Airport Management 11

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  • 1. AIRPORT MANAGEMENT ii LESSON LEARN MRO ATC AIRPORT MANAGER Student’s Name AmideeAzizan Matric Number KPMC102217 Assignment Title Lesson Learn,MRO,ATC,Airport Manager Concern Lecturer’s Name MR Valli Date 30.12.2011 0
  • 2. Table of contents Introduction…………………………………………………………………….….2 Contents 1. Lesson Learn…………………………………………………………………… 1.1. Airport Terminal…………………………………………………………...3 1.2. Airport Management……………………………………………………....7 1.3. Airport Ground Access…………………………………………………....10 2. MRO…………………………………………………………………………….. 2.1. What Is MRO……………………………………………………………..12 2.2. What It‟s Mean…………………………………………………………....13 2.3. How Airport Play A Role…………………………………………………14 3. Air Traffic Controller….…….…………………………………………………... 3.1. What Is ATC………………………………………………………………18 3.2. What They Do……………………………………………………………..19 3.3. How They Do……………………………………………………………...20 3.4. What Are The System Assisting ATC(NAVAIDS)……………………..22 4. As Airport Manager What Are Your Concern………………………………… 4.1. Terminal Area……………………………………………………………..30 4.2. Landside…………………………………………………………………...32 4.3. Airside……………………………………………………………………..35 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………...39 Bibliography………………………………………………………………………40 1
  • 3. INTRODUCTION The effective management of the facilities that exist on and around an airport‟s airfield is vital to the safety and efficiency of aircraft operations. Because of this, airport operations management represents many of the defining issues concerning airport planners and managers. Any airport‟s in the industry aim is to provide high quality terminal facilities, management and operation. WHY?? To handle the passengers traffic flows effectively. To provide a quality experience for customers, because terminals provide the first and last impressions for visitors to the airport. To become a HUB In this assignment I will touch some of the airport management, operation and component that together make the aviation industry in the world enormous and continuously growth. This is with an objective of giving you an insight operational and actual appearance in the industry. Likewise, this will supplement the various theories and simultaneously understanding and application. ENJOY READING 2
  • 4. Airport Terminal 1. Embark/Disembark An airport terminal is a building at an airport where passengers transfer between ground transportation and the facilities that allow them to board and disembark from aircraft.The terminals are the „front door‟ to the Airport and serve as the public interface between the airside and landside elements. 2. Ticketing Services Within the terminal, passengers purchase tickets, transfer their luggage, and go through security. The buildings that provide access to the airplanes (via gates) are typically called concourses. However, the terms "terminal" and "concourse" are sometimes used interchangeably, depending on the configuration of the airport. 3. Multiple Connected Terminal Some larger airports have one terminal that is connected to multiple concourses via walkways, sky-bridges, or underground tunnels (such as Denver International Airport). Some larger airports have more than one terminal, each with one or more concourses (such as New York's La Guardia Airport). Still other larger airports have multiple terminals each of which incorporates the functions of a concourse (such as Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport). 4. Airport terminal designs This terminal configuration evolved during the 1950s when gate concourses were added to the simple terminal building designs. A concourse is actually defined as an open space where paths meet. Passengers are usually processed at the simple terminal location and then routed down a "pier" where aircraft are parked in the "finger" slots or gates for boarding. 4.1 Pier Finger Terminals Piers offer high aircraft capacity and simplicity of design, but often result in a long distance from the check-in counter to the gate (this way called as Contact Pier). 4.2 Pier Satellite Terminal This configuration involves a single terminal where all the ticketing and passenger processing takes place. Connected to this are numerous concourses that lead to one or more satellite structures. At the end of each concourse the aircraft are parked in a cluster. These 3
  • 5. increases the distance a passenger must walk to get from one terminal to another or one gate to another. 4.3 Transporter Terminal This concept is currently in use at Dulles International Airport and Tampa International Airport. In this concept passengers are transported to and from the building to the parked airplane. The mobile lounge can also be used as holding rooms for waiting passengers at gate positions. Airplanes are parked at gates placed along parallel rows. Several sets of parallel parking rows can be created as increased traffic deems such expansion necessary. This design has excellent expansion capabilities and can maintain the pace with increased airport usage. With this concept, aircraft can be parked remotely from the terminal buildings thus increasing the amount of aircraft enplaning and deplaning passengers. Airplane taxiing time to and from the runway is decreased as well as the amount of aircraft engine noise around the terminal. 4.4 Semicircular Terminal Key Considerations: 1. Proximity to Runways and Taxiways 2. Accessibility and Road Access 3. Room for Expansion 4. Availability of Services and Utilities 5. Impact on the Environment Balance Between: 1. Utilization of Facility 2. Facility Investment 3. Operational efficiency 4. Architectural Advantages: 1. Short distance 2. Low cost construction 4
  • 6. 5. Function of Terminal buildings Passenger terminals serve the needs of differenttypes of users by: Processing check-in, security, and border controls, aircraft boarding and disembarking, Baggage handling for travelers, providing for passengers waiting for flight or transferring between flights, providing passenger and airport visitor facilities, including food and beverage, toilets, shopping. To process passengers (ticket check, customs clearance, immigration control) To provide various facilities for passenger (shopping, toilets, eating, meeting & greeting, business & conference). To organize passengers before journey by plane. To facilitate a change of transfer mode (ex: from train to plane, from car to plane, etc.). 6. Parts of Terminal Building A terminal building could be made for passengers, cargo and for any other specific purposes. It comprises the basic physical parts as Front side of the Terminal Visitors Area and Check-in Area Shop retails Security Hold Area & Baggage Make Up area Passengers Meet and Greet area Airlines offices, counters for Tour and Travel agencies counters for Taxi services Lounges of Business class or Executive Class passengers 7. Passenger’s Movement Check-in Airport Check-in are service counters found at commercial airports handling commercial air travel. The check-in is normally handled by an airline or a handling agent working on behalf of an airline. Passengers usually hand over any baggage they do not wish or are not allowed to carry-on to the aircraft's cabin and receive a boarding pass before they can proceed to board their aircraft. Immigration Duties Responsible Monitor persons who leave or enter the country, Checking for appropriate documentation, 5
