Art Appreciation
Professor Paige Prater
T, R, 9:30-10:50AM
10 ELEMENTS of Art:
1. Color
2. Form
3. Line
4. Mass
5. Shape
6. Space
7. Texture
8. Time/Motion
9. Value
10. Volume
10 PRINCIPLES of Art:
1. Unity
2. Variety
3. Balance
4. Emphasis
5. Focal Point
6. Pattern
7. Proportion
8. Rhythm
9. Scal...
Unity: order, wholeness, harmony in a design
• Compositional – overall design
• Conceptual – idea behind the work
• Gestal...
Unity

Katsushika Hokusai, “The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa,” from
Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji, 1826–33 (printed l...
Unity: 3 examples of COMPOSITIONAL unity
Unity: Conceptual

Romare Bearden, The Dove, 1964. Cut-and-pasted printed papers, gouache,
pencil, and colored pencil on b...
Unity: Gestalt
• Whole greater than
sum of its
parts…concept,
composition,
creation…
Vishnu Dreaming the
Universe, c. 450–...
Variety: visual diversity in one
composition
• Ideas
• Elements: shapes, values
• materials
Variety: materials

Robert Rauschenberg, Monogram, 1955–9. Mixed media with taxidermy goat,
rubber tire, and tennis ball, ...
Balance: distribution of elements
(unified or varied) within a work
• Symmetrical
• Asymmetrical
• Radial
Balance: Symmetrical

Ritual container from Gui, China, Shang Dynasty, 1600–1100
BCE. Bronze, 6¼ x 10¾”. University of Hon...
Balance: Asymmetrical
• Uneven distribution of value and
shape
• Visual“heaviness” of the
right side counteracted by
placi...
Balance: Radial
• Equidistance
from a single
point

Amitayas mandala created by the
monks of Drepung Loseling
Monastery, T...
Rehash
• Unity, variety, and balance are central principles
that artists use to create visual impact
• Unity gives a work ...
SCALE
• relative to our own size
– MONUMENTAL
– HUMAN SCALE
– SMALL SIZE
Scale: MONUMENTAL
Scale: HUMAN SCALE

Damien Hirst, Mother and Child (Divided), 1993
Scale: SMALL SIZE

http://m.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/08/revealed-a-bookthe-size-of-a-ladybug/278427/
SCALE: Unexpected…

Dorothea Tanning, Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, 1943. Oil on canvas, 16⅛ x 24”. Tate,
London
PROPORTION:
• Relationships between sizes of parts
• Aids expression and description (and
NATURALISM)
• Egypt
• Greece>Rom...
Proportion: Egyptian cubit
Proportion: Golden Section, etc.
Proportion: Greece

Poseidon (or Zeus), c. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, 6’10½” high. National
Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greec...
Proportion: Golden Rectangle
• Golden Rectangles is a technique based on
nesting inside each other a succession of
rectang...
Proportion: Golden Rectangle
Proportion: Golden Rectangle

Henry Peach Robinson, Fading Away, 1858. Combination albumen print.
Proportion: Golden Rectangle
Proportion: Renaissance
Proportion: School of Athens
• Raphael’s sensitivity to proportion reflects his
pursuit of perfection
• Magnificent scale ...
Art Appreciation Principles& Elements: Unity, Variety, Balance, & Proportion
Art Appreciation Principles& Elements: Unity, Variety, Balance, & Proportion
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Art Appreciation Principles& Elements: Unity, Variety, Balance, & Proportion

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A introductory focus on the principles of art and design, specifically unity, variety, balance, and proportion. Based on the Thames & Hudson "Gateways to Art" (2012) textbook by DeWitte, Larmann, and Shields.

