Table of contents
Newton’s Law of Motion……………..3
Bernoulli’s Principle ………………….4
Major Part of Airplane……………….6
Primary Control Surfaces……………8
Additional Control Surfaces………..9
The Principle How Aircraft Fly……10
viation is a term that refers to the design, development,
production, operation, and use of aircraft, especially
heavier-than-air aircraft.An Aeroplane is heavier-than-air
aircraft. In 1799 Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern
airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift,
propulsion, and control. Great progress was made in the field of
aviation during the 1920s and 1930s, such as Charles Lindbergh's
Transatlantic flight in 1927,The Wright Brothers with their Wrights
Flyer and other pioneers in Aircraft inventor.
There are thousands of designs and ideas about aircraft which
have been developed through aviation history. Despite this some main
components became permanent in every aircraft designing. As fixwing aircrafts are the most common aircrafts they will be the most
studied. Although airplanes are designed for a variety of purposes,
objectives. Most airplane structures include a fuselage, wings, an
empennage, landing gear, and a powerplant. There are many other
parts as well.
Many people think quite differently about airplanes, however.
Knowing that these machines are clearly heavier than air, they might
wonder what exactly make airplane take off-landing and keeps an
airplane in the sky. And they might fear that any airplane might just
fall out of the sky. In fact, to some people, airplanes seem more at
peace sitting on the ground than they do in the air. If so, this
assignment will help you understand some basic principles of aircraft
flight. You’ll learn that many fears are unfounded.That Airplane fly in
the sky is exactly safe.
Newton’s Law of Motion
Sir Isaac Newton was one of
lived. He was born in England
on December 25, 1643. He was
Galileo died. He lived for 85
Newton had new ideas about
motion, which he called his
three laws of motion. He also had ideas about gravity, the diffraction
of light, and forces.
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation:-
All objects not fall with the same acceleration
unless air resistance or some other force acts on them., where all bodies experience a
downward gravitational force exerted by Earth's mass, the force experienced as weight
Newton Second Law :- Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater
the mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of force needed (to
accelerate the object). the Second Law gives us an exact relationship between force, mass,
and acceleration. It can be expressed as a mathematical equation; FORCE = MASS times
Newton Third Law
:- For every action there is an equal and opposite re-action. This
means that for every force there is a reaction force that is equal in size, but opposite in
direction. That is to say that whenever an object pushes another object it gets pushed back
in the opposite direction equally hard.
Bernoulli's Principle is a physical phenomenon
that was named after the Swiss scientist
relationship of the speed of a fluid and
The principle states that "the pressure of a
fluid [liquid or gas] decreases as the speed of the fluid increases."
Within the same fluid (air in the example of aircraft moving through
air), high-speed flow is associated with low pressure, and low-speed
flow is associated with high pressure.
Bernoulli's principle applies to any fluid, and since air is a fluid, it
applies to air. The camber of an airfoil causes an increase in the
velocity of the air passing over the airfoil.
This results in a decrease
in the pressure in the stream of air moving over the top of the airfoil.
Bernoulli's Principle is the principle that allows wings to produce lift
and planes and helicopters to fly.
here are many factors that can effect the lift produced
under this principle, but in order to fully understand how
and why things can effect flight one must understand how
Bernoulli's principle works.
Bernoulli's principle works on the idea that as a wing passes through
the air its shape make the air travel more over the top of the wing than
beneath it. This creates a higher pressure beneath the wing than
above it. The pressure difference cause the wing to push upwards and
lift is created.
There are several things that effect the amount of lift created. The
first is speed, the faster the wing moves through the air the more air is
forced over under the wing, therefore the more lift is created. Another
thing that effects the amount of lift created is the density of the air.
The denser the air is the more lift is produced. This is why planes
climb better in the winter, the colder air is denser. The final thing that
can change the amount of lift created by the wing is the shape of the
wing. Certain wings produce more lift.
This phenomenon applies to the lift produced by the wing of an
airplane, i.e., an airfoil. The airfoil is designed so that the air moves
more rapidly over its upper surface than its lower surface, thereby
decreasing pressure above the airfoil. At the same time, the impact of
the air on the lower surface of the airfoil increases the pressure below
the airfoil. This difference between the decreased pressure above and
the increased pressure below produces lift. A wing with more curve on
the top surface has greater lift than a wing with flat surfaces.
