Aviation history
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Aviation history

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Aviation history Aviation history Document Transcript

  • Table of contents Introduction…………………………………..2 Contents Newton’s Law of Motion……………..3 Bernoulli’s Principle ………………….4 Major Part of Airplane……………….6 Primary Control Surfaces……………8 Additional Control Surfaces………..9 The Principle How Aircraft Fly……10 Conclusion…………………………………….11 Bibliography…………………………………..12
  • A Introduction viation is a term that refers to the design, development, production, operation, and use of aircraft, especially heavier-than-air aircraft.An Aeroplane is heavier-than-air aircraft. In 1799 Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift, propulsion, and control. Great progress was made in the field of aviation during the 1920s and 1930s, such as Charles Lindbergh's Transatlantic flight in 1927,The Wright Brothers with their Wrights Flyer and other pioneers in Aircraft inventor. There are thousands of designs and ideas about aircraft which have been developed through aviation history. Despite this some main components became permanent in every aircraft designing. As fixwing aircrafts are the most common aircrafts they will be the most studied. Although airplanes are designed for a variety of purposes, most of them characteristics have are the same largely major determined components. by the The overall original design objectives. Most airplane structures include a fuselage, wings, an empennage, landing gear, and a powerplant. There are many other parts as well. Many people think quite differently about airplanes, however. Knowing that these machines are clearly heavier than air, they might wonder what exactly make airplane take off-landing and keeps an airplane in the sky. And they might fear that any airplane might just fall out of the sky. In fact, to some people, airplanes seem more at peace sitting on the ground than they do in the air. If so, this assignment will help you understand some basic principles of aircraft flight. You’ll learn that many fears are unfounded.That Airplane fly in the sky is exactly safe. 2
  • Newton’s Law of Motion Sir Isaac Newton was one of the greatest scientists mathematicians that and ever lived. He was born in England on December 25, 1643. He was born the same year that Galileo died. He lived for 85 years. Newton had new ideas about motion, which he called his three laws of motion. He also had ideas about gravity, the diffraction of light, and forces. Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation:- All objects not fall with the same acceleration unless air resistance or some other force acts on them., where all bodies experience a downward gravitational force exerted by Earth's mass, the force experienced as weight Newton Second Law :- Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object). the Second Law gives us an exact relationship between force, mass, and acceleration. It can be expressed as a mathematical equation; FORCE = MASS times ACCELERATION Newton Third Law :- For every action there is an equal and opposite re-action. This means that for every force there is a reaction force that is equal in size, but opposite in direction. That is to say that whenever an object pushes another object it gets pushed back in the opposite direction equally hard. 3
  • Bernoulli’s Principle Bernoulli's Principle is a physical phenomenon that was named after the Swiss scientist Daniel Bernoulli eighteenth who century. lived Bernoulli during the studied the relationship of the speed of a fluid and pressure. The principle states that "the pressure of a fluid [liquid or gas] decreases as the speed of the fluid increases." Within the same fluid (air in the example of aircraft moving through air), high-speed flow is associated with low pressure, and low-speed flow is associated with high pressure. Bernoulli's principle applies to any fluid, and since air is a fluid, it applies to air. The camber of an airfoil causes an increase in the velocity of the air passing over the airfoil. This results in a decrease in the pressure in the stream of air moving over the top of the airfoil. Bernoulli's Principle is the principle that allows wings to produce lift and planes and helicopters to fly. 4
  • T here are many factors that can effect the lift produced under this principle, but in order to fully understand how and why things can effect flight one must understand how Bernoulli's principle works. Bernoulli's principle works on the idea that as a wing passes through the air its shape make the air travel more over the top of the wing than beneath it. This creates a higher pressure beneath the wing than above it. The pressure difference cause the wing to push upwards and lift is created. There are several things that effect the amount of lift created. The first is speed, the faster the wing moves through the air the more air is forced over under the wing, therefore the more lift is created. Another thing that effects the amount of lift created is the density of the air. The denser the air is the more lift is produced. This is why planes climb better in the winter, the colder air is denser. The final thing that can change the amount of lift created by the wing is the shape of the wing. Certain wings produce more lift. This phenomenon applies to the lift produced by the wing of an airplane, i.e., an airfoil. The