Chinese and Korean Art before 1279 CE - Art History Survey I

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Introduces Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, Neo-Confucianism, Han dynasty, dynasties, bracketing, ceramics, jade, jadeite, sculpture, architecture, landscape painting, silk, pagodas, temples, Guan …

Introduces Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, Neo-Confucianism, Han dynasty, dynasties, bracketing, ceramics, jade, jadeite, sculpture, architecture, landscape painting, silk, pagodas, temples, Guan ware, bodhisattva, Silla period, celadon ware, and more! Based on the Stokstad, third edition, chapter on Asian art.

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  • 1. T, R, 12-1:20PM Professor Paige Prater
  • 2. • Covers an area slightly larger than the continental United States! • Jade objects • Oracle bones • Writing • Taotie – ancient mask motif (so-called by historians) • Buddhism • Daoism • Confucianism
  • 3. • • • • • • • Shang Dynasty (1700-1100 BCE) Zhou Dynasty (1100-221 BCE) Qin Dynasty (221 BCE-206 BCE) Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE) Six Dynasties period (265-589 CE) Sui and Tang Dynasties (581-618 CE; 618-907 CE) Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE)
  • 4. • Yellow River Valley: walled cities, palaces, vast royal tombs • Stratified society • Bronze weaponry • “Shangdi” = chief deity + ancestors, nature, and fertility deities • Oracle bones>writing • Warrior culture: splendor and violence • Human and animal sacrifices
  • 5. • • • • Feudal society Peaceful for 300 years, then warring states 25‟ long, 65 bronze bells, two tones (center/rim) Taotie on front and back of each bell 433 BCE, Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, Suixian, Hubei. Bronze with bronze and timber frame. 9‟ high.
  • 6. 221 BCE-206 BCE) • Unity under SINGLE RULER: Shihuangdi • Mausoleum at Lingtong in Shaanxi province • 1974: mound uncovered – thousands of terracotta soldiers/horses
  • 7. • Peaceful, prosperous, stable • Silk Road – land route to Rome (silk and spices) • Daoism • Confucianism
  • 8. • Dao = “The Way” of the universe; like water • Book: Daodejing, or The Way and its Power • Immortality achievable on earth: experimentation with diets, exercise, etc. • Yin-yang and feng-shui Incense Burner, Tomb of Prince Liu Sheng, Mancheng, Hebei. Han
  • 9. • Emphasizes propriety, deference, duty, and selfdiscipline • Goal: attainment of equity • Han Emperor, Wudi (141-87 BCE) – made it official imperial philosophy; rituals added, mixed with Chinese cosmology Detail form rubbing of a stone relief in the Wu Family Shrine, Jiaxiang, Shandong. Han dynasty, 151 CE, 27 ½”x 66 ½”
  • 10. • Three warring dynasties; nomadic central Asian attacks, court fled South; Northern and Southern developed separately for 300 years. • Chinese painting: spiritual value • Six principles by scholar Xie He (fl.c. 500-535 CE) • Spirit consonance (Daoist „qi‟) imbues art with “life‟s movement” • Brushstrokes= bones of a picture • Buddhism • Calligraphy
  • 11. • • • • Pictographs>ideographs Radicals Brushwork Different dialects, ONE written form of communication! • Maintains unity of civilization Wang Xizhi Portion of a Letter from the Feng Ju Album, mid-4th century CE, 24.7 x46.8 cm.
  • 12. • India, 5th century BCE, spread north into central Asia • Consolation in life, promise of salvation after death • Temples and monasteries built; monks and nuns Seated Buddha, Cave 20, Yungang, Datong, Shanxi. Northern Wei dynasty, c. 460 CE, stone, 45‟ high.
  • 13. • General from the north reunified the empire; Buddhist • Pure Land sect • Altar to Amitabha Buddha, 593 CE, bronze, 30 1/8” height • Indian style • Central Asian abstraction • Chinese emphasis on rhythm
  • 14. • Strong, vigorous, noble, idealistic, realistic, and pragmatic Great Wild Goose Pagoda at Ci‟en Temple, Chang „an, Shanxi. 645 CE; rebuilt mid 8th century CE.
  • 15. • Stupas (Buddhist Relic Mounds) + Han dynasty watchtowers = multistoried, stone/wood structures with tile, projected-upward-curving roofs http://www.buddhanet.net/elearning/buddhism/pbs2_unit07.htm
  • 16. • Earliest important example of surviving Chinese architecture • Mount Wutai, eastern Shanxi, constructed 782 CE • Elaborate BRACKETING system for overhanging, curved eaves • Bay = basic unit/module of construction for Chinese architecture 3 bays in Nanchan Temple • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4s-7YKEe9QI
  • 17. • New capital at Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng) until Manchurian, Jurchen tribes invaded> new capital at Hangzhou. • Introspective, weaker military, greater wealth (advances in agriculture, commerce, and technology) • Seated Guanyin Bodhisattva, Liao dynasty, 10-12th century, 95x65”, wood, paint, and gold. • Bodhisattva = close to enlightenment but voluntarily stay on earth to help others
  • 18. • “ I merely transmit, I do not create; I love and revere the ancients.” –Confucius • Copying = an acceptable practice Attributed to Emperor Huizong. Detail of Ladies Preparing Newly Woven Silk, copy after a lost Tang dynasty painting by Zhang Xuan. Early 12th century, CE, handscroll, ink and colors on silk, 14.5 x 57.5”
  • 19. • Daoist and Buddhist ideas to strengthen Confucianism • Universe: two forces, li (principle or idea) and qi (matter) • Eternal first principle-“Great Ultimate” – completely present in every object • Rid qi of impurities through education/self-cultivation to realize oneness with Great Ultimate • LANDSCAPE painting: study of nature and matter, passion for realistic detail (selfcultivation) Fan Kuan, Travelers Among Mountains and Streams, early 11th century CE, 6‟ x 9.5”
  • 20. • Imperial use • Crackle glaze technique • 1279 – Kublia Khan conquered China; Mongol Empire Southern Song Dynasty, 13th century CE, Gray stoneware with crackled grayish blue glaze, 6 5/8” high.
  • 21. • 57BCE – 668 CE - Three Kingdoms Period • 3 independent nation-states: • Silla (southeast) • Baekje (southwest) • Goguryeo (north) • Tomb mound monuments
  • 22. • From Gold Crown Tomb, Gyeongju, North Gyeongsang province • Gold with jadeite ornaments • 17 ½” • Made for burial • Gold wire holding together thin cut gold sheet
  • 23. • Gray stoneware, natural ash glaze • 23 1/8” high • Three Kingdoms period, Silla kingdom • Stoneware: impervious to liquids
  • 24. • Probably Silla kingdom, Three Kingdoms Period, early 7th century • 35 7/8” high • Gilt bronze • 372 – Buddhism introduced from China • 527 – Buddhism made official religion of Silla state
  • 25. • 660-935 Unified Silla Period • 660 Silla conquers Baekje • 668 Silla allies with Tang dynasty and defeats Goguryeo • Gyeongju = Silla capital • Buddhism • Temple construction • Goryeo Dynasty, est 918 - 1392 • 935 – eliminated Unified Silla • Gaeseong (northwest of present-day Seoul) • Celadon-glazed ceramics!
  • 26. • Artificial cave temple • Buddhism in Korea http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=KBFqBC89hG4
  • 27. • Late 12th-early 13th century, Korea, Goryeo dynasty. • Inlaid celadon ware • 13 ¼” • Black and white slips inlaid into intaglio lines • http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=2vSpWt7qC_M • http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=kPza4Ot_Dfc
  • 28. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=thvh5PdR6yM