The airplane wing is designed so that the top is curved and the bottom
is flat. Taxiing down the runway, the air blowing over the top of the
wing travels faster than the air blowing underneath. The faster air has
a lower pressure, so the greater pressure on the bottom of the wing
pushes the plane up. When it gets going fast enough this lifting
pressure exceeds the downward gravity and move thee plane upward.
Major Part of Aircraft
A fixed-wing aircraft, typically called an airplane, aeroplane or plane, is an
of flight using
lift as the wing
the air. Planes
thrust, as well
aircraft (such as
ornithopters in which lift is generated by blades and rotary-wing aircraft in
The Empennage, commonly called the tail assembly (see figure 1-7), is the
rear section of the body of the airplane. Its
main purpose is to give stability to the
aircraft. The fixed parts are the horizontal
stabilizer and the vertical stabilizer or fin.The
front, fixed section is called the horizontal
stabilizer and is used to prevent the airplane
from pitching up or down.The rear section is
called the elevator and is usually hinged to
the horizontal stabilizer. The elevator is a movable airfoil that controls the
up-and-down motion of the aircraft's nose.
The vertical tail structure is divided into the vertical stabilizer and the
rudder. The front section is called the vertical stabilizer and is used to
prevent the aircraft from yawing back and forth. The principle behind its
operation is much like the principle of a deep keel on a sailboat. In light,
single-engine aircraft, it also serves to offset the tendency of the aircraft to
roll in the opposite direction in which the propeller is rotating.The rear
section of the vertical structure is the rudder. It is a movable airfoil that is
used to turn the aircraft.
The fuselage, or body of the airplane, is a long hollow tube which holds all
the pieces of an airplane together. The fuselage is hollow to reduce weight.
As with most other parts of the airplane, the shape of the fuselage is
normally determined by the mission of the aircraft. A supersonic fighter plane
has a very slender, streamlined fuselage to reduce the drag associated with
high speed flight. An airliner has a wider fuselage to carry the maximum
number of passengers. On an airliner, the pilots sit in a cockpit at the front of
the fuselage. Passengers and cargo are carried in the rear of the fuselage
and the fuel is usually stored in the wings. For a fighter plane, the cockpit is
normally on top of the fuselage, weapons are carried on the wings, and the
engines and fuel are placed at the rear of the fuselage.
The weight of an aircraft is distributed all along the aircraft. The fuselage,
along with the passengers and cargo, contribute a significant portion of the
weight of an aircraft. The center of gravity of the aircraft is the average
location of the weight and it is usually located inside the fuselage. In flight,
the aircraft rotates around the center of gravity because of torques
generated by the elevator, rudder, and ailerons. The fuselage must be
designed with enough strength to withstand these torques.
Primary Control Surfaces
An aircraft maintains control in flight with its control surfaces : The Ailerons that control Roll
The Rudder that controls Yaw
The Elevators that control Pitch
The Flaps which provide extra Lift and Drag
Ailerons are hinged control surfaces attached to the trailing edge
of the wing of a fixed-wing aircraft. The ailerons are used to
Elevators are control surfaces, usually at the rear of an aircraft, which
control the aircraft's orientation by changing the pitch of the aircraft, and so
also the angle of attack of the wing. In simplified terms, they make the
aircraft nose-up or nose-down.
On the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer is the Rudder. This controls the
yaw or the left/right sliding movements of the aircraft
Additional control Surfaces
Spoilers are small, hinged plates on the top portion of wings.
Spoilers can be used to slow an aircraft, or to make an aircraft
descend, if they are deployed on both wings.
Flaps are hinged surfaces on the trailing edge of the wings of a fixedwing aircraft. As flaps are extended, the
stalling speed of the aircraft is reduced,
which means that the aircraft can fly safely
at slower speeds (especially during take off
Slats are aerodynamic surfaces on
the leading edge of the wings of fixed-wing
aircraft which, when deployed, allow the
wing to operate at a higher angle of attack.
A higher coefficient of lift is produced as a
product of angle of attack and speed, so by
The Principle How Aircraft Fly
he Aircrafts fly with the principle of Lift (i.e, allowing air to pass below the
vehicle while moving at high speeds). The engine used in a typical aircraft is
a turbojet engine which propel the aircraft to obtain high velocity and as the
speed increases the air below the aircraft lift the craft and as it reach higher and
higher the air pressure becomes more delicate and makes a plane an easy flier.