  • 7. Arresting people wanted by international arrest warrants. Block the entry of dangerous people to the country. 8. Safety & Security Security Checks Confirming the identity of travelers, Checking a photo ID & transports. Body Screening using Metal Detector Gate Baggage scanning using X-ray machine Custom Duties Responsible The processing of people, carriers, cargo, and mail into and out of the country.(including animals & hazardous items) The proper collection of taxes, fees, penalties for imported items. The prohibition of narcotics and illegal drugs. 9. Baggage Handling System Functions : To process and move the passenger‟s baggage From the check in area to the departure area or From the arrival gate to the baggage-claim area Automatic Methodsof Moving Bags DCV – Destination Coded Vehicles Automatic Scanner - scan the labels on the baggage Conveyors- Like a local „roads‟ 10. Key factors to build an ATTRACTIVE & EFFECTIVE airport terminal Ambiance (atmosphere of place) Cleanliness Unique Architectural Good and adequate signage Less walking distance for passengers Excellent retail stores/Branded stores Becoming mini township Many activities for passengers Pleasing & good waiting environment Accurate information 6
  • 8. Excellent customer service Efficient public transportation High security level, safe from any threat potential Airport Management 1. INTRODUCTION TO AIRPORT An airport is a facility where passengers connect from ground transportation to air transportation.The world's first airport was built in 1928 at Croydon near London (England). It was the main airport for London till it was closed down in 1959, after the World War II. It is now open as a visitor center for aviation. By the end of this section, student will be able to: Describe about airports Explain several different types of airports Describe the function of Airports 2. Airlines Airlines include scheduled airlines and non-scheduled airlines Airlines can be domestic, international or foreign Airlines can be passenger carriers, cargo/freight carriers or both passenger and cargo carriers Most airlines carry both passengers and freight Airlines can be owned by government, government owned companies, private companies or companies jointly owned by government and private entities Airlines can be owned by one agency but can be managed by another entity. 3. Air Traffic Services Air traffic services help in navigating aircraft while landing, taking off, flying in the air, over-flying any country, taxing on the ground and parking They provide a discipline in the air and also on the ground and maintain safety 4. Regulation And Policies The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. The Headquarters are located in the Quartier International of Montreal, Canada.The ICAO Council adopted and recommended practice air navigation, infrastructure, flight inspection to prevent interference, border crossing procedure, air classification, and traffic control mostly about rule of airspace that been signed and agree 7
  • 9. by 52 state on Chicago Convention on 1944 that established rules of airspace, aircraft registration and safety.The Convention also support eighteen annexes that are amend regularly by ICAO. 5. Aerodromes A defined area on land or water (including any buildings, installations and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft. 6. Types of Airport 6.1 International Airports An international airport has direct service to many other airports. Handle scheduled commercial airlines both for passengers and cargo. Many international airports also serve as "HUBS", or places where nondirect flights may land and passengers switch planes. Such airports are usually larger, and often feature longer runways and facilities to accommodate the large aircraft. 6.2 Domestic Airports A domestic airport is an airport which handles only domestic flights or flights within the same country. Domestic airports don't have customs and immigration facilities and are therefore incapable of handling flights to or from a foreign airport. These airports normally have short runways which are sufficient to handle short/medium haul aircraft. 6.3 Regional Airports A regional airport is an airport serving traffic within a relatively small or lightly populated geographical area. A regional airport usually does not have customs and immigration facilities to process traffic between countries. Aircraft using these airports tend to be smaller business jets or private aircraft (general aviation). 7. Airport Ownerships Most of the world‟s airports are owned by government bodies who then lease the airport to private corporations who oversee the airport‟s operation. For example, In Malaysia, airport are authorized by Malaysia Airport Holding Berhad (MAHB). MAHB responsible is to focus on the operations, management and maintenance of Malaysia airports. 8
  • 10. MAHB is the operator and manager of Malaysia's 39 airports. The core activities include the management, operation and maintenance as well as development of airports, with primary importance being placed on the operational efficiency, safety and security of passengers, cargo and aircraft operations. 8. How are airports managed There are several divisions to manage each sub organizations at an airport. These divisions including Airport operation services (security, fire & rescue & maintenance) Airport planning and development (engineering) Airport financial (revenues, business) The primary objective of each division is to ensure the operational efficiency, safety and security of passengers, cargo and aircraft operations. 9. Landside Services Facilities associated with the movement of passengers and baggage away from aircraft areas. Airport facilities devoted to service passengers in to and inside the terminal areas. For Passengers operations Example : Terminal building , car parking and ground access. 10. Airside Services Facilities associated with the movement of the airplanes on the airports surface. All facilities considered beyond the passenger security areas. For Aircraft operations Example: Runway, Taxiway, Apron, Maintenance Hangar Airport Structure Airspace : Space area surrounding an airport for aircraft maneuver (after takeoff, before landing) Airfield/Airside (Aerodromes) :For Aircraft Operations Area including building, installations &equipment‟s for aircraft take-off, landing & surface movement. Landside : For Passenger Operations Area to accommodate the passengers (terminal building) & passenger‟s vehicles (parking facilities) Airport Ground Access Systems: 9
