Indonesias coastal ecology

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  • Wallace described the island of Java in 1861:“Taking it as a whole, and surveying it from every point of view, Java is probably the very finest and most interesting tropical island in the world. Scattered throughout the country, especially in the eastern part of it, are found buried in lofty forests, temples, tombs and statues of great beauty and grandeur; and the remains of extensive cities, where the tigers, the rhinoceros, and the wild bull now roam undisturbed.”(Wallace, 1869)
  • (Kvalvagnaes and Halim1979b)Picture from Google Earth,
  • (Kvalvagnaes and Halim1979b)1"After census city plans for 9.5 million". Jakarta Post Newspaper Website. Indah Setiawati, The Jakarta Post, Jakarta | Sat, 08/28/2010 Date last accessed 28/09/2011.
  • CQ#1 : This clicker question is meant to elicit a discussion about the use of ecological land, there is not a right or wrong answer, although the most practical is answer D. Source 3 says all of A.B and C are correct. NB. If ecological areas exclude human usage then it will become increasingly hard to justify keeping them as population pressures gets greater.
  • CQ#2 : This clicker question is meant to get the students thinking about the various of human impacts that put pressure on an area. The correct answer is D, PulauSeribu faces all of these challenges and more.
  • No clear answer, either A or D are the most likely explanations. We just do not know yet!
  • CQ to get students opinions, prior to reading the next session.
  • Most likely a combination of B and C. Small numbers of sea urchins will still be found in pristine areas, but they proliferate in the more disturbed and species poor coral reefs. Most likely is that without any competition (as other organisms are more sensitive to disturbances/pollution they can multiply rapidly.
  • The correct answer is D, the sea urchins are grazers of algae on coral, without sea urchins to keep the algae in check the coral reefs become covered in algae, could not photosynthesis and thus are now becoming damaged and more degraded. I f Diadema i s e x p e r i m e n t a l l y e x c l u d e d f r o m r e e f a r e a s t h a t r e m a i n a v a i l a b l e t o h e r b i v o r o u s f i s h e s , a l g a l biomass can e x c e e d 150 g/m2 ( C a r p e n t e r 1981, 1986;Samnarco 1 9 8 2 ) . and t h i s g r a z i n g has been e x p e r i m e n t a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e d t o be a p r i m a r y f a c t o r i n k e e p i n g t h e b e n t h i c a l g a l community i n a l o w biomass, h i g h t u r n o v e r s t a t e (Ogden e t a l . 1973; Samnarco e t a l . 1974; C a r p e n t e r 1981, 1986; Samnarco 1982).
  • Same question as to earlier, have the students changed their mind now ?
  • Indonesias coastal ecology

