Geografia English Minerals 1

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  • 1. Minerals
  • 2. What is a Mineral?
    • Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure
    Pyromorphite
  • 3. What do all minerals have in common?
      • All:
        • Are formed by natural processes.
        • Are NOT alive and NEVER were alive
        • Have a definite volume and shape
        • Are elements or compounds with a unique chemical makeup
        • Are made up of particles that are arranged in a pattern that is repeated over and over (called a CRYSTAL )
  • 4.
    • Watch “Crystals” by Brainpop…
      • .What element are diamonds made from?
      • . What do all crystals have in common?
  • 5. Groups of Minerals
    • Minerals are grouped by the elements they are made of.
    Amethyst Beryl (Emerald) Calcite
  • 6. MICA Quartz Quartz, mica
    • Contain oxygen & silica
    • The most abundant group of minerals
    Silicates Examples Characteristics Mineral Group
  • 7. Silver Gold Ruby Iron Copper Diamond iron, copper, gold, silver, diamonds, rubies
    • Make up only 5% of the Earth’s crust
    • Include some of the most important minerals
    Non-Silicates Examples Characteristics Mineral Group
  • 8. Calcite with Duftite inclusions Calcite (CaCO 3 )
    • Carbon & oxygen and a positive ion, such as calcium
    Carbonates Examples Characteristics Mineral Group
  • 9. Hematite (Fe 2 )O 3
    • Metallic ion and oxygen
    Oxides Examples Characteristics Mineral Group
  • 10. Galena (PbS)
    • Sulfur and a metallic ion
    Sulfides Examples Characteristics Mineral Group
  • 11. Barite on Calcite BaSo4 / CaCO3 Barite BaSo4 Barite (BaSO 4 )
    • Metallic ion, Sulfur & oxygen
    Sulfates Examples Characteristics Mineral Group
  • 12. Gold (Au), Diamond (C), Silver (Ag)
    • Single elements
    Native Elements Examples Characteristics Mineral Group
  • 13. How do minerals form?
    • 1) Cooling of magma (hot, liquid rock and minerals inside the earth (from the mantle))
      • Fast Cooling = No Crystals (mineraloids)
      • Medium Cooling = small crystals
      • Slow Cooling = large crystals
  • 14. How do minerals form?
    • 2) Elements dissolved in liquids (usually water)
  • 15. Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral)
    • Color
    • Can be misleading
    • Can vary with the type of impurities
  • 16. Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral)
    • Luster
    • Surface reflection
    • metallic = shiny like metal
    • non-metallic = dull, non-shiny surface
    Pyrite has a metallic luster Calcite has a non-metallic luster
  • 17. Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral)
    • Streak
    • The color of the powdered form of the mineral
    • The color of the streak can be different than the mineral
    • Minerals must be softer than the streak plate
  • 18. Streak…can help identify quartz BUT... http://www.childrensmuseum.org/geomysteries/cube/b3.html
  • 19. Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral)
    • Hardness
    • How easily a mineral scratches materials
    • Mohs Hardness Scale
        • Scale from 1 ( softest ) to 10 ( hardest )
        • Test by seeing if the mineral can scratch different objects (like human fingernail, copper, penny, glass, steel file)
  • 20. Find out more…
    • “ Electronic” Hardness Test
    • http://www.childrensmuseum.org/geomysteries/cube/b2.html
  • 21. Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral)
    • Cleavage & Fracture
      • The way the mineral breaks
      • Cleavage —minerals break along smooth , flat surfaces and every fragment has the same general shape
      • Fracture —minerals that break at random with rough or jagged edges
  • 22.  
  • 23. Cleavage or Fracture? 1. 4. 3. 2.
  • 24. Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral)
    • Other Properties
      • Specific gravity (*excellent clue to mineral’s identity)
      • Attraction to magnets
      • Bending of light
      • Reaction with hydrochloric acid
      • Smell & taste
    http://www.childrensmuseum.org/geomysteries/cube/b4.html
  • 25.
    • Watch Brainpop—“Mineral Identification”
      • . If a mineral can scratch your fingernail, the mineral is _______________ than your fingernail.
      • 2. What is luster?
  • 26. Watch Classifying Minerals Clip
  • 27. What is a gem?
    • A Mineral OR Rock that has value
    • Rare !
    • Sometimes polishing or cutting will add value