  • 11. Area to accommodate the vehicles to/from the surrounding city area & between the various buildings around the airport (Cars, buses, taxis, railways) Airport Ground Access 1. Ground Transportation As airports play a key role in the competitiveness of the global trade, there is a need for a greater federal role in airport ground access.Air cargo is also a key element of trade in the international marketplace. As cargo volumes continue to grow significantly each year, no federal focus hasbeen placed on the fact that the nation‟s airport ground access system isprimarily designed for passenger traffic. More attention needs to be paid to the goods movement component of airports 2. Purpose For all public and private fleets that provide passenger transportation services out of commercial airports operating in the South Coast Air Quality Management (District), this rule requires passenger car, light-duty truck, medium-duty transit vehicle, and heavy-duty transit vehicle fleet operators to acquire cleaner burning or alternative-fueled vehicles to reduce air toxic and criteria pollutant emissions when procuring or leasing these vehicles in the District unless otherwise exempt. 3. Airport Fleet Operator Airport Fleet Operator is a person who owns, leases, or operates vehicles at commercial airports located in the District for the express purpose of transporting passengers. A person is a public agency that is responsible for airport transportation operation; or any private individual firm, association, franchise, cooperative, organization, partnership, business trust corporation, company, contractor, user, or owner that operates at commercial airports and provides transportation services including taxicab, limousine, passenger shuttles, and courtesy shuttle transportation such as those provided by private vehicle leasing and rental agencies and hotels, or transports passengers to and from commercial airports and/or granted approval by the commercial airport authority to pick up passengers within the jurisdictional boundaries of a commercial airport. 4. Ground Access Operations 10
  • 12. Ground access operations Operator must be familiar with the road access an intersection at the airport. Also the management of vehicles. 5. Examples Type of Vehicles At The Airport Passengers Cars, Private Car,Taxis,Limozine,Rental Car,Shuttle Bus,Patrol Car,Tow Truck,Tractor, Rail,Train,ERL, 6. Tugs and Tractor The tugs tractors at an airport have several purposes and represent the essential part of ground support services. They are used to move any equipment that can not move itself. This includes bag carts, mobile air conditioning units, air starters, lavatory carts, and other equipment. 7. Transporter The transporters are cargo platforms constructed so that beside loading and unloading can transport cargo. Depending on the type and load capacity the containers could be transported, and the same is valid for greater transporters and palettes. 8. Airport Shuttle Bus An airport bus, or airport shuttle bus or airport shuttle is a bus or coach used to transport people to/from, or within airports. These vehicles will usually be equipped with larger luggage space 9. Passengers Boarding Stairs Passenger boarding stairs, sometimes referred to as 'air-stairs', 'boarding ramps' or 'aircraft steps', provide a mobile means to traverse between aircraft doors and the ground. Because larger aircraft have door sills 5 to 20 feet high, stairs facilitate safe boarding and debarking. While smaller units are generally moved by being towed or pushed, larger units are self-powered. 10. Airport Limo Airport Limo Malaysia achieved its first decade as the sole provider of taxi and limousine services from KLIA to destinations in Peninsular Malaysia and from anywhere in Peninsular Malaysia to KLIA. 11
  • 13. MRO What is MRO Maintenance, repair, and operations (MRO) ormaintenance, repair, and overhaul involve fixing any sort of mechanical or electrical device should it become out of order or broken (known as repair, unscheduled or casualty maintenance). It also includes performing routine actions which keep the device in working order (known as scheduled maintenance) or prevents trouble from arising (preventive maintenance). MRO may be defined as, "All actions which have the objective of retaining or restoring an item in or to a state in which it can perform its required function. The actions include the combination of all technical and corresponding administrative, managerial, and supervision actions." Any activity such as tests, measurements, replacements, adjustments and repairs intended to retain or restore a functional unit in or to a specified compartment and in this scenario „Aircraft‟ it called MRO. For all action taken to retain material in a serviceable condition or to restore it to serviceability includes inspection, testing, servicing, and classification as to serviceability, repair, rebuilding, and reclamation it also called MRO. Aircraft maintenance is the overhaul, repair, inspection or modification of an aircraft or aircraft component. Maintenance includes the installation or removal of a component from an aircraft or aircraft subassembly, but does not include elementary work, such as removing and replacing tires, inspection plates, spark plugs, checking cylinder compression, servicing, such as refueling, washing windows. Any work done on an aircraft or aircraft component as part of the manufacturing process, prior to issue of a certificate of airworthiness or other certification document. 12