airfoil is designed so that the air moves more rapidly over its upper surface than its lower surface, thereby decreasing pressure above the airfoil. At the same time, the impact of the air on the lower surface of the airfoil increases the pressure below the airfoil. This difference between the decreased pressure above and the increased pressure below produces lift. A wing with more curve on the top surface has greater lift than a wing with flat surfaces. The airplane wing is designed so that the top is curved and the bottom is flat. Taxiing down the runway, the air blowing over the top of the wing travels faster than the air blowing underneath. The faster air has a lower pressure, so the greater pressure on the bottom of the wing pushes the plane up. When it gets going fast enough this lifting pressure exceeds the downward gravity and move thee plane upward. 5
  • Major Part of Aircraft A fixed-wing aircraft, typically called an airplane, aeroplane or plane, is an aircraft capable of flight using forward motion that generates lift as the wing moves through the air. Planes include jet engine and propeller driven vehicles, propelled forward by thrust, as well as unpowered aircraft (such as gliders). Fixedwing aircraft are descendant from ornithopters in which lift is generated by blades and rotary-wing aircraft in which wings move relative to the aircraft. The Empennage, commonly called the tail assembly (see figure 1-7), is the rear section of the body of the airplane. Its main purpose is to give stability to the aircraft. The fixed parts are the horizontal stabilizer and the vertical stabilizer or fin.The front, fixed section is called the horizontal stabilizer and is used to prevent the airplane from pitching up or down.The rear section is called the elevator and is usually hinged to the horizontal stabilizer. The elevator is a movable airfoil that controls the up-and-down motion of the aircraft's nose. The vertical tail structure is divided into the vertical stabilizer and the rudder. The front section is called the vertical stabilizer and is used to prevent the aircraft from yawing back and forth. The principle behind its operation is much like the principle of a deep keel on a sailboat. In light, single-engine aircraft, it also serves to offset the tendency of the aircraft to roll in the opposite direction in which the propeller is rotating.The rear section of the vertical structure is the rudder. It is a movable airfoil that is used to turn the aircraft. 6
  • The fuselage, or body of the airplane, is a long hollow tube which holds all the pieces of an airplane together. The fuselage is hollow to reduce weight. As with most other parts of the airplane, the shape of the fuselage is normally determined by the mission of the aircraft. A supersonic fighter plane has a very slender, streamlined fuselage to reduce the drag associated with high speed flight. An airliner has a wider fuselage to carry the maximum number of passengers. On an airliner, the pilots sit in a cockpit at the front of the fuselage. Passengers and cargo are carried in the rear of the fuselage and the fuel is usually stored in the wings. For a fighter plane, the cockpit is normally on top of the fuselage, weapons are carried on the wings, and the engines and fuel are placed at the rear of the fuselage. The weight of an aircraft is distributed all along the aircraft. The fuselage, along with the passengers and cargo, contribute a significant portion of the weight of an aircraft. The center of gravity of the aircraft is the average location of the weight and it is usually located inside the fuselage. In flight, the aircraft rotates around the center of gravity because of torques generated by the elevator, rudder, and ailerons. The fuselage must be designed with enough strength to withstand these torques. 7
  • Primary Control Surfaces An aircraft maintains control in flight with its control surfaces : The Ailerons that control Roll  The Rudder that controls Yaw  The Elevators that control Pitch  The Flaps which provide extra Lift and Drag Ailerons are hinged control surfaces attached to the trailing edge of the wing of a fixed-wing aircraft. The ailerons are used to control the aircraft in roll. Elevators are control surfaces, usually at the rear of an aircraft, which control the aircraft's orientation by changing the pitch of the aircraft, and so also the angle of attack of the wing. In simplified terms, they make the aircraft nose-up or nose-down. On the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer is the Rudder. This controls the yaw or the left/right sliding movements of the aircraft 8
  • Additional control Surfaces Spoilers are small, hinged plates on the top portion of wings. Spoilers can be used to slow an aircraft, or to make an aircraft descend, if they are deployed on both wings. Flaps are hinged surfaces on the trailing edge of the wings of a fixedwing aircraft. As flaps are extended, the stalling speed of the aircraft is reduced, which means that the aircraft can fly safely at slower speeds (especially during take off and landing). Slats are aerodynamic surfaces on the leading edge of the wings of fixed-wing aircraft which, when deployed, allow the wing to operate at a higher angle of attack. A higher coefficient of lift is produced as a product of angle of attack and speed, so by deploying take slats off and an aircraft land can in 9 fly a more shorter slowly or distance.
