Geografia English Minerals 2


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Geografia English Minerals 2

  1. 1. Minerals
  2. 2. How Some Minerals Form <ul><li>mineral: always a solid material with particles arranged in a repeating pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the pattern is called a crystal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>almost all minerals are made from material that was never alive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>true minerals only form in nature </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>diamonds form in Earth’s mantle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high heat and pressure change carbon into hard, sparkling crystals called diamonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diamonds have many uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>some are cut and shaped to make jewelry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most are used on cutting tools such as drills and saws </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>calcite can form near Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>calcite can form in the ocean when calcium, oxygen, and carbon combine in sea water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some ocean animals form calcite shells or other body parts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>calcite also forms as water evaporates in limestone caves </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>galena crystals form when hot, mineral rich water moves slowly through cracks in Earth’s crust, mixing with other minerals before it cools and evaporates </li></ul>
  6. 6. Some Mineral Properties <ul><li>streak: color of the powder left behind when you rub a mineral against a white tile called a streak plate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usually the streak is the same color as the mineral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chalcopyrite looks shiny black but streaks gold </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>luster: the way the surface of a mineral reflects light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some minerals look shiny - metallic luster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some minerals look dull/dark - nonmetallic luster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sparkling appearance of a diamond is known as a brilliant luster </li></ul></ul><ul><li>hardness: a mineral’s ability to resist being scratched </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moh’s hardness scale lists minerals that have hardness from 1 to 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a mineral with a higher number can scratch a mineral with a lower number </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. How We Use Minerals <ul><li>some minerals can be used in the same form as they have in nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>silver and copper can be used to make musical instruments, electric wire, jewelry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gypsum can be used to make plaster and wallboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>graphite can be used in pencils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>halite (table salt) can be use to flavor and preserve food </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>silver is a soft metal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hardness of 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mixed with other metals to make jewelry or musical instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>hematite is made of iron and oxygen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hardness of 5 - 6.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>important source of the iron used to make steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>steel beams used to make tall buildings strong </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>diamond is the hardest natural substance found on Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hardness of 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used to make jewelry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diamonds not good enough for jewelry used on drills that dig deep into Earth’s crust </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>some minerals are not useful in their natural form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>need to be refined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cuprite is made of copper and oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>when cuprite is refined the copper is used in pennies, pots, pans, and water pipes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Summary <ul><li>some minerals form in Earth’s mantle and others form at or near the Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>minerals can be identified by their properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>streak, hardness, and luster </li></ul></ul><ul><li>minerals have many uses </li></ul>
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