  • 14. What it’s mean Generally speaking, there are two types of maintenance in use: Preventive maintenance, where equipment is maintained before break down occurs. This type of maintenance has many different variations and is subject of various researches to determine best and most efficient way to maintain equipment. Recent studies have shown that Preventive maintenance is effective in preventing age related failures of the equipment. For random failure patterns which amount to 80% of the failure patterns, condition monitoring proves to be effective. Corrective maintenance, where equipment is maintained after break down. This maintenance is often most expensive because worn equipment can damage other parts and cause multiple damage Maintenance types Preventive maintenance Preventive maintenance is maintenance performed in an attempt to avoid failures, unnecessary production loss and safety violations. As equipment cannot be maintained at all times, some way is needed to decide when it is proper to perform maintenance. Normally, this is done by deciding some inspection/maintenance intervals, and sticking to this interval more or less affected by what you find during these activities. The result of this is that most of the maintenance performed is unnecessary;[citation needed] it even adds substantial wear to the equipment. Also, you have no guarantee that the equipment will continue to work even if you are maintaining it according to the maintenance plan. The effectiveness of a preventive maintenance schedule depends on theanalysis which it was based on, and the ground rules used for costeffectively Corrective maintenance Corrective maintenance is probably the most commonly used approach, but it is easy to see its limitations. When equipment fails, it often leads to downtime in production. In most cases this is costly business. Also, if the equipment needs to be replaced, the cost of replacing it alone can be substantial. It is also important to consider health, safety and environment (HSE) issues related to malfunctioning equipment. Corrective maintenance can be defined as the maintenance which is required when an item has failed or worn out, to bring it back to working order. Corrective maintenance is carried out on all items where the consequences of failure or wearing out are not significant and the cost of this maintenance is not greater than preventive maintenance. 13
  • 15. How airport play a role in MRO maintenance Maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) services play an invaluablerole in assuring that commercial airliners remain safe, durable and profitable. As new companies enter the aircraft maintenance business and others change or expand their value propositions, MRO providers will be compelled to become more collaborative, more open and more competitive. To position themselves for the future, these organizations must be prepared to take on new roles and heighten their value by working more closely with others Maintaining commercial aircraft: An attractive and growing opportunity Today‟s US$40.1 billion maintenance market for commercial aircraft is large and growing– attracting new companies and changing the roles of existing ones. The market is expanding.Today‟s MRO market is split between North America and Western Europe. Over the next 20 years, the center of gravity of the world‟s airline fleet will tilt toward the Asia-Pacific region: almost 40 percent of air traffic will be to, from or within those areas. The largest MRO growth will be seen in Asia (+US$5.6 billion). The aircraft maintenance supply chain currently holds an inventory of about US$44 billion and supports an active global fleet of nearly 17,000 aircraft. This has resulted in approximately US$2.5 million in inventory available to each active aircraft.These factors have made aircraft maintenance one of airlines‟ biggest costs – averaging 13 percent of their total expenditures. (Fuel and labor are other big expenses.).Airlines spend an average of US$870 in direct maintenance costs for every flight hour (Those numbers depending on the type of aircraft, its age and its condition). It’s no surprise that financial indicators point to commercial aircraft maintenance (MRO) as an attractive opportunity and play a big role in Airport. 14
  • 16. Aircraft MRO has several segments The attractiveness of the aircraft maintenance business is underscored by the number of new companies entering the field, and the fact that existing MROs are shifting and expanding their roles, as the rest of this paper describes. Aircraft MRO is commonly segmented into fourmain service groupings: 1. Line maintenance, which diagnoses and corrects troubles on the aircraft and carries out minor and major aircraft checks and repairs, is very labor-intensive. 2. Component maintenance, which repairscomponents such as wheels, brakes andinterior components, is also primed toprosper – from around US$8 billion today toover US$11 billion by 2017 3. Engine maintenance, which includesdismantling, inspecting, assembling andtesting aircraft engines, is the largest MROsegment.11 Engine maintenance makes upabout 35 percent of maintenance spend,and is expected to increase. 4. Heavy maintenance, which encompassesstructural modifications, landing repair,engine changes and regular calendarchecks, is also expected to grow. gear These four groupings vary enough to be viewed as fundamentally different businesses. They each require a different set of skills and services, and little independent maintenance Companies specialize in all. Therefore give a lot of job opportunity and play a big role in Airport and Aviation Sector and industry. Outsourcing: Extending the roles of MRO businesses Today, airlines‟ role in maintenance is changing as they outsource more maintenance activities. An increasing number of low-cost carriers (LCCs) are leading this trend. However, some airlines have seen MRO as a business opportunity and have set up their MRO operations on a commercial basis. The business model expand. 15
  • 17. Dynamics of the aircraft maintenance business While the dynamics of the MRO business have been changing for many years, the pace seems to be accelerating. Six forces are driving the change: Increased focus of OEMs on MRO: Aircraft and engine OEMs, such as Boeing and Rolls-Royce, are putting additional focus onthe maintenance business and are startingto offer “total care” solutions. OEMs are also in a special position to leverage thesense and respond data from electronic monitors on aircraft and perhaps even takecontrol of the scheduling of aircraft maintenance. Outsourcing MRO: As airlines outsourcemore maintenance work and focus on theircore business, opportunities open up fornew companies to compete in the MROspace – increasing competition, expandingthe potential for improving service anddriving down costs. Low-cost carriers areleading the way in outsourcing MRO. Globalization: Low-cost labor locationssuch as India, Latin America and China are now set up for MRO service centers.Already, Asia is seeing net inflows in labor-intensive airframe heavy-maintenance MRO activities. PMA parts: The FAA‟s Parts Manufacturer Approval (PMA) process allows non-OEMs to reverse-engineer OEM parts and sellthem at a significant discount.Also, the recent entry of Pratt & Whitney into thePMA market underscores how PMA parts increase competition. Prognostics and Health Management(PHM): PHM enables aircraft maintenanceto be proactive – rather than reactive – by monitoring and assessing the health of apart or component in real-time, predicting failure and determining appropriate actions. New technology trends: Several technologytrends are further changing the structureof MRO by requiring that service suppliershave the skills to keep up with theseadvances. o Green engines provide more fuel efficiencyand lower emissions than Conventional engines. o Composite materials are becomingcommon in new aircraft. o More electronic functionality: Electronicsystems continue to replace mechanicalsystems. 16
