Introduction to Jewish, Early Christian, & Byzantine Art

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A fly-over survey of architecture, church-plans, tombs, frescoes, mosaics, and more, as pertaining to early artwork overlapping between after the Roman Empire and the medieval period. Based on the chapter in the third edition of Stokstad's "Art History."

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  • Roman city on Euphrates river, in Mesopotamia. Large & decorated synagogue with niche for Torah/Pentateuch (first 5 books of OT). Scenes from life of Isaac, Jacob, and Moses. Hieratic scale.
  • Introduction to Jewish, Early Christian, & Byzantine Art

    1. 1. Art History Survey, T, R, 12-1:20PM, P327, Professor Paige Prater JEWISH, EARLY CHRISTIAN, & BYZANTINE ART
    2. 2. THREE MONOTHEISTIC RELIGIONS/BOOKS Judaism – Hebrew Scriptures, Torah  Christianity – Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament) + New Testament = Bible  Islam – Q’uran (Arabic) 
    3. 3. MAP OF CHRISTIAN SPREAD
    4. 4. MAP OF ISLAMIC SPREAD
    5. 5. TIMELINE   Destruction of Jerusalem -70 CE Early Christian (100-6th century CE)    Early Byzantine (5th century – 726 CE)    End of Western Roman Empire – 476CE Iconoclastic Controversy 726-843CE Middle Byzantine (843-1204 CE)    Imperial Christian (313-476CE) Council of Nicaea – 325 CE Catholic vs. Orthodox 1054 CE Crusades begin 1095 CE Late Byzantine (1261-1453CE)  Fall of Constantinople to Turks 1453 CE
    6. 6. DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM, 70 CE  Arch of Titus, 81 CE
    7. 7. EARLY JEWISH ART  Synagogue at Dura Europos, Syria, 250CE
    8. 8. EARLY JEWISH ART – DURA EUROPOS  The Finding of the Baby Moses (244-45 CE)
    9. 9. JEWISH CATACOMB – VILLA TORLONIA, ROME  Menorahs and Ark of the Covenant, 3rd century
    10. 10. EARLY JEWISH ART  Synagogue floor mosaic, Maon (ancient Menois) c. 530 CE
    11. 11. EARLY CHRISTIAN ART - SYMBOLS      Good Shepherd Icthus (fish) Chi Rho Alpha and Omega Gospels (first 4 books in New Testament)      Matthew = man or angel Mark = Lion Luke = Ox John = Eagle Crosses  Latin, Greek, Tau, & St. Peter’s
    12. 12. SYMBOLS: GOOD SHEPHERD      Good Shepherd, Orants, and Story of Jonah, Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, Rome, late 3rdearly 4th century Lunettes Medallion Syncretism Typology
    13. 13. SYMBOLS: CHI RHO, ICTHUS, & ALPHA & OMEGA Detail from Theodorus’ sarcophagus, 5th century, Ravenna
    14. 14. SYMBOLS: GOSPELS (WRITTEN 65-95CE) Carolingian illuminated manuscript, 9th century
    15. 15. SYMBOLS: CROSSES Latin  Greek  Tau  St. Peter’s 
    16. 16. BASILICA PLAN CHURCH
    17. 17. OLD ST. PETER’S BASILICA (4TH CENTURY)
    18. 18. SANTA SABINA, C. 422-432 Bishop Peter of Ilyria  Brick/marble veneer  24 Corinthian columns: spolia!  View from south aisle near the sanctuary to the entrance
    19. 19. SANTA SABINA – DOOR PANEL (420S CE) The Ascension of Elijah  Cypress wood 
    20. 20. CENTRAL PLAN CHURCH Atrium  Narthex  Apse  Dome 
    21. 21. CENTRAL PLAN CHURCH: SANTA COSTANZA, ROME, C. 350 CE
    22. 22. SANTA COSTANZA, ROME, 350 CE  Harvesting of Grapes, ambulatory vault; double allusion
    23. 23. RAVENNA  395 – Emperor Theodosius I : eastern & western Roman empire (split between his sons)  Honorius (395-423 CE) – Milan > Ravenna -Direct access by sea to Contantinople  Galla  Placidia, sister; regent 425-440 CE (West) 476 CE – Italy fell to the Ostrogoths; Ravenna became headquarters
    24. 24. MAUSOLEUM OF GALLA PLACIDIA – RAVENNA, 425-426 CE  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yvnr0wnmoGY Good Shepherd – Lunette over entrance
    25. 25. MAUSOLEUM OF GALLA PLACIDIA – RAVENNA, 425-426 CE  Cruciform plan; pendentive dome (vs squinches) St. Lawrence Patron saint of Bakers 
    26. 26. EARLY CHRISTIAN SCULPTURE  Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, c. 359 CE, Marble
    27. 27. EARLY BYZANTINE: FIRST GOLDEN AGE 5th century-726 CE (iconoclasm)  Art of Constantinople  Emperor Justinian 527-565 CE 
    28. 28. CONTSTANTINOPLE: WALLS, 412-413CE Moat & double walls with huge towers  4 mi  180’ deep 
    29. 29. CONSTANTINOPLE: HAGIA SOPHIA, 532-537 CE Justinian & Theodora 532 CE  Anthemius of Tralles – geometry/ optics  Isidorus of Miletus physics 
    30. 30. CONSTANTINOPLE: HAGIA SOPHIA  Pendentives vs squinches
