest protozoan and the only ciliate known to parasitize humans.
  • Balantidiosis is a zoonotic disease. It is acquired by humans via the fecal-oral route from the normal host, the pig, where it is Asymptomatic. Water is the vehicle for most cases of Balantidiosis ofBalantidiosis.
  • Geographical Distribution The protozoa are found worldwide Bolivia Papua New Guinea Philippines
  • HOST Humans are the principle host. It is also reported in Dogs It is common in monkeys and pigs.
  • Site of Infection Following are the site of Infection :1 ) Caecum 2 ) Large Intestine
  • Morphology Balantidium coli has 2 developmental stages . 1) Trophozoite stage 2) Cyst stage
  • Trophozoite  Oval pointed at anterior end  50-130um long  Covered in cilia  Non-infective  Reproduce by binary fission and conjugation  Micronuclei and macronuclei
  • Cyst  Spherical  40-60um across  Covered with thick, hard cyst wall with cilia  Infective  Non-reproductive  Macronuclei
  • 2) Cyst stage
  • Trophozoite Shape Oval, pointed at anterior end Size 50-130 m long Surface Covered in cilia Infectious Not infective Reproduction By binary fission or conjugation Nuclei Macronucleus and micronucleus
  • Cyst Shape Spherical Size 40-60 m across Surface Covered with thick, hard cyst wall with cilia Infectious Infective Reproduction Non-reproductive Nuclei Only macronucleus
  • Life cycle  Life Cycle Completed in a single host Natural hosts  Pigs Accidental host  Route : Ingestion  Reproduction: asexual and sexual
  • Life Cycle Life cycle is as follow : The cyst is the infective stage of Balantidium coli life cycle. Once the cyst is ingested via feces-contaminated food or water, it passes through the host digestive system. There, excystation takes place in small intestine. Excystation produces a trophozoite from the cyst stage.
  •  The motile trophozoite then resides in the lumen of the large intestine, feeding on intestinal nutrients.  Trophozoites multiply by asexual binary fission or sexual conjugation  The trophozoite may become invasive and penetrate the mucosa of the large intestine.  Trophozoites are released with the feces, and encyst to form new cyst Cysts in the environment are then ready to infect another host.
  • Sign and Symptoms Acute ,even hemorrhagic Diarrhea Ulceration to gut wall Dysentery Colitis Abdominal pain
  • Diagnosis  Examination of patient`s stool  Biopsy  sigmoid scope is used to visually inspect the last sections of the large intestine
  • Treatment  Three drugs are commonly used and administered orally 1) Tetracycline 2) Metronidazole 3) Iodoquinol
  • (1) Tetracycline's 500 mg four times daily for 10 days (2) Metronidazole 750 mg three times daily for 5 days (3) Iodoquinol 640 mg three times daily for 20 days
  • Control and Prevention  Avoid ingestion of material contaminated with animal feces  Prevention and control Sanitary disposal of human and pig feces  Treatment of infected pigs  Prevention of fecal contamination of food and water