  • 18. Future scenarios for aircraft spare-parts in airports Different companies can perform different roles. Key questions for the future of the MRO industry include: Who controls the sense data from aircraft? Who schedules the aircraft maintenance? Who controls the service centers? Who makes and distributes spare parts? Who controls the technicians? Who controls the service delivery network? As the new MRO system develops, companies and airports in commercial aircraft maintenance will be taking on more roles and will collaborate more with other companies to share those responsibilities. This is how airport play a role in MRO maintenance 17
  • 19. AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER What is ATC Air Traffic Controller (ATC) jobs mainly is controlling each flight from departure to arrival is integral to maintain safety because there‟s so many airplane in the system they need to be separated and need to be control.To separate all aircraft in the air, and this is achieved by applying the prescribed separation standards. As such standard separation must be maintained at all times. It‟s a complex world simply clearing airplane to the runway may involve several steps.Air traffic controller help in navigating aircraft while landing, taking off, flying in the air, over-flying any country, taxing on the ground and parking. They provide a discipline in the air and also on the ground and maintain safety. The services are provided by using modern equipment including radars. This is for safety, expeditious, orderly and requirement By ICAOalso AuditbyICAO, IATA depends on Factor country‟s rating and image. The controlling is within FIR and areas of responsibility areaerodrome, control zone, TMA, airways. The control given is subject to airspace classification, ATC equipment available, tower/aerodrome, approach, director, instrument letdown/talk down, area, advisory and FIS. It‟s given during promulgated opening hours and upon request outside opening hours. It did not given all the time because of economic reasons and lack of facilities - lighting, NAVAIDS How is it given are by, visual, procedural, radar, instrument letdowns, SIDS STARS, advisory and traffic info. 18
  • 20. What They Do Major Functions is to ensure the safety and smooth operation of the runway/s and taxiways in an airport and the circuit flights at the airport vicinity. All these using own eyes. To advise aircraft pilots of runway in use. Depending on the wind condition and as requested by aircraft pilot depending on the nearest to approach of aircraft landing. All this at the discretion of the ATC To provide aerodrome control service. To separate all traffic using runways for takeoff and landing. To provide Surface movement control. To increase flow efficiency of air traffic at airports so can avoid the flight delay.ATC providing safe operating conditions for aircraft and passengers. Control the airport operating services and the airspace within a 5 to 10 km radius of the airport. Deal with airport operations staff for the airport surfaces and equipment maintenance (snow removal, ice control, airport lighting, etc).Deal with airport emergency plans (aircraft crash, bomb threat, hi-jacking, etc.). Every aircraft that flies follows a similar flight pattern that begins before takeoff and ends after landing. This pattern is called a flight profile. A typical commercial flight profile has 7 phases. Each phase of a typical flight profile is monitored by an air traffic control facility with its own group of controllers. Each of these controllers follows specific rules and procedures while directing flights through designated airways. They monitor the flight using special equipment and decision support tools (computers) that ensure a safe and efficient flight. Function of ATC is to organize and expedite the flow of traffic, to issue to information and clearances to aircraft under its control, to maintain separation and prevent collisions, to provide information and other support for pilots when able. 19
  • 21. How they Do 7 Flight Profile Step 1- Preflight: Pilot files the flight plan & send to the Tower controller. Tower inform pilot the weather information. Flight checks, push-back from the gate & taxi to the runway. Step 2- Take-off: Tower controller gives pilot clearance for take-off, aircraft powers up & takeoff. Step 3- Departure: Aircraft climbs to a define altitude Tower controller pass their communication with pilot to the Departure Controller. Pilot receives clearance for routing. Step 4- En-route: Communication with the pilot then pass to the Air Route Controller. Air route controller instructing pilot to the specific altitude and heading. Step 5- Descent: Near airport Approach Controller instructing pilot to descent & change heading. Step 6- Approach: Pilot receives approach clearance & the then communication with pilot is passed to the Tower Controller. Step 7- Landing: Local controller at tower gives clearance for landing. Ground controller directs the pilot across the taxiways to its destination gate at the terminal. Definitions of the Flight Profile Preflight The pilot receives the most recent weather information and a flight plan has been filed. Prior to takeoff, the pilot performs the flight check routine, pushes back the aircraft from the terminal's gate, and taxis out to the designated takeoff runway. Takeoff The pilot receives permission from Local Control (the Tower) to takeoff. The aircraft powers up and begins its takeoff roll. 20