  • T The Principle How Aircraft Fly he Aircrafts fly with the principle of Lift (i.e, allowing air to pass below the vehicle while moving at high speeds). The engine used in a typical aircraft is a turbojet engine which propel the aircraft to obtain high velocity and as the speed increases the air below the aircraft lift the craft and as it reach higher and higher the air pressure becomes more delicate and makes a plane an easy flier. For an airplane to fly, it must always engage in a tug of war between the opposing forces of lift versus weight and thrust versus drag. And the Airfoil of the Angle of Attack. The Angle of Attack is related to the amount of lift. The greater of Angle of Attack the greater Lift force can be created. For a moment, think of an airplane moving from right to left and the flow of air moving from left to right. The weight or force due to gravity pulls down on the plane opposing the lift created by air flowing over the wing. Thrust is generated by the propeller and opposes drag caused by air resistance to the airplane. During take-off, thrust must be greater than drag and lift must be greater than weight so that the airplane can become airborne .For landing thrust must be less than drag, and lift must be less than weight. There are four forces which act on an aircraft. These are lift, drag, weight and thrust. All must be applied and controlled at the same time in order to make the aircraft fly. When an aircraft moving at high speed it will create a Thrust force. As the engine are attached to the wing of an airplane .its Thrust will be applied to the airplane. you can understand it on Newton Third Law. Aircraft have wings which generate lift when air flows over their surface because The faster that air move through the airspace, The lower the air pressure; The slower it move, The higher the pressure. See Bernoulli’s Principle. Aircraft wing are designed to take advantage of that fact and create a lift force necessary to overcome the weight of aircraft and because wing are attached to Aircraft that moving on high speed and create the Lift force that make the airplane Lift upward and fly. 2 Lift = (1/2) d v s CL L = Lift, which must equal the airplane's weight in pounds d = density of the air. This will change due to altitude. These values can be found in a I.C.A.O. Standard Atmosphere Table. v = velocity of an aircraft expressed in feet per second s = the wing area of an aircraft in square feet. CL = Coefficient of lift , which is determined by the type of airfoil and angle of attack. 10
  • Conclusion That’s the Basic Principle on how aircraft fly. We learn from Newton’s Gravitation that anything heavier than air will drop to the ground when released. But when we apply the Bernoulli’s Principle on the aircraft it can take the jumbo jet weighing 400 tonne can fly and it doesn’t drop to the ground. Of cause there are certain calculation need to be done. But first u need to understand the Rules and Principle of flying that I’ve been describe inside this assignment. Let me summarize it for better understanding. For a moment think of an airplane moving from right to left and the flow of air moving from left to right. There 4 forces which act on the aircraft. These are lift, drag, weight and thrust. As the aircraft gain speed that created by the engine that create thrust force see chapter Newton Third Law of Motion , air passes faster and faster over its wing and lift force is create see chapter Bernoulli’s Principle and because the engine is attached to the wing and the wing is attached to the aircraft fuselage carried the aircraft fly in the sky. So about the matter of aircraft weight(Gravity) the calculation need to be done using the Lift formula according to the major part of airplane, primary control surface, additional control surface and engine power. Lift force must be greater than the plane’s weight and Thrust force must be greater than the Drag force to make the aircraft fly and doesn’t drop to the ground. All 4 Forces must be applied and controlled at the same time. Once a plane is in the air, it continues climb until it reaches the cruising altitude, which is determined by the pilot and approved by the ATC. At this point power is reduced from the setting that was needed to climb, and the aircraft maintains a consistent level altitude. To fly level, the Weight of the aircraft and the Lifting force generated by the wings are exactly Equal. 11
  • Bibliography 1. For Books Author(s) Year Title City Publisher Aviation Management College 2009 Aviation History Aircraft Mechanic : 1998 Gas Turbine Engine & V.P. Propeller KL AMC KL APR Aero Precision Resources 2. For Encyclopedias (no author) Article Title Year Encyclopedia Title Aircraft Mechanic Intermediate Level 2 2001 Aircraft Maintenance Engineer’s Licence Publisher Volume/Page(s) APR Vol.5, pp.1-350 3. For Encyclopedias With an Author Author(s) Year Article Title Encyclopedia Title Publisher Vol./Page(s) Emanuel Swedenborg Flying Machine 1953 Early Aircraft Design The Free Encyclopedia Wikipedia Vol.4, pp.30-35 4. For Internet Sources With an Author Date Article Author URL (Internet Site Address) (Y/M/D) Title Newton’s Georgia http://teachertech.rice.edu/Participants/ 06/10/24 Law Louviere louviere/Newton/ Of Motion Demonstration August Bernoulli’s http://library.thinkquest.org/27948/bernoulli. 1999 Principle http://www.articlesisland.com/arts-andElizabeth Airplane 08/12/7 entertainment/hobbies/paper-airplane-flyingHarper Flying Tip tips. Airplane Jan http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/KNASA Part 1998 12/airplane/airplane. Definition How Dec Boeing Aircraft http://www.boeing.com/aircraft/ 2002 Fly 12
  • 5. For Educated Person and Other Periodicals: Name(s) Position Ms Zuliana Bt Ismail AMC Institute Norliana Binti Azmi Fidah Asyikin bt Mohammad Sukri Noor Hidayah Kamaruddin Nur 'Atiyah Zahraa' Bt Ahmad Azmi Choy Siew Ying Flight of The Phoenix 1965/2004 Johnny Cash Lecturer Staff Senior Senior Senior Senior Senior movies mp3 This Assignment the references, graphics, definition , electronic machine, movies, music and other stuff; a lot of people work really hard to make this happen for you guys and for us every night. Thanks. 13