    1. 1. Indonesia’s Coastal Ecology A Clicker Case investigating the ecology of the waters around Java. Liam Hammer Department of Science Global Jaya International School
    2. 2. Goals• To compare the health of two coral reefs• To examine and hypothesis why a particular beach is changing (after building a pier and planting mangroves)• To explain why removal an organism from a food chain can be problematic : (Sea Urchins – Tanjung Lesung experience• Mangrove replanting ?• Sea grass ? & Turtles ?
    3. 3. Wallace described the island of Java in 1861: “Taking it as a whole, and surveying it from every point of view, Java is probably the very finest and most interesting tropical island in the world. (Wallace, 1869)
    4. 4. Part I – Location of the 1000 IslandsPulau Seribu or thethousand islands actuallyonly number 110. Theyare a band of low lyingislands just north of thecoast of Jakarta, up to80kms away. Thepotential of these islandswas recognized in 1979when they were listed tobecome protected.
    5. 5. Next to Jakarta, a city of almost 10 million1people on the island of Java, one of the mostdensely populated islands in the world has it’schallenges. Although the coral islands are notthe best in Indonesia, (those are more likely inPapua, Bali or Sulawesi), very few countries inthe world have such excellent marine resourcesso close to a capital city. (Kvalvagnaes and Halim1979b)
    6. 6. CQ#1 – What sort of potential did the Indonesian government see in the 1000 islands ?A. Recreation for foreign and domestic tourismB. Food benefits for local peopleC. Commercial benefits for visiting fishermanD. Combination for all three
    7. 7. CQ#2 – What sort of problems does the 1000 islands face?A. Poor fishing practices such as dynamite fishing, overfishing, over exploitation by commercial fishermanB. Pollution; sound and waves, trash accumulation and oil spills, rainwater runoff from residents and proximity to JakartaC. Careless tourism; dumping of rubbish, trample damage on corals, removal and collection of coral, shells and organisms for domestic fish tanksD. A combination of all three
    8. 8. Human Impact : building a pierPalau Semak Daun, is about a 30 minute boatride from Palau Pramuka, the capital island ofthe regency. It is a popular day trip destinationfor local tourism, as it is uninhabited, with theexception of a single house for the caretaker.Prior to 2007
    9. 9. 2007 : work has commenced on building a boat pierto make the island more accessible, currently boatshave to anchor just off the beach.
    10. 10. 2008 : the pier and a small shelterhave been completed.
    11. 11. 2011 : Four years later the shelter islooking slightly run down.
    12. 12. CQ#3 – What are the main differences between the two pictures taken four years apart ? A. The tree is no longer in the picture. B. The shelter is falling over. C. The beach has about 5 of metres extra sand. D. The dark patch of seagrass has moved forwards.
    13. 13. Answer to CQ#3 – What are the main differencesbetween the two pictures taken four years apart ?C. The beach has about 4-5 metres of extra sand.Count the number of pier pylons visible in thepictures. Notice the seagrass (dark patch) is still inthe same place relative to the shelter and pier, butis now almost on the edge of the shoreline. Thedifferences in the tide levels can account for a littleof this, but not all. The tree in the first picture, isnot about 5 metres behind the location of thephotographer.
    14. 14. CQ#4 Suggest a reason for the additional sand on the beachA. The owner, caretaker of the island or the boat operators brought some sand from somewhere else and dumped it here.B. The building of the pier has resulted in changes in ocean currents and caused additional sand to pile up here.C. Some natural processes are at work here and it is nothing to worry about.D. The planting of the mangroves on the other side of the pier resulted in changes in currents that cause sand to build up here.
    15. 15. CQ#5 – Removing dangerous or annoyingcreatures from an ecosystem is a good idea.A. Yes, people need to be safe to be able to use the environment.B. No, it is never a good idea to mess with food webs.C. Depends on the situation.
    16. 16. Sea UrchinsSea Urchins (Diadema antillarum) are atype of echinoderm, they have manylong defensive spines that can easilypierce human skin and break off intohands or feet touching them leaving apainful infected wound. As a result, theyare unpopular with many tourists,despite being considered a culinarydelicacy in some countries.Sea Urchins are marine grazers, they eatalgae off the surface of the corals. Theyare also are a rather tolerant speciesand are able to populate areas that aremore damaged or disturbed thanpristine areas. Thus they tend to bemore common in those areas.
    17. 17. CQ#6 – Why are Sea Urchins morecommonly found on degraded coral reefs ?A. They prefer it there.B. Less predators.C. Less competition.D. They need pollution to survive
    18. 18. Tanjung Lesung : Sea Urchins ManagementTanjung Lesung is an area about 160kms SouthWest of Jakarta, in the busy Sunda Straights. Thereis a large hotel/resort that has a small coral reefarea in a protected bay.Tourists complained about the sea urchins, so themanagement of the resort, which had been facinghard times due to the fact they were so far awayfrom Jakarta, hired some divers to spend a weekclearing off every single sea urchin and removingthem from the reef.
    19. 19. CQ#7 – Suggest possible results of managements decision to remove all the sea urchins.A. Tourism increased because there was no more sea urchins to sting unwary people.B. Some larger apex predators starved to death because of the lack of sea urchins.C. The sea urchins returned anyway.D. The coral reef become overrun by algae since there were no sea urchins to graze on it, and become damaged as a result.
    20. 20. CQ#8 – Removing dangerous or annoyingcreatures from an ecosystem is a good idea.A. Yes, people need to be safe to be able to use the environment.B. No, it is never a good idea to mess with food webs.C. Depends on the situation.
    21. 21. BIBLIOGRAPHY1. Wallace, A.R. 1869. On the zoological geography of the Malay archipelago. J.Linn. Soc. London2. Wallace, A.R. 1869. The Malay archipelado. London: MacMillian.3. Whitten , Tony. Soeriaatmadja, Roehayat Emon. Afiff, Suraya. 1996.Volume II:The Ecology of Java and Bali. The Ecology of Indonesian Series, Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd. pgs 345-384, 756 ,780-7824. Setiawati, Indah. After census city plans for 9.5 million The Jakarta Post, Jakarta .08/28/2010 http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2010/08/28/after-census-city-plans-95-million.html Date last accessed 28/09/2011.5. Long Spined Black Sea Urchin Report 21
    22. 22. SLIDE CREDITS• Unless explicitly indicated otherwise below, all images in this Powerpoint Presentation™ are the creation of the case author, L .Hammer.• Slide 1 – Description: Photo of a Photo of Pulau Semak Daun – Author: Abbey Budiman – Source: Global Jaya International School• Slide 3 – Description: Location of the thousand islands – Source: Google Earth – Clearance: Licensed according to terms of Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported.• Slide 4 – Description: Riparian zone in Grand Teton National Park – Author: Daniel Mayer – Source: Wikimedia Commons; link – Clearance: Licensed according to terms of Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported.• Slide 9 – Description 1: Photo of Workers building a pier on Pulau Semak Daun – Author: Liam Hammer – Source: Global Jaya International School – Description 2: Photo of boat anchored on the beach of Pulau Semak Daun – Author: Liam Hammer – Source: Global Jaya International School• Slide 10 – Description: Photo of a Photo of Pulau Semak Daun dated 2008 – Author: Liam Hammer – Source: Global Jaya International School• Slide 11 – Description: Photo of a Photo of Pulau Semak Daun dated 2010 – Author: Liam Hammer 22 – Source: Global Jaya International School

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