  • 22. Departure Upon lift off, the pilot is instructed to change radio frequencies to receive new flight instructions from Departure Control in the TRACON. The pilot is instructed to follow a predetermined, preferred routing that will take the aircraft up and away from the departure airport onto its route. The pilot is then issued further altitude and routing clearance. The controller monitors the target (the aircraft) and its track (flight path) on the radar scope. As the aircraft reaches the edge of the TRACON airspace, the Departure Controller performs an electronic transfer of the flight to the controller in the next airspace. En Route The pilot receives instructions as to what altitude and heading to maintain, as well as to which radio frequency to tune. This portion of the flight can be as short as a few minutes or as long as many hours. Descent As the aircraft nears its destination airport, the pilot is instructed to change radio frequencies and contact Descent Control for instructions. The pilot is instructed to descend and change heading. After receiving these instructions, the aircraft descends and maneuvers to the destination airport. Approach The pilot has received an approach clearance to the destination airport from the Approach Controller working in the TRACON. The flight has been placed in line with other aircraft preparing to land at the same airport. The pilot flies a specified flight procedure in order to get in line for the designated landing runway. The pilot receives instructions from the Approach Controller to change radio frequency and contact Local Control (in the airport's control tower) for landing clearance. The aircraft is electronically handed off from TRACON to the Tower. Landing The pilot receives clearance from the Local Controller in the airport's control tower to land on a designated runway. Upon touching down, the flight is then handed off to Ground Control. The Ground Controller directs the pilot across the taxiways to its destination gate at the terminal. 21
  • 23. What Are The System Assisting ATC (NAVAIDS) NAVIGATIONAL AIDS NDB (Non Directional Beacon) • ADF (Automatic Direction Finder) • VOR (VHF Omni-directional Range) • DME (Distance Measuring Equipment) • ILS (Instrument Landing System) • TCAS (Traffic Collision Avoiding System) • GPS (Global Positioning System) 22
  • 24. Non Directional Beacon (NDB) Older types of radio navigation system Radio transmitter at a known location, used as an aviation or marine navigational aid Not included directional information. Must be used together with ADF-Automatic Direction Finder that located inside the aircraft’s Signals follow the curvature of the earth, so they can be received at much greater distances at lower altitudes, a major advantage over VOR Equipment is installed at en-route areas as well as on the airports to provide navigational guidance to the pilot. 23
  • 25. AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER(ADF) Operate in a low or medium frequency band of 200 to 415 kHz. It is used for identifying positions, receiving low and medium frequency voice communications, homing, tracking, and for navigation on instrument approach procedures Major advantage over VOR navigation in the reception is not limited to line of sight distance The ADF can receives on both AM radio station and NDB (Non-Directional Beacon) Widely used today 24
  • 26. VOR (VHF Omni-directional Range) Broadcasts a VHF radio composite signal including the station's identifier, voice (if equipped), and navigation signal. The identifier is Morse code. Located along air routes and airport to ensure continuity of guidance. When military tactical air navigation (TACAN) equipment is installed with the VOR, it is known as a VORTAC. Primary navigational aid (NAVAID) used by civil aviation in the National Airspace System (NAS). 25
  • 27. DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT Transponder-based radio navigation technology that measures distance by timing the propagation delay of VHF or UHF radio signals. Provide continuous and accurate indication of the slant range distance (expressed in nautical miles) of an equipped ground reference point Composed of a UHF transmitter/receiver (interrogator) in the aircraft and a UHF receiver/transmitter (transponder) on the ground. Also can be co-located with an ILS glide slope or localizer where it provides an accurate distance function. 26
  • 28. INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM Ground-based instrument approach system that provides precision guidance to an aircraft approaching and landing on a runway, using a combination of radio signals and, in many cases, to enable a safe landing Guide the pilot during the approach and landing.It is very helpful when visibility is limited and the pilot cannot see the airport and runway.To provide an aircraft with a precision final approach. Consists of Ground Installations and Airborne Equipments Ground Installations – Localizer, Glide path, Marker Beacons Airborne Equipments - ILS indicator , Localizer and Glide Path 27
  • 29. TRAFFIC COLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM Designed to reduce the incidence of mid-air collisions between aircraft. Warns pilots of the presence of other transponder-equipped aircraft which may present a threat of mid-air collision Consists of hardware and software that together provide a set of electronic eyes so the pilot can "see" the traffic situation in the vicinity of the aircraft 28
  • 30. Global Positioning System Official name are Navigational Satellite Timing And Ranging Global Positioning System (NAVSTAR GPS) Provides accurate reliable location and time information in all weather and at all times and anywhere on or near the Earth when and where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites Freely accessible by anyone with a GPS receiver Provides three-dimensional location (latitude, longitude, and altitude) plus the time USERS : Aircraft Navigation,Civilian(individual),Military Railroad System,Marine ,Weather Prediction, Automobile ,Sports(sky diving) 29
  • 31. Airport Manager As Airport Manager What Are Your Concern An Airport Manager administers and supervises the business of the airport, including budgeting, terminal operations, contract and grant administration, marketing and promotion, public information, ground transportation, and other matters of concern pertaining to the safe and efficient operation of the facility. Whether large or small, there are a huge variety of functions at an airport besides planes taking off and landing, Terminal, Landside and Airside. In This section I‟m going to discuss about airport Manager concern on Terminal ,Landside and Airside Terminal Area A terminal building could be made for passengers, cargo and for any other specific purposes. A PTB (Passengers Terminal Building) comprises the basic physical parts as 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Front side of the PTB or the verandah Visitors Area Check-in Area SHA or Security Hold Area (sterile area) BMA (Baggage Make Up area) BBA (Baggage Brake Up area) Passengers Meet and Greet area Airlines offices Office of the regulatory agencies Lounges of Business class or Executive Class passengers Check-in counters Frisking booths and XBIS machines Various concessionaires Counters for Tour and Travel agencies counters for Taxi services Terminal building is the main building where passengers embark and disembark aircrafts. The terminals are the ‘front door’ to the Airport and serve as the public interface between the airside and landside elements.This Include Check in counters,Departure lounge,Arrival lounge,Custom check, Immigration check,Baggage conveyor belt,Driveway to drop and pick passengers,Health quarantine Animal & plant quarantine ,Baggage collection lounge,Baggage disposal conveyor,Security office Information panel displays,Baggage x ray machines,Human metal detectors ,Toilets ,Retail shops Other facilities ,Public PA system ,CCTV,Passengers aerobridges ,Departure secured rooms. 30
