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Ancient Egypt - Art History Survey, Stokstad, ed 3

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Art History Survey of Egyptian Art: From Predynastic to Late Egyptian

Art History Survey of Egyptian Art: From Predynastic to Late Egyptian

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  • 1. ANCIENT EGYPT – TIME SEQUENCE Predynastic – 5000-2950 BCE Early Dynastic - 2950-2575 BCE Old Kingdom - 2575-2150 BCE Middle Kingdom - 1957-1640 BCE New Kingdom - 1630-1520 BCE Late Egyptian - 715-332 BCE
  • 2. Predynastic – 5000-2950 BCE • Ceramic figurines • Decorated pottery • Ivory carved in relief • Stone plaques carved in relief • Wall paintings (found in mud brick houses at Hierakonpolis)
  • 3. DYNASTIES AND MANETHO’S LIST • Chronological list of rulers compiled by Manetho, Egyptian priest/historian in 3rd century BCE • 30 dynasties confirmed by temple records, from 3000 to 332 BCE (when Alexander the Great conquered.)
  • 4. RELIGION IN EGYPT - POLYTHEISTIC Ra (Ra-Atum) = sun god Tefnut & Shu = gods of wetness and dryness Geb (earth) and Nut (sky) Osiris (king) married sister, Isis; killed by brother, Seth. Nepthys & Isis pieced Osiris back together with Anubis’ (jackal) help. Isis birthed Horus (king of the earth; falcon- headed; defeated Seth) and Osiris became king of the dead. • Kings=divine • Ensure gods’ favor • Ordered cosmos/ Afterlife
  • 5. Early Dynastic - 2950-2575 BCE Narmer Palette, 2950-2775 BCE. Green schist, height 25”.
  • 6. Old Kingdom - 2575-2150 BCE Canon of Proportions – male body 18 units 1 unit =width of fist Grid Twisted perspective Groundlines
  • 7. Early Dynastic From “mastaba” to “pyramid”
  • 8. Early Dynastic Stepped Pyramid of Djoser (2630-2575 BCE) , 204’ high
  • 9. Old Kingdom - 2575-2150 BCE Great Pyramids at Giza (2575-2450 BCE) http://www.airpano.com/360Degree-VirtualTour.php?3D=Egypt-Cairo-P Yramids Giza Plateau follows the sun’s east-west course.
  • 10. Old Kingdom - 2575-2150 BCE
  • 11. Old Kingdom - 2575-2150 BCE Khufu: oldest/largest pyramid (13 acre base!), 481’ high 2.3 million Blocks of Stone…2.5 tons each block!
  • 12. Old Kingdom - 2575-2150 BCE Khafre - Great Sphinx, 65’
  • 13. Old Kingdom - 2575-2150 BCE SCULPTURE • Block-like/solid/compact • Diorite Khafre, in the Valley Temple of Khafre at Giza. (Ruled 2520- 2494 BCE).
  • 14. Old Kingdom - 2575-2150 BCE Menkaure and a Queen, Giza (ruled 2490-2472 BCE)
  • 15. Old Kingdom - 2575-2150 BCE Seated Scribe, 2450-2325 BCE Writing: • Hieroglyphic • Hieratic -simplified • Demotic – 8th century BCE • Religious: hieratic • Monuments: hieroglyph • All else: demotic • Coptic (Greeks 332 BCE) • Rosetta Stone 196 BCE, discovered in 1818
  • 16. Old Kingdom - 2575-2150 BCE Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt, Tomb of Ti, Saqqara. 2450-2325 BCE. 45”
  • 17. Middle Kingdom - 1957-1640 BCE Head of Senusret III, Twelfth Dynasty (2938-1755 BCE). • 150 years of unrest until 11th dynasty (3 successive kings named Mentuhotep); reunited. • Powerful, unified government • Arts flourished • Military expansion • Rock-cut tombs (solid/painted) • Faience (glass paste; glossy finish)
  • 18. Middle Kingdom - 1957-1640 BCE Beni Hasan, 1938- 1755 BCE, Twelfth Dynasty.
  • 19. Middle Kingdom - 1957-1640 BCE • Well-observed accurate detail • Faience: glass paste fired to produce shiny, smooth, opaque finish • Glass: sand +lime + sodium carbonate (or sodium sulfate), fired Hippopotamus, Tomb of Senbi (Tomb B.3), Meir. Twelfth Dynasty, 1938-1755 BCE. Faience, 20 cm long. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  • 20. Middle Kingdom - 1957-1640 BCE Stele of Amenemhat I, Assasif. Twelfth Dynasty, 1938-1755 BCE. Painted Limestone.
  • 21. New Kingdom - 1539-1075 BCE • Hyksos invasion; 18th Dynasty regains control • Thutmose III - 1479-1425 BCE, 18th dynasty, (first to use the term “pharoah”, which means “great house.” ) • 15 military campaigns/diplomacy • Great Temple Complexes along Nile River • Pylon – tapered wall gateway • Hypostyle hall – vast hall with columns • Peristyle court – courtyard surrounded by columns
  • 22. GREAT TEMPLE OF AMUN AT KARNAK
  • 23. HYPOSTYLE HALL – GREAT TEMPLE OF AMUN AT KARNAK – 1290-1190 BCE
  • 24. FUNERARY TEMPLE OF HATSHEPSUT – 1473- 1458 BCE
  • 25. HATSHEPSUT ENTHRONED, 18TH DYNASTY -Queen Ahmose and god Amun -Regent for Thutmose III; kept him from rule for 20 years -Funerary Temple at Deir el-Bahri – buried in Valley of kings, though, Northwest half a mile…
  • 26. AKENHATEN, COLOSSAL FIGURE • 1353 BCE – ascended the throne (18th Dynasty) • 17 year reign • NEW RELIGION – honoring the sun-god, Aten • “maat” divine truth “One who is effective on behalf of Aten” - 1348 BCE • New capital : not Thebes, but Akhetaten (Tell el-Amarna) • AMARNA PERIOD ART: glassmaking, sculpture, etc.
  • 27. NEFERTITI – 1353-1336 BCE
  • 28. AKHENATEN AND HIS FAMILY – 1353-1336 BCE
  • 29. QUEEN TIY (AKHENATEN’S MOTHER) – 1342 BCE
  • 30. TUTANKHAMUN’S SARCOPHAGUS – 1332-1322 BCE
  • 31. TEMPLE OF RAMESES II AT ABU SIMBEL – 1279-1213 BCE
  • 32. Late Egyptian - 715-332 BCE Mummy Wrapping of a Young Boy, 100-120 CE : linen wrappings with giled stucco buttons and inserted portrait in encaustic on wood. 53 3/8”
  • 33. MUMMIFICATION http://youtu.be/-MQ5dL9cQX0