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Medieval Art in Europe
Art History Survey
T, R, 12-1:20PM
Professor Paige Prater
Mapping the Middle Ages
The Middle Ages


Medieval vs. Middle Ages vs. Dark
Ages
◦ 1,000 years
◦ 5th century-1500 (end of Roman Empire to
Renaiss...
Mapping the Middle Ages
5th Century: ROME


Roman army abandons Britain
(Hadrian’s Wall)
◦ Germanic allies of Rome
◦ 410 Rome sacked by Visigoths...
5th Century: Non-Romans
Celts – western Europe
 Germanic peoples – Baltic Sea


◦ Goths head south around Mediterranean>...
Early Medieval


Non-Roman peoples
◦
◦
◦
◦

Pottery, weaving, woodwork
Metals: weapons, tools, jewelry
Hunters, fishermen...
Early Medieval Christianity



St. Augustine – “The City of God”
496 – Franks convert under Clovis (ruled
481-511) and B...
Eagle Brooch – Visigothic, 6th Century,
Spain

Gilt bronze,
crystal, garnets,
etc.
 5 3/8”
 Cabochon:
polished,
unfacete...
Cross - Church of Saint Giulia, Brescia (east of
Milan), late 7th-early 9th century
Made for
western
Christian Church
 By...
Gummersmark Brooch, Norse, 6th
century

Silver gilt
 height 5 ¾”
 Human,
animal, and
geometric
forms

Celts & Anglo-Saxons: Sutton
Hoo


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dWxcQZBM3eQ



Purse cover, Suffolk, England, first ha...
Page with a Man, Gospel Book
of Durrow, second half of 7th
century
Iona, Scotland
OR northern
England
 Ink and
tempera on...
Lindisfarne Gospels
 Matthew,

Mark,
Luke, and John
 lines>tiny
animal heads
 contemplation
 Cross-carpet
page introdu...
Detail of carpet page…
Book of Kells, Chi Rho Iota page,
late 8th or early 9th century


The page
introducin
g Matthew
Detail of Chi Rho page: Cats and
Mice with Host


Spiritual and practical: good vs. evil,
sacred Host free of rodents
Book of Kells: Gospels page,
folio 27v
Book of Kells: Christ Enthroned,
folio 32v
South Cross, Ahenny
County Tipperary,
Ireland, 8th
century, stone
 Bosses= broochlike projections
 Like a reliquary
cros...
Mozarabic Art – Muslims in
Spain
Islamic and Christian exchange
 711 – Islamic invaders conquer
Visigoths in Spain; “Moor...
Beatus, Abbot of
St. Martin,
Commentary on
the Apocalypse,
8th century
Emeterius and
Senior
 Bell tower and
scriptorium
...
Battle of the bird and the
serpent, commentary on
the Apocalypse by Beatus
and commentary on
Daniel by Jerome, (detail)

E...
Carolingian Empire


Charles the Great (768-814 –ruled) –
Carolus Magnus (in Latin)dynasty/empire
◦
◦
◦
◦

Western German...
Charlemagne’s Objectives
Restore Roman Empire
 Revive arts and learning
 Benedictine monks/nuns


◦ Benedict of Nursia ...
Chapel Palace at Aachen
Octagonal dome
 Sixteen-sided outer wall
 Soundless video about Aachen and
Lorsch Gospels by Vic...
Carolingian Books


Exacting editing/copying
◦ Alcuin of York – Anglo-Saxon scholar;
corrected copy of Latin Vulgate Bibl...
Godescalc Gospel Lectionary;
Page with Mark the Evangelist
781-783
Ink, gold, and colors
on vellum
 Commissioned by
Charl...
Coronation Gospels – Page with Saint
Matthew the Evangelist, early 9th century


Roman realistic;
placed in
Charlemagne’s...
Ebbo Gospels, Page with Matthew
the Evangelist, 2nd quarter of 9th
century
Archbishop Ebbo
of Reims
 Louis the Pious,
son...
Utrecht Psalter – 2nd quarter of
9th century, Page with Psalm 23
(detail)


Old Testament Book of Psalms
Lindau Gospels – outer cover,
870-880
Carolingian
metalwork
 Monastic workshop
under Charles the
Bald (840-877) –
Charlem...
VIKING ERA
Norse seamen - 350 ships
 Viken – “people from the coves”
 1000 – Leif Ericksson reached North
America
 Famo...
Oseberg Ship, 815-820
Picture Stones at Jelling


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxdaLPGoQ9g
Urnes Church Portal, 11th
century, Norway