Published in: Education, Spiritual
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Art Appreciation Principles& Elements: Unity, Variety, Balance, & Proportion

  1. 1. Art Appreciation Professor Paige Prater T, R, 9:30-10:50AM
  2. 2. 10 ELEMENTS of Art: 1. Color 2. Form 3. Line 4. Mass 5. Shape 6. Space 7. Texture 8. Time/Motion 9. Value 10. Volume
  3. 3. 10 PRINCIPLES of Art: 1. Unity 2. Variety 3. Balance 4. Emphasis 5. Focal Point 6. Pattern 7. Proportion 8. Rhythm 9. Scale 10. Contrast
  4. 4. Unity: order, wholeness, harmony in a design • Compositional – overall design • Conceptual – idea behind the work • Gestalt – ALL aspects ordered VS MONOTONY or CHAOS
  5. 5. Unity Katsushika Hokusai, “The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa,” from Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji, 1826–33 (printed later). Print, color woodcut. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  6. 6. Unity: 3 examples of COMPOSITIONAL unity
  7. 7. Unity: Conceptual Romare Bearden, The Dove, 1964. Cut-and-pasted printed papers, gouache, pencil, and colored pencil on board, 13⅜ x 18¾”. MOMA, New York
  8. 8. Unity: Gestalt • Whole greater than sum of its parts…concept, composition, creation… Vishnu Dreaming the Universe, c. 450–500 CE. Relief panel. Temple of Vishnu, Deogarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
  9. 9. Variety: visual diversity in one composition • Ideas • Elements: shapes, values • materials
  10. 10. Variety: materials Robert Rauschenberg, Monogram, 1955–9. Mixed media with taxidermy goat, rubber tire, and tennis ball, 42 x 63¼ x 64½”. Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden
  11. 11. Balance: distribution of elements (unified or varied) within a work • Symmetrical • Asymmetrical • Radial
  12. 12. Balance: Symmetrical Ritual container from Gui, China, Shang Dynasty, 1600–1100 BCE. Bronze, 6¼ x 10¾”. University of Hong Kong Museum
  13. 13. Balance: Asymmetrical • Uneven distribution of value and shape • Visual“heaviness” of the right side counteracted by placing one shape lower on the left Muqi, Six Persimmons, Southern Song Dynasty, c. 1250. Ryoko-in, Dailoxu-ji, Kyoto, Japan
  14. 14. Balance: Radial • Equidistance from a single point Amitayas mandala created by the monks of Drepung Loseling Monastery, Tibet
  15. 15. Rehash • Unity, variety, and balance are central principles that artists use to create visual impact • Unity gives a work a certain oneness or cohesion • Variety is expressed in contrast and difference • Created by the use of different kinds of lines, shapes, patterns, colors, or textures • Balance is imposed on a work when the artist achieves an appropriate combination of unity and variety
  16. 16. SCALE • relative to our own size – MONUMENTAL – HUMAN SCALE – SMALL SIZE
  17. 17. Scale: MONUMENTAL
  18. 18. Scale: HUMAN SCALE Damien Hirst, Mother and Child (Divided), 1993
  19. 19. Scale: SMALL SIZE http://m.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/08/revealed-a-bookthe-size-of-a-ladybug/278427/
  20. 20. SCALE: Unexpected… Dorothea Tanning, Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, 1943. Oil on canvas, 16⅛ x 24”. Tate, London
  21. 21. PROPORTION: • Relationships between sizes of parts • Aids expression and description (and NATURALISM) • Egypt • Greece>Rome>Renaissance – Golden Section – Golden Mean – Fibonacci Sequence
  22. 22. Proportion: Egyptian cubit
  23. 23. Proportion: Golden Section, etc.
  24. 24. Proportion: Greece Poseidon (or Zeus), c. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, 6’10½” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece
  25. 25. Proportion: Golden Rectangle • Golden Rectangles is a technique based on nesting inside each other a succession of rectangles based on the 1:1.618 proportions of the Golden Section • The shorter side of the outer rectangle becomes the longer side of the smaller rectangle inside it, and so on • =elegant spiral shape
  26. 26. Proportion: Golden Rectangle
  27. 27. Proportion: Golden Rectangle Henry Peach Robinson, Fading Away, 1858. Combination albumen print.
  28. 28. Proportion: Golden Rectangle
  29. 29. Proportion: Renaissance
  30. 30. Proportion: School of Athens • Raphael’s sensitivity to proportion reflects his pursuit of perfection • Magnificent scale = sense of importance • Parts of each figure are harmonious in relation to each other and portray an idealized form • Double emphasis on the center brings our attention to the opposing gestures of two famous Greek philosophers, Plato and Aristotle
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