 What IS a PRINT?
An imprinted image on a piece of paper. Made from a MATRIX
made of some selected medium, usually stone,...
Printmaking processes include:
 RELIEF:
 Woodcut, Linocut, Wood Engraving, Collagraph
 INTAGLIO:
 Etching
 Non-acid b...
 RELIEF
 any printing from the inked surface of a BLOCK, usually
carved WOOD or LINOLEUM. Any cut-away lines or areas do...
 Paper invented in China many centuries before
European form, c. 800
 Japan = work of several artists
 Tom Huck
 2009
 Another relief process,
first used in 1800s
 Similar to woodcut but
relies on engrain of block
(hard wood)
 Needs tool...
 Wood engraving
 Dramatic composition
with political theme
 Delicacy of line
indicative of medium
 At the time of crea...
 Linocut – similar to
woodcut, however
linoleum much softer than
wood, easier to cut,
requires similar tools
 No grain, ...
 INTAGLIO
From Italian, 'in the cut' or 'in the groove’
 It encompasses all prints made by pressing the ink down into
th...
 Unlike relief, what
is removed ends up
being printed
 Metal plates and
special tools, i.e.
burin
 Ink surface, wipe
cl...
 Engraving
An engraving (also called a line engraving) is made by incising a
design into a METAL plate (usually copper) b...
 Engraving = oldest of the
intaglio techniques
 Developed from medieval
practice of incising linear
designs in armor
 B...
William HogarthMartin Schongauer
Drypoint – An Intaglio method in which a sharp needle or diamond point is
used to scratch a line onto a metal or acrylic p...
 Chine appliqué (chine collé)
A chine appliqué or chine collé is a print in which the
image is printed onto a thin sheet ...
 Mezzotint (intaglio process)
inverse of the other intaglio processes
 created working from black to white, rather than ...
Rocker – Hardened steel tool with a curved, serrated edge, used to roughen
a metal plate for mezzotints.
Roulette – tool w...
 Apply acid resistant
ground / wax to metal
plate
 Draw design into waxed
surface (ground)
 Place plate in acid bath
 ...
Etching
This technique involves using acid to bite
grooves into the plate. A substance called
an etching ground blocks the...
 AQUATINT
An aquatint is created by etching SECTIONS, rather than lines, of a plate in
order to create areas of uniform t...
Francisco Goya.
The Sleep of
Reason Produces
Monsters.
 Tonal areas made by
applying powdered resin
(acid resistant)
 Heat metal plate, resin
activates or melts resin
(each pa...
 process based on the chemical principle that OIL AND WATER
DO NOT MIX.
 Images are drawn on limestone or metal plates w...
 Lithography is a
planographic process =
surface is flat
 Direct quality of
medium, appears like a
drawing on paper
 Serigraphy
 The process, also called silkscreen,
that uses a squeegee to force ink
through selected parts of silk or
ot...
 Robert Rauschenberg
 Mixed Media with
emphasis on Screen
Printing.
Monotype - Often considered a 'painterly' technique, this
involves painting on a smooth surface and transferring that
pain...
 Barbara Kruger’s appropriated mass media imagery,
photo-stencils
 David Hockney’s manipulation of paper-making
process ...
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking
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Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking

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Covers a variety of relief and intaglio printmaking processes, with examples of student work and pieces by Adam Palmer, Josh Banks, Christopher Wallace (UNT grads), and more well-known printmakers. Relief and intaglio processes such as linocut, woodcut relief, lithography, and screenprinting are introduced.

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Art Appreciation: Intro to Printmaking