11th century
doorway; building
rebuilt 12th century
Syncretism:
“grippi...
Stave Church, Borgund, Norway,
1125-1150 CE


Timber
architecture
◦ Stacked
horizontal
◦ On end + sill

Ridgepole
 Rafte...
Ottonian Europe


Saxon dynasty that took over after
Charlemagne’s grandson’s family died
out in the 10th century
◦ Otto ...
Gero
Crucifix






970,
Cologne
Cathedral,
Germany
Painted
and gilded
wood
6’ 2”
Page with
Christ
Washing
the Feet of
His
Disciples,
Aachen
Gospels of
Otto III
 c. 1000
 Ink, gold,
and colors,
on vellu...
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Medieval Art - Art History Survey

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An intro to early medieval art: Christianity, Barbarians, Vikings, illuminated manuscripts, Carolingian era art and architecture, Charlemagne, Sutton Hoo, and more!

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  • “Thou lofty tower of Tabara made of stone! There, over thy first roof, Emeterius sat for three months bowed down and racked in every limb by the copying. He finished the book on July 27th in the year 1008 (970, by modern dating) at the eighth hour” –Emeterius (cited in Dodwell, p 247)
  • Transcript of "Medieval Art - Art History Survey"

    1. 1. Medieval Art in Europe Art History Survey T, R, 12-1:20PM Professor Paige Prater
    2. 2. Mapping the Middle Ages
    3. 3. The Middle Ages  Medieval vs. Middle Ages vs. Dark Ages ◦ 1,000 years ◦ 5th century-1500 (end of Roman Empire to Renaissance  Early Medieval – through early 11th century  Romanesque – 11th-12th centuries  Gothic – mid 12th-15th centuries “Barbarians”  Feudalism: patronage, family/clan ties, personal service/labor for protection 
    4. 4. Mapping the Middle Ages
    5. 5. 5th Century: ROME  Roman army abandons Britain (Hadrian’s Wall) ◦ Germanic allies of Rome ◦ 410 Rome sacked by Visigoths (Galla Placidia!) ◦ 455 Rome sacked by Vandals (after making Carthage headquarters) ◦ 476 Ostrogoths deposed the last Roman Emperor  Ravenna – capital until Byzantine defeat
    6. 6. 5th Century: Non-Romans Celts – western Europe  Germanic peoples – Baltic Sea  ◦ Goths head south around Mediterranean>Roman empire ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Huns - Central Asia> Western Europe Ostrogoths>Italy Visigoths>Spain Burgundians>Switzerland, Eastern France Franks>Germany, France, Belgium Vandals>Africa, eventually settle in Italy ANIMAL STYLE in the arts
    7. 7. Early Medieval  Non-Roman peoples ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Pottery, weaving, woodwork Metals: weapons, tools, jewelry Hunters, fishermen, shepherds, farmers Social organization= tribal/family-based
    8. 8. Early Medieval Christianity   St. Augustine – “The City of God” 496 – Franks convert under Clovis (ruled 481-511) and Burgundian wife, Clotilda ◦ French rulers and popes = allies    589 –Goths accept Roman Christianity 597 – Pope Gregory the Great sends missionaries from Rome to King Ethelbert of Kent (Christian wife, Bertha); Augustine! Monasteries = center of art & learning
    9. 9. Eagle Brooch – Visigothic, 6th Century, Spain Gilt bronze, crystal, garnets, etc.  5 3/8”  Cabochon: polished, unfaceted crystal  One of a pair 
    10. 10. Cross - Church of Saint Giulia, Brescia (east of Milan), late 7th-early 9th century Made for western Christian Church  Byzantine form  Engraved cameos and jewels from ancient world  Fake gems (glass) 
    11. 11. Gummersmark Brooch, Norse, 6th century Silver gilt  height 5 ¾”  Human, animal, and geometric forms 
    12. 12. Celts & Anglo-Saxons: Sutton Hoo  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dWxcQZBM3eQ  Purse cover, Suffolk, England, first half of 7th century
    13. 13. Page with a Man, Gospel Book of Durrow, second half of 7th century Iona, Scotland OR northern England  Ink and tempera on parchment  Making of illuminated manuscripts:  http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=1aDHJu9J10o
    14. 14. Lindisfarne Gospels  Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John  lines>tiny animal heads  contemplation  Cross-carpet page introducing the Gospel of Matthew
    15. 15. Detail of carpet page…
    16. 16. Book of Kells, Chi Rho Iota page, late 8th or early 9th century  The page introducin g Matthew