  • 32. Where to Locate ATerminal, Key Considerations: 1. Proximity to Runways and Taxiways 2. Accessibility and Road Access 3. Room for Expansion 4. Availability of Services and Utilities 5. Impact on the Environment Terminal Design – Key Considerations Balance Between: Utilization of Facility Facility Investment Operational efficiency Architectural Passenger terminals serve the needs of differenttypes of users by: Processing check-in, security, border controls, Aircraft boarding and disembarking, and Baggage handling for travelers; Providing for passengers waiting for flight or transferring between flights Providing passenger and airport visitor facilities, including food and beverage, toilets,shopping & other activities. Any airport’s aim is to provide high quality terminal facilitiesbecause: To handle the passengers traffic flows effectively. To provide a quality experience for customers, because terminals provide the first and last impressions for visitors to the airport. To become a HUB To ensure that terminal areas must serves and meets all the criteria that passengers demand Key factors to build an ATTRACTIVE & EFFECTIVE airport terminal building are: Easy Access from road or rail Efficient Baggage Delivery Full range of services Convenient parking, ground transportation Clean building Simple procedures that are not confusing Safe & Secure Environment 31
  • 33. Airside The airside installations, operation and its effective management are vital for every airport. It basically includes 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. • • • • • • Runway Taxiway Holding bays Apron Bays/stands Runway lights Runway markings Navigational aids or NAVAIDS as NDB (Non directional beacon) DVOR DME Localizer Glide Path Outer marker A Runway is the basic requirement of an airport. The pavement where aircrafts land, roll and take off is called a runway. Regulations regarding the management and planning of runway is governed by ICAO SARP Annex-14. As per the guidelines the runway is properly painted with various markings and equipped with visual and instrumental aids. Runway lighting is extremely important for night time aircraft operation or in poor visibility weather conditions. There are three kind of light arrangements in and around the runway. • Approach lighting systems • Visual glide slope indicators • Runway end identifiers The major function of taxiways is to provide access for aircraft to travel to and from the runways to other areas of the airport. Taxiways are identified as • Parallel taxiways • Entrance taxiways • Bypass taxiways • Exit taxiways A parallel taxiway is aligned parallel to an adjacent runway. Exit and Entrance taxiways are typically oriented perpendicular to the runway or the parallel taxiway. Entrance taxiways are located near the departure end of runways; exit taxiways are located at various points along the runway to allow landing aircraft to efficiently exit the runway after landing. By pass taxiways are located at areas of congestion at busy airports. They allow aircraft bypass other aircraft parked on the parallel or entrance taxiways in order to reach the runway for take-off. Taxiway markings: The taxiway centerline is a single continuous yellow line, 6 to 12 inches in width. Taxiway edge marking is continuous markings consisting of a continuous double yellow line, with each line being 6 inches in width spaced 6 inches apart. 32
  • 34. Taxiway lighting: Many airports are equipped with taxiway lighting to facilitate the movement of aircraft on the airfield at night or in poor visibility conditions. Taxiway lighting includes taxiway edge lights, taxiway centerlines lights, clearance bar lights, runway guard lights and stop bar lights. These light emit blue light. Clearance bar lights are installed at holding positions on taxiways in order to increase the conspicuity of the holding position in low visibility conditions. Clearance bars consists of three inpavement steady burning yellow lights. Runway Guard lights are installed at intersections of runways and taxiways. They are either a pair of elevated flashing yellow lights installed on either side of the taxiway or a row of in-pavement yellow lights installed across the entire runway, at the runway holding position marking. Stop bar lights are used to confirm instructions form air traffic controller’s clearance to enter or cross an active runway in low-visibility conditions. NAVIGATIONAL AIDS • NDB (Non Directional Beacon) • ADF (Automatic Direction Finder) • VOR (VHF Omni-directional Range) • DME (Distance Measuring Equipment) • ILS (Instrument Landing System) Many general aviation-type airplanes are equipped with automatic direction finder (ADF) radio receiving equipment. To navigate using the ADF, the pilot tunes the receiving equipment to a ground station known as a NONDIRECTIONAL RADIOBEACON (NDB). The NDB stations normally operate in a low or medium frequency band of 200 to 415 kHz. One of the older types of radio navigation is the automatic direction finder (ADF) or nondirectional beacon (NDB). The ADF receiver, a "backup" system for the VHF equipment, can be used when line-of-sight transmission becomes unreliable or when there is no VOR equipment on the ground or in the aircraft. It is used as a means of identifying positions, receiving low and medium frequency voice communications, homing, tracking, and for navigation on instrument approach procedures ADF (Automatic Direction Finder) is the radio signals in the low to medium frequency band of 190 Khz. to 1750 Khz. It was widely used today. It has the major advantage over VOR navigation in the reception is not limited to line of sight distance. The ADF signals follow the curvature of the earth. The maximum of distance is depend on the power of the beacon. The ADF can receives on both AM radio station and NDB (Non-Directional Beacon). Commercial AM radio stations broadcast on 540 to 1620 Khz. Non-Directional Beacon operate in the frequency band of 190 to 535 Khz. 33