  1. 1.  What IS a PRINT? An imprinted image on a piece of paper. Made from a MATRIX made of some selected medium, usually stone, wood or metal. In a general sense, a print edition is the SET of ALL the impressions made from the SAME matrix.  What is an EDITION? The NUMBER of prints pulled from a plate or other matrix, NOT counting trial proofs, artist’s proofs, and other proofs outside the edition. Published at the same time or as part of the same publishing event.
  2. 2. Printmaking processes include:  RELIEF:  Woodcut, Linocut, Wood Engraving, Collagraph  INTAGLIO:  Etching  Non-acid based processes:  Engraving, Mezzotint and Drypoint  Lithography: Traditional Stone  Monotype  Silk Screen  Digital
  3. 3.  RELIEF  any printing from the inked surface of a BLOCK, usually carved WOOD or LINOLEUM. Any cut-away lines or areas do not print.  The ink is transferred to paper by rubbing the back of the sheet with a hand-held baren or by applying pressure with a printing press.  Historical Context:  Woodcuts were introduced to Europe in the early 15th century but were executed in the Orient as early as the 9th century.  The use of woodcuts was spread by the inventions of moveable type and of the printing press in the 1450s.
  4. 4.  Paper invented in China many centuries before European form, c. 800  Japan = work of several artists
  5. 5.  Tom Huck  2009
  6. 6.  Another relief process, first used in 1800s  Similar to woodcut but relies on engrain of block (hard wood)  Needs tools designed to cut metal
  7. 7.  Wood engraving  Dramatic composition with political theme  Delicacy of line indicative of medium  At the time of creation, Kent was one of the most well- known/successful graphic artists in U.S.
  8. 8.  Linocut – similar to woodcut, however linoleum much softer than wood, easier to cut, requires similar tools  No grain, cuts can be made in any direction with ease  Other possible relief processes?  Potato  Styrofoam  Rubber stamps  Plywood  Each requires a special approach, tools, papers, press
  9. 9.  INTAGLIO From Italian, 'in the cut' or 'in the groove’  It encompasses all prints made by pressing the ink down into the crevices of the plate then wiping excess ink away from the surface.  The paper is placed over the plate and run through an intaglio press, which squeezes the paper and plate with high pressure between two rollers, transferring the ink to the paper.  Some examples of intaglio techniques include:  etching  mezzotint  drypoint  aquatint  engraving
  10. 10.  Unlike relief, what is removed ends up being printed  Metal plates and special tools, i.e. burin  Ink surface, wipe clean, place moist paper over plate and send through press
  11. 11.  Engraving An engraving (also called a line engraving) is made by incising a design into a METAL plate (usually copper) by applying pressure to the plate with a pointed tool called a graver or burin.  Engraving is an INTAGLIO process, so prints made in this manner will have a platemark.  Strong lines and sharp definition are characteristic of engravings. The earliest known line engravings were issued in the fifteenth century.  A method of engraving in a steel plate, which allows for finer detail and many more impressions than does copper, was developed by Thomas Lupton in 1822.
  12. 12.  Engraving = oldest of the intaglio techniques  Developed from medieval practice of incising linear designs in armor  Basic tool is a burin  Shallow cuts create a light, thin line while deeper cuts result in thicker and darker line  Shading = hatching
  13. 13. William HogarthMartin Schongauer
  14. 14. Drypoint – An Intaglio method in which a sharp needle or diamond point is used to scratch a line onto a metal or acrylic plate . The resultant burr of metal that is raised holds more ink than the incised line itself and gives the rich, velvety stroke characteristic of the technique. The plate wears out rapidly because the burr soon breaks off during printing.
  15. 15.  Chine appliqué (chine collé) A chine appliqué or chine collé is a print in which the image is printed onto a thin sheet of Japanese fiber paper (other similar paper) which is backed by a stronger, thicker sheet. Japanese fiber paper takes an intaglio impression more easily than regular paper, so chine appliqué prints generally show a richer impression than standard prints.
  16. 16.  Mezzotint (intaglio process) inverse of the other intaglio processes  created working from black to white, rather than vice versa.  metal plate is worked using a rocker -roughens the entire surface of the plate with tiny holes and burrs. -If the plate were printed at this time the image would be completely velvet black.  Areas that are to appear in lighter tones or in white are smoothed out on the surface using scrapers and burnishers, so that they will hold LESS ink.  Mezzotint prints have a platemark  makes a very rich image  used particularly for portraits.
  17. 17. Rocker – Hardened steel tool with a curved, serrated edge, used to roughen a metal plate for mezzotints. Roulette – tool with a revolving head of hardened steel on which a dotted, lined or irregular pattern is incised; used in intaglio processes.
  18. 18.  Apply acid resistant ground / wax to metal plate  Draw design into waxed surface (ground)  Place plate in acid bath  Acid “bites” the plate or areas exposed during the drawing stage
  19. 19. Etching This technique involves using acid to bite grooves into the plate. A substance called an etching ground blocks the acid from biting through in certain places, while disruptions in the ground allow the acid to bite in other areas. The plate is printed by pressing ink into the grooves and wiping excess ink off the surface. Ink is then transferred from the plate to the paper by being run through a press.
  20. 20.  AQUATINT An aquatint is created by etching SECTIONS, rather than lines, of a plate in order to create areas of uniform tone. An aquatint is  prepared by applying resin or a similar ground (spray paint) to a metal plate, which is then heated, thus adhering the ground to the metal. This gives a roughness or grain to the plate which adds texture to the image.  Plate immersed in acid bath, which bites or etches the plate and creates areas which will hold the ink.  Design created with gradations of TONE achieved through repeated acid baths combined with varnish (acrylic) used to stop out areas of lighter tone.  Aquatint is an INTAGLIO process, so prints made in this manner will have a platemark.
  21. 21. Francisco Goya. The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters.
  22. 22.  Tonal areas made by applying powdered resin (acid resistant)  Heat metal plate, resin activates or melts resin (each particle or dot of powdered resin will now resist acid)
  23. 23.  process based on the chemical principle that OIL AND WATER DO NOT MIX.  Images are drawn on limestone or metal plates with crayons and inks which contain wax or oil.  After treatment with gum arabic and nitric or phosphoric acid, the non-image areas become water-receptive.  The stone or plate is wet before each inking with a roller, so the oil-based ink will adhere ONLY to the image areas. Paper is pressed against the surface with a bar or roller press.  Lithography was invented by Alois Senefelder in 1798 but didn't come into general use until the 1820s. After that time lithography quickly replaced intaglio processes for most illustrative and commercial applications, for the design was easier to apply to the stone or plate, it was much easier to rework or correct a design, and many more images could be produced without loss of quality than in any of the intaglio processes. LITHOGRAPHY (PLANOGRAPHIC)
  24. 24.  Lithography is a planographic process = surface is flat  Direct quality of medium, appears like a drawing on paper
  25. 25.  Serigraphy  The process, also called silkscreen, that uses a squeegee to force ink through selected parts of silk or other fabric stretched tightly over a frame containing the image. The image on the screen can be produced either photographically, by cutting stencils, or by drawing direct with a block out material.
  26. 26.  Robert Rauschenberg  Mixed Media with emphasis on Screen Printing.
  27. 27. Monotype - Often considered a 'painterly' technique, this involves painting on a smooth surface and transferring that painting onto paper, usually, but not always, with the help of a press. Since the surface is smooth and does not hold ink in any repeatable way, each print is as unique as a painting.
  28. 28.  Barbara Kruger’s appropriated mass media imagery, photo-stencils  David Hockney’s manipulation of paper-making process = added color to paper pulp, masses pressed and dried

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