    17. 17. Detail of Chi Rho page: Cats and Mice with Host  Spiritual and practical: good vs. evil, sacred Host free of rodents
    18. 18. Book of Kells: Gospels page, folio 27v
    19. 19. Book of Kells: Christ Enthroned, folio 32v
    20. 20. South Cross, Ahenny County Tipperary, Ireland, 8th century, stone  Bosses= broochlike projections  Like a reliquary cross 
    21. 21. Mozarabic Art – Muslims in Spain Islamic and Christian exchange  711 – Islamic invaders conquer Visigoths in Spain; “Moors” rule until 1492  732 – Charles Martel and Franks keep Muslims out of France  Melting-pot of cultures in Spain  Mustarib – “would be Arab” 
    22. 22. Beatus, Abbot of St. Martin, Commentary on the Apocalypse, 8th century Emeterius and Senior  Bell tower and scriptorium  Colophon – last page; provides info about the book’s production 
    23. 23. Battle of the bird and the serpent, commentary on the Apocalypse by Beatus and commentary on Daniel by Jerome, (detail) Emeterius and Ende, with scribe Senior  July 6, 975 completion  Metaphor for triumph of Christ over Satan 
    24. 24. Carolingian Empire  Charles the Great (768-814 –ruled) – Carolus Magnus (in Latin)dynasty/empire ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Western Germany France Lombard kingdom-Italy Present-day Belgium and Holland Frankish descent  Christian  Dec 25, 800 CE – Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as Emperor 
    25. 25. Charlemagne’s Objectives Restore Roman Empire  Revive arts and learning  Benedictine monks/nuns  ◦ Benedict of Nursia (c. 480-547) Rule for Monasteries ◦ EDUCATION  Aachen, Germany
    26. 26. Chapel Palace at Aachen Octagonal dome  Sixteen-sided outer wall  Soundless video about Aachen and Lorsch Gospels by Victoria and Albert Museum:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1l31Pp20pUQ  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pwIKmKxu614
    27. 27. Carolingian Books  Exacting editing/copying ◦ Alcuin of York – Anglo-Saxon scholar; corrected copy of Latin Vulgate Bible…still in use! ◦ Majiscules vs. Miniscules  NO punctuation or spaces between words!
    28. 28. Godescalc Gospel Lectionary; Page with Mark the Evangelist 781-783 Ink, gold, and colors on vellum  Commissioned by Charlemagne and Hildegard 
    29. 29. Coronation Gospels – Page with Saint Matthew the Evangelist, early 9th century  Roman realistic; placed in Charlemagne’s tomb and removed by Emperor Otto III in 1000?
    30. 30. Ebbo Gospels, Page with Matthew the Evangelist, 2nd quarter of 9th century Archbishop Ebbo of Reims  Louis the Pious, son of Charlemagne (ruled 814-840) – childhood friend   http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=eqC8gVxx B-s
    31. 31. Utrecht Psalter – 2nd quarter of 9th century, Page with Psalm 23 (detail)  Old Testament Book of Psalms
    32. 32. Lindau Gospels – outer cover, 870-880 Carolingian metalwork  Monastic workshop under Charles the Bald (840-877) – Charlemagne’s grandson  Raised jewels on mini arcades (light beneath) 
    33. 33. VIKING ERA Norse seamen - 350 ships  Viken – “people from the coves”  1000 – Leif Ericksson reached North America  Famous attacks:  ◦ 793 – Lindisfarne monastery ◦ 795 – Iona (off Scotland’s west coast)
    34. 34. Oseberg Ship, 815-820
    35. 35. Picture Stones at Jelling  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxdaLPGoQ9g
    36. 36. Urnes Church Portal, 11th century, Norway    11th century doorway; building rebuilt 12th century Syncretism: “gripping beasts” and Lion of Judah/Christ http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=We6aFOp4zsw
    37. 37. Stave Church, Borgund, Norway, 1125-1150 CE  Timber architecture ◦ Stacked horizontal ◦ On end + sill Ridgepole  Rafter  Cruck  stave= huge timber 
    38. 38. Ottonian Europe  Saxon dynasty that took over after Charlemagne’s grandson’s family died out in the 10th century ◦ Otto I (936-973 CE)  951 – married Lombardian widow, Adelaide  962 – crowned emperor by the Pope in 962 CHURCH OVER STATE ◦ Otto II (973-983 CE) ◦ Otto III (994-1002)  983-994: Adelaide and Theophanu ruled as regents
    39. 39. Gero Crucifix    970, Cologne Cathedral, Germany Painted and gilded wood 6’ 2”
    40. 40. Page with Christ Washing the Feet of His Disciples, Aachen Gospels of Otto III  c. 1000  Ink, gold, and colors, on vellum 
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