For an airplane to fly, it must always engage in a tug of war between the opposing
forces of lift versus weight and thrust versus drag. And the Airfoil of the Angle of
Attack. The Angle of Attack is related to the amount of lift. The greater of Angle of
For a moment, think of an airplane moving from right to left and the flow of air
moving from left to right. The weight or force due to gravity pulls down on the plane
opposing the lift created by air flowing over the wing. Thrust is generated by the
propeller and opposes drag caused by air resistance to the airplane. During take-off,
thrust must be greater than drag and lift must be greater than weight so that the
airplane can become airborne .For landing thrust must be less than drag, and lift
must be less than weight.
There are four forces which act on an aircraft. These are lift, drag, weight and thrust.
All must be applied and controlled at the same time in order to make the aircraft fly.
When an aircraft moving at high speed it will create a Thrust force. As the engine
are attached to the wing of an airplane .its Thrust will be applied to the airplane. you
can understand it on Newton Third Law. Aircraft have wings which generate lift
when air flows over their surface because The faster that air move through the
airspace, The lower the air pressure; The slower it move, The higher the pressure.
See Bernoulli’s Principle. Aircraft wing are designed to take advantage of that fact
and create a lift force necessary to overcome the weight of aircraft and because
wing are attached to Aircraft that moving on high speed and create the Lift force
that make the airplane Lift upward and fly.
Lift = (1/2) d v s CL
L = Lift, which must equal the airplane's weight in pounds
d = density of the air. This will change due to altitude. These values can be
found in a I.C.A.O. Standard Atmosphere Table.
v = velocity of an aircraft expressed in feet per second
s = the wing area of an aircraft in square feet.
CL = Coefficient of lift , which is determined by the type of airfoil and angle of
That’s the Basic Principle on how aircraft fly. We learn from Newton’s
Gravitation that anything heavier than air will drop to the ground when
released. But when we apply the Bernoulli’s Principle on the aircraft it
can take the jumbo jet weighing 400 tonne can fly and it doesn’t drop
to the ground. Of cause there are certain calculation need to be done.
But first u need to understand the Rules and Principle of flying that I’ve
been describe inside this assignment. Let me summarize it for better
For a moment think of an airplane moving from right to left and
the flow of air moving from left to right. There 4 forces which act on
the aircraft. These are lift, drag, weight and thrust. As the aircraft gain
speed that created by the engine that create thrust force see chapter
Newton Third Law of Motion , air passes faster and faster over its wing
and lift force is create see chapter Bernoulli’s Principle and because
the engine is attached to the wing and the wing is attached to the
aircraft fuselage carried the aircraft fly in the sky.
So about the matter of aircraft weight(Gravity) the calculation
need to be done using the Lift formula according to the major part of
airplane, primary control surface, additional control surface and
engine power. Lift force must be greater than the plane’s weight and
Thrust force must be greater than the Drag force to make the aircraft
fly and doesn’t drop to the ground. All 4 Forces must be applied and
controlled at the same time.
Once a plane is in the air, it continues climb until it reaches the
cruising altitude, which is determined by the pilot and approved by the
ATC. At this point power is reduced from the setting that was needed
to climb, and the aircraft maintains a consistent level altitude. To fly
level, the Weight of the aircraft and the Lifting force generated by the
wings are exactly Equal.
1. For Books
Aviation Management College
2009 Aviation History
Aircraft Mechanic :
1998 Gas Turbine Engine
& V.P. Propeller
Aero Precision Resources
2. For Encyclopedias (no author)
Year Encyclopedia Title
Intermediate Level 2
3. For Encyclopedias With an Author
Year Article Title
1953 Early Aircraft
4. For Internet Sources With an Author
URL (Internet Site Address)
Demonstration August Bernoulli’s http://library.thinkquest.org/27948/bernoulli.
5. For Educated Person and Other Periodicals:
Ms Zuliana Bt Ismail
Norliana Binti Azmi
Fidah Asyikin bt Mohammad Sukri
Noor Hidayah Kamaruddin
Nur 'Atiyah Zahraa' Bt Ahmad Azmi
Choy Siew Ying
Flight of The Phoenix 1965/2004
This Assignment the references, graphics, definition , electronic
machine, movies, music and other stuff; a lot of people work really
hard to make this happen for you guys and for us every night. Thanks.