    31. 31. CONSTANTINOPLE: HAGIA SOPHIA
    32. 32. CHURCH OF SAN VITALE, RAVENNA 476 CE – Arian Christian Ostrogoths conquer the Romans  526 CE – Bishop Ecclesius commissions 2 new churches- San Vitale in Ravenna and one in port Classis  540 CE – Byzantine forces conquer Ravenna  Well-preserved monuments!  San Vitale not finished until AFTER Justinian conquered Ravenna 
    33. 33. CHURCH OF SAN VITALE, RAVENNA Centraldomed octagon  Offset narthex  Dome: mortared, interlocking ceramic tubes  squinches 
    34. 34. CHURCH OF SAN VITALE, RAVENNA Gold tesserae  Mossics in apses 
    35. 35. CHURCH OF SAN VITALE, RAVENNA  Christ Enthroned, 547 CE. Half-dome of sanctuary apse.
    36. 36. CHURCH OF SAN VITALE, RAVENNA  Justinian and Theodora did NOT attend the dedication; may never have been there at all! Emperor Justinian and his attendants, North wall of the apse.
    37. 37. CHURCH OF SAN VITALE, RAVENNA  “Purple makes a fine shroud” - Theodora Empress Theodora and her attendants, South wall of the apse.
    38. 38. CHURCH OF SAN VITALE, RAVENNA Abel and Melchizedek, South wall lunette. TYPOLOGY!!!
    39. 39. SANT’APOLLINAIRE IN CLASSE  Mosaics above apse added in 7th-9th century
    40. 40. ARCHANGEL MICHAEL DIPTYCH – EARLY 6TH CENTURY Two carved, hinged panels  “Receive these gifts, and having learned the cause…” 
    41. 41. BOOKS: VIENNA GENESIS, EARLY 6TH CENTURY  Murex mollusks – imperial use Rebecca at the Well. The Vienna Genesis, early 6th century. Tempera, gold, and silver paint on purple dyed vellum, 13 ½ x 9 7/8”.
    42. 42. KEY BYZANTINE EMPERORS 527-565 - Justinian I: First Byzantine Emperor  717-741 – Leo III: ICONOCLASM in 726  867-886 – Basil I: initiates Macedonian dynasty  1259-1282 – Michael VIII Palaeologus: retakes Constantinople from Crusaders in 1261  1449-1453 – Last Byzantine Emperor: Constantine XI Palaeologus 
    43. 43. BOOKS: RABBULA GOSPELS, 586, SYRIA Crucifixion & Resurrection  Signed by monk, Rabbula  Monastery of St. John the Evangelist in Beth Zagba, Feb 586 CE 
    44. 44. RABBULA GOSPELS, 586, SYRIA Ascension  Ezekiel 1  Mandorla  Theotokos (Godbearer/Church 
    45. 45. ICONS & ICONOCLASM      Greek word eikon, meaning “image” Eastern Orthodox: iconostasis (screen); prayed while looking at images (ICONS)miraculous powers Idolatry vs veneration: Basil the Great of Cappadocia (329-379) and John of Damascus (675749) 726 CE: Emperor Leo III – ICONOCLASM “image breaking” 843 CE: Empress Theodora, widow of Virgin and Child with Saints & Angels. Theophilus, reversed 2nd half of 6th century, encaustic on wood, 27 x 18 7/8” the
    46. 46. MULTIPLE DOME CHURCH PLANS Naos – central core  Quincu nx – cross-insquare 
    47. 47. CATHEDRAL OF SANTA SOPHIA, KIEV, 10371046 CE  Eastern Slavs>Scandinavian Vikings (Byzantine bodyguards!)>Kiev=capital Eastern Orthodox  Large Central Dome + 12 smaller domes 
    48. 48. MONASTERY CHURCHES AT HOSIO LOUKAS, GREECE: 10-11TH CENTURIES Middle Byzantine  Alternating courses of brick & stone (vertical AND horizontal) 
    49. 49. CATHEDRAL OF ST. MARK, VENICE, 1063 BEGUN  Venice: important Byzantine trade center  Greek cross plan  5 great domes/barrel vaults/pendentives
    50. 50. HARBAVILLE TRIPTYCH, MID-11TH CENTURY, IVORY.   http://www.louvre .fr/en/oeuvrenotices/harbaville -triptych Deesis – “entreaty”
    51. 51. PALERMO: PALATINE CHAPEL, MID-12TH CENTURY  Sicily: a mix of cultures  Greek colony  Roman empire  Ruled by Muslims from 827-end of 11th century  Normans took over  1130-1154 – Norman King Roger  Religious toleration • Western basilica plan with Byzantine dome on squinches • Christ at PANTOKRATOR
    52. 52. PALERMO: KING ROGER’S CHAMBER  Byzantine domestic architecture
    53. 53. FUNERARY CHAPEL, CHURCH OF THE MONASTERY OF CHRIST 1310-1321 CE Now the Kariye Camii Museum in Istanbul  1316-1321 – sponsor Theodore Metochites expanded it  Late Byzantine 
    54. 54. ANASTASIS, CHURCH OF THE MONASTERY OF CHRIST IN CHORA Adam & Eve  Starstudded mandorla 
    55. 55. THE OLD TESTAMENT TRINITY, ANDREY RUBLYOV, ICON, 1410-1425, TEMPERA ON PANEL Representation of the Trinity  Artist-monk  Commissioned for abbot Sergius of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery, near Moscow.  Ideal geometry – Late Byzantine 

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