  • 35. A non-directional (radio) beacon (NDB) is a radio transmitter at a known location, used as an aviation or marine navigational aid. NDB signals follow the curvature of the earth, so they can be received at much greater distances at lower altitudes, a major advantage over VOR. Non Directional Beacon (NDB) is used in conjunction with Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) in the cockpit. The NDB equipment is installed at en-route areas as well as on the airports to provide navigational guidance to the pilot. It must be used together with ADF-Automatic Direction Finder VOR, short for VHF omnidirectional radio range, is a type of radio navigation system for aircraft. A VOR ground station broadcasts a VHF radio composite signal including the station's identifier, voice (if equipped), and navigation signal. The identifier is morse code. VOR is the primary navigational aid (NAVAID) used by civil aviation in the National Airspace System (NAS). VOR ground installations are strategically located along air routes and airport to ensure continuity of guidance. When military tactical air navigation (TACAN) equipment is installed with the VOR, it is known as a VORTAC. Distance measuring equipment (DME) is a transponder-based radio navigation technology that measures distance by timing the propagation delay of VHF or UHF radio signals. The DME system is to provide continuous and accurate indication of the slant range distance (expressed in nautical miles) of an equipped ground reference point (i,e ground DME facility). The DME system is composed of a UHF transmitter/receiver (interrogator) in the aircraft and a UHF receiver/transmitter (transponder) on the ground. A low-power DME can also be co-located with an ILS glide slope or localizer where it provides an accurate distance function. An instrument landing system (ILS) is a ground-based instrument approach system that provides precision guidance to an aircraft approaching and landing on a runway, using a combination of radio signals and, in many cases, high-intensity lighting arrays to enable a safe landing .The first scheduled passenger airliner to land using ILS was in 1938. To guide the pilot during the approach and landing. It is very helpful when visibility is limited and the pilot cannot see the airport and runway. To provide an aircraft with a precision final approach. 34
  • 36. ILS consists of Ground Installations and Airborne Equipments • There are 3 equipments for Ground Installations, which are: 1. 2. Ground Glide path (GP) Antenna – To provide vertical navigation 3. • Ground Localizer (LLZ) Antenna – To provide horizontal navigation Marker Beacons – To enable the pilot cross check the aircraft‟s height. There are 2 equipments for Airborne Equipments, which are: 1. LLZ and GP antennas located on the aircraft nose. 2. ILS indicator inside the cockpit Landside Landside Services is For Passengers operations facilities associated with the Movement ofpassengers and Baggage. 35
  • 37. Passenger’s Movement Check-in Airport Check-in are service counters found at commercial airports handling commercial air travel. The check-in is normally handled by an airline or a handling agent working on behalf of an airline. Passengers usually hand over any baggage they do not wish or are not allowed to carry-on to the aircraft's cabin and receive a boarding pass before they can proceed to board their aircraft Immigration Duties Immigration responsible for: Monitor persons who leave or enter the country, Checking for appropriate documentation, Arresting people wanted by international arrest warrants. Block the entry of dangerous people to the country Security Checks One of the most important security measures at an airport is confirming the identity of travelers. This is done by checking a photo ID, such as a driver's license. If you are travelling internationally, you need to present your passport Flow Chart of Passenger Disembarking 36
  • 38. Custom Duties The processing of people, carriers, cargo, and mail into and out of the country.(including animals & hazardous items) The proper collection of taxes, fees, penalties for imported items. The prohibition of narcotics and illegal drugs. BAGGAGE HANDLING Goals of the system Deliver each bag individually – including transfers – automatically from check-in or the unloading of the aircraft to the outward bound aircraft or baggage claim Maximum delivery times: Wide body aircraft – 30 minutes Narrow body aircraft – 20 minutes Designed to allow transport of baggage anywhere within the airport to or from the main terminal within 10 minutes Must move the baggage at a rate => the rate at which travelers move Deliver over 1000 bags per minute Baggage Handling Principles Minimize the number of handling operations Baggage handling system consistent with the aircraft movement characteristics (type of passenger, size of aircraft, frequency of flights). Avoid turns & level changes. Ensure that the conveyor belt slopes do not exceed 15 deg. Avoid baggage flow crossing passenger flows, aircraft flows, & air freight flows. Place baggage sorting areas nearby to the apron. Security Considerations In Terminal Design 1. Building design separates airside from groundside 2. Security Screening Requirements 3. Baggage Screening Requirements 4. Terminal Surveillance 5. Separation of Domestic from International Passengers 37
  • 39. Airport Ground Access Plans Key Considerations: Entry and Exit Road System Parking – for passengers, staff, car rentals, shuttle buses, taxis, etc Curbside drop-off pickup Public Transit Rail Systems Baggage Handling Process DCVs Metal cart with wheels on the bottom and a plastic tub on top (mounted on a pivot) that tilts into three positions for automatically loading, carrying and unloading baggage Ride on a metal track like a roller coaster Travel up to 24 mph Slow to 4.5 mph for loading and 8.5 mph for unloading Photo-electric sensors trigger laser scanner when DCV is present and associate the bag with the DCV Located every 150 to 200 feet of track Data from scanners is transmitted to a computer that translates it by using a look up table to match the flight number with the appropriate gate 38
  • 40. CONCLUSION T his Assignmentis some example for a person that in Aviation Professionals Field can manage to ensure you are up to date with Management in aviation profession . Therefore this are not that detail, but nevertheless can give you some idea what is Airport Operations. This scrapbook are from my point of view. Hope You Enjoy reading Happy Landing 39
  • 41. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. For Books: Author(s) Year AMC KPMC KPMC MAS 2010 2011 2011 2003 Title City Publisher Airport Management Last Semester Notes Last Semester Assignment & Presentation Previous Job Experience 2. For Educated Person and Other Periodicals: Name(s) Zulianabt Ismail (AMC) Mejar Maya Marimuthu Mr. Valli KL KL KL KL AMC KPMC KPMC MAS Position Lecturer Lecturer Lecturer 40