Definition of TBI Injury to the brain caused by external forces that may cause interference with normal brain functions.
Causes of tbi There are many causes for TBI, the most common include: Violence Vehicle accidents Construction Sports Falling from heights Shaken Infant syndrome Bicycle accidents
Who it affects Anyone can experience a traumatic brain injury, however certain factors may increase likelihood. Children with ADHD Adolescents with depression Children of premature birth Children with a pre-existing disability Children living in unstable environments
Individuals who have experienced one TBI are at greater risk to have another injury to the brain.
Types and severity Mild Concussion Temporary confusions Disorientation Dizziness No or brief loss of consciousness Moderate May require surgery May effect cognition Loss of consciousness from 1 to 24 hours Severe Loss of consciousness for more than 24 hours Bruising of the brain tissue (contusion) or bleeding of the brain (cranial hematoma) Lifelong cognitive effects Coma
characteristics Affects the individuals: Cognition Language Memory Attention Reasoning Abstract thinking Judgement Problem solving Sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities Social behaviour Physical functions Information processing Speech Frustration
Symptoms Every individual experiences different symptoms, and symptoms often change throughout the first year or two of recovery Anxiety Impulsiveness Depression Difficulty concentrating or thinking Difficulty finding words , slurred or slow speech, or understanding the speech of others (aphasia) Difficulty swallowing (dysphasia) Dizziness, light headedness and headache Incoordinationof movements Loss of balance Loss of memory Muscle stiffness, tingling, pain, numbness, and/or spasms Seizures Sleep difficulties Sense of spinning (vertigo)
Classroom strategies Minimize visual and auditory distractions Use available resources Classroom layout, seating Teach using mnemonic strategies for memory Assist with organization Allow extra time Teach social skills Implement plans for behaviour Help individuals understand their injury Use differentiated instruction Provide rest periods Use visuals (visual schedule) Use repitition Have a buddy Decrease speed and length of speech to student
treatment Might occur inside and outside of the school Individual may require medication depending on their symptoms. Might involve: Occupational/physical therapists Speech language pathologists Counsellors Educational assistants Resource teachers Physicians
Tbi in the classroom large print books Audio taped books Computer programs Tape lessons to review later Provide notes Provide a scribe Provide a schedule Use an agenda Individual Education Plan (IEP)
bibliography Batshaw, M. L., Pellegrino, L., & Roizen, N. J. (2007). Children with Disabilities. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing. Smith, P. P. (2010). Teaching Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Settings. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada. Tyler, J. S., & Mira, M. P. (1999). Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents. Austin: Pro-Ed.