COMPARISON ON SECURITY
MEASUREMENT WITHIN TWO
SAFETY & SECURITY
• The most important security measures at an airport is such as
confirming the identity of travellers. This is done by checking a photo
ID, such as a driver's license. If you are traveling internationally, you
need to present your passport. There's also security check before
embark and disembarking passenger and luggage.
Type of security check
Body Screening using Metal Detector Gate Baggage scanning using X-ray machine
• Immigration responsible for:
• Monitor persons who leave or enter the
• Checking for appropriate documentation,
• Arresting people wanted by international
• Block the entry of dangerous people to the
• Customs responsible for :
• The processing of people, carriers, cargo,
and mail into and out of the country.(including
animals & hazardous items)
• The proper collection of taxes, fees, penalties
for imported items.
• The prohibition of narcotics and illegal drugs.
Comparison security measurement
on two airport
Changi International Airport
WHAT ARE THE MEASURES?
• The measures restrict the amount of liquids, aerosols and gels
that passengers can carry in hand-carry luggage on all flights
departing from Changi Airport. The guideline are
– Liquids, aerosols and gels must be in containers with a
maximum capacity of not more than 100ml each.
– Containers must be placed in a transparent re-sealable
plastic bag with a maximum capacity not exceeding 1-litre.
– Each passenger is allowed to carry only one transparent re-
sealable plastic bag, which must be presented separately for
– Exemptions will be made for medications, baby food and
special dietary items. These items will be subjected to
additional checks at the security screening point.
• WHY HAVE THE SECURITY MEASURES BEEN IMPLEMENTED?
– International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) recommendation- made after the United Kingdom
(UK) aviation terror plot in August 2006.
• DO THE MEASURES APPLY TO BOTH ARRIVING AND DEPARTING FLIGHTS
AND AT WHICH AIRPORTS IN SINGAPORE?
– The measures apply to departing flights only
• WHEN WERE THE MEASURES IMPLEMENTED?
– The measures were implemented on 8 May 2007.
• ENSURE A SMOOTH TRANSITION THROUGH THE SECURITY SCREENING POINTS?
– To facilitate their check-in and security screening processes, passengers are advised to pack all liquid, aerosol and
gel items appropriately before arriving at the airport.
• Passengers are encouraged to check in for their flight
2 to 3 hours before their flight
• Passengers are advised to check in for their flights early. Most airlines start
operating their Check-in counters at least 2 hours before flight departure. Before
proceeding to the Check-in counters, have your own valid passport, valid visa (if
necessary) and air ticket ready. If you have an e-ticket, bring along a print-out of
• All checked baggage will be screened by airport security. Passengers should not
pack any weapons, combustible items, explosive materials, toxic or other
dangerous substances into their Check-in baggage. This luggage will be screened
before passengers board the plane. Passengers may be required to have their
checked baggage undergo further security screening if deemed necessary.
• All passengers will go through metal detector for body screening before boarding
• Departing passengers are checked at the entrance of the gate rather than after
immigration . This security measure is easily noticed by the presence of X-Ray
machines and metal detectors at every gate which is not normally seen at
• Upon arrival at the airport, please refer to the Flight Information Boards
and Plasma Screens (conveniently located beyond the Departure Hall
entryways) for your airline's check-in row information. Many airlines
offer Early and Off-Airport Check-In options. For greater convenience,
check-in "Off-Airport" anywhere you please via the internet or by
phone. We invite you to check-in early at the airport and enjoy Changi's
great transit facilities, food and beverages, and shopping!
• The Immigration Halls are located at the ground floor. There are
two queuing areas - one is for Singaporeans and residents, the
other would be for all nationalities. All foreign visitors are
required to complete the disembarkation/embarkation (D/E) card
and have valid travel documents and visa (if applicable) before
proceeding for immigration clearance.
• Upon your arrival at the Singapore Changi Airport, your
baggage will be subjected to checks by the Immigration and
Checkpoints Authority and other security agencies.
• Under Singapore law, prohibited items such as arms and
explosives, bullet-proof clothing, antique guns, toy guns and
swords etc require authorization from the Police Licensing &
Regulatory Department of the Singapore Police Force.
• If you have prohibited items in your possession, please declare
them and produce valid permits or authorization documents.
• Your understanding and cooperation will help speed up
checkpoints clearance and prevent further verification by the
authorities which may result in administrative and personal
• Police dog services for explosive detection, drug detection and
Airport Police Division
• The Airport Police Division was formed on 1 Nov 1970 when
the State Police assumed the responsibility for airport security at
Changi Airport - deal with ever changing security challenges
• Responsible for the maintenance of law and order which
encompasses the Singapore Changi Airport - The Appropriate
Authority for security at the airport.
• APD maintains Law regulated by Civil Aviation Authority of
Singapore (CAAS), Immigration & Checkpoints Authority ( ICA )
and other government agencies, as well as Changi Airport
Group ( CAG )
• Patrol teams of two soldiers and a police
officer armed with machine guns monitoring
around the terminals at random.
• Also been Monitoring by CCTV
• Install over 400 cameras to monitor the
• electric monitoring of the perimeter fence;
and the screening of personnel and cargo
entering through the control gates
The main focus on security measurement
– They inspect goods, search passengers
– Detect smuggling activities and monitor exit and
– The Border Police operate on an information and
– Spot checks are also made on incoming and
outgoing cargo goods and passengers.
Custom & Check In Counter
• There is no x-ray scanner big enough to
inspect an entire container(cargo)
• Currently the Border Police at the JIA have
only hand-held x-ray scanners to search for
drugs and explosives.
• Current pallet-sized x-ray scanner too small
for the purposes of the police
• The documentation verification system
is still manual for passenger & cargo
• Information not centralize & not link
– Border Police had no access to Customs to
Other Security Issues
• Shortage of staff - Border Police at the JIA need more
members who are specifically trained to undertake physical
inspections.71 Because of the current shortage of trained
personnel, not all profiled cargo and passengers documentation
can be inspected accurately
• Didn’t Separate between domestic & international pax -The
mixing of international and domestic cargo create more security
• Lack of scanner capacity.
• No (walk-through metal detectors)
• Poor fencing
• Poor reporting of security issues
– Smuggling detected by other security personnel
goes unreported – poor link
• Lack of surveillance system for Freight and
– No CCTV cameras linked to a central control room
– Problem lost , damage , stolen luggage
– Not enough CCTV cameras to cover their
• Poor organization structure
– Overlapping responsibility
Demand for new technology in airport
General Electric (GE) started to develop the Secure
Registered Traveler System. The new system would use newly
developed technology such as automated carry-on
scanning, automatic biological pathogen detection, millimeter-wave
full body scanning and a quadrupole resonance carpet that would
detect threats in shoes without having to take them off. The SRT
program also works with smartcard technology along with
fingerprint technology to help verify passengers. The fingerprint
scanner also detects for explosive material traces on the person's