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Research & proposal Research & proposal Presentation Transcript

  • Research & Research paperIn modern times, a person’s academic worth equates with number of papers they have “authored” Prof. Dr. Padma Bahadur Shahi School of Engineering Pokhara University 1
  • Myself:Ph. D.: Moscow State Automobile & RoadConstruction Institute (Technical University)-1998 University)-Post Doc researcher: Kyoto University, Japan(2003-(2003-2005)Awarded by:– Mahendra Vidhya Bhusan Ka & Kha– Young Scientist Award by RONAST-2057 RONAST-– Ratriya Pratibha Purasker-2058 Purasker-Professional experience:– Teaching & research (TU, Purb. U, PU) Purb.– Consulting expert for ADB, World Bank, Government ProjectsPresently Supervising a Ph. D student
  • Presentation ContentResearchResearch ProposalTechnical PaperPresentation Tips
  • Are there any relations?Science Teaching Research
  • Open the Video Clip about…..
  • Research?
  • Research?
  • Achievement?
  • What is Research? The word research derives from the French word ‘recherche’: “to search” Research is an active, diligent, and systematic process of inquiry aimed at discovering, interpreting, and revising facts. It is an entire collection of information about a particular subject, and is related to the output of science and the scientific methods. 9 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • Research types E xploratory Constructive Research E m pirical 10 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • Types Exploratory: Exploratory: – It has not clearly defined problem. problem. – Example: reviewing existing literature/data etc. Example: etc. – Results are not directly used for decision making, but can provide significant insight into the situation. situation. Constructive research: research: – Generally it is based on computer science research method – New contribution to be developed: theory, algorithm, developed: framework etc. etc. Empirical: Empirical: – Findings are derived directly or indirectly from observation as its test of reality. reality. 11 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • What are the research methods? Action research: it can be done for our own practice. Cartography: use of map function for spatial data. Case study: taking only single event or instance. Classification: Experience Experiment Interview Mathematical model Participant observation Simulation: it is an imitation of some real thing, state of affairs, or process. Statistical analysis 12 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • Test de la banane: 13Shahi Click here! 3/9/2013
  • “If you would understand anything, observe its beginning and its development.”— development.”—Aristotle 14Shahi 3/9/2013
  • Some thing about Teaching & teacher Open another slide show
  • Research proposal?What is proposal?Why necessary?How to write? 16Shahi 3/9/2013
  • Why Research Proposals (RP)? Any new actions are started with the proposal of some body. body. Every project starts from a proposal…… proposal…… For Academic/research degree: degree: For getting research grants from Universities, Industries, Gov/NGO and other agencies. agencies. 17 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • Research proposal: It is intended to convince others that: that: – you have a worthwhile research project; project; – you have the competency; competency; – you have work-plan to complete it. work- it. It must include: include: – What you plan to accomplish ? – Why you want to do? – How to do? 18 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • Research proposal:….. It should have sufficient information to convince your readers/ assessors. assessors. Always remember: remember: – “quality of your research proposal depends not only on the quality of your proposed project, but also on the quality of your proposal writing” 19P.B. Shahi 3/9/2013
  • Content of a Research proposal: Title What is Title? How to formulate title? – Should be stated in terms of a functional relationship between independent and dependent variables. variables. Make any two titles of subject of interest: interest:
  • Introduction: (logical framework)– State the research problem– Purpose of the study– provide the context: context:– Clearly explain: why it is worth doing. explain: doing.– Describe briefly issues to be addressed by your research. research.– Identify the key independent and dependent variables of your experiment. experiment.– State hypothesis or theory. theory.– Set boundary of your proposed research. research.– Provide definitions of key concept. concept.– Keep in mind that you are telling a story to an audience; audience; do not bore them
  • Content of a Research proposal (continuous….) Literature review (Sometime it is incorporated into introduction section) – Ensure that you are not “reinventing the wheel” – Give credits to those who have laid the ground for your research. – Demonstrate your ability to identify the research theme. – Demonstrate your ability to critically evaluate literature information – Try the integrate and synthesize the existing literature. – Develop new model as conceptual framework of the research work. – Convince your reader that proposed research will make a significant contribution to the literature and science 22 3/9/2013
  • Content of a Research proposal (continuous….) Methods – It should provide work plan and describe the activities necessary for the completion of the research. research. – Design the method of research: research: field observation/questionnaire survey/lab experiment/…. experiment/… – Describe participants and type of sampling. sampling. – Define measuring instruments or questionnaires and conform their validity and reliability. reliability. – Mention the plan to carry out the research schedule of activities and time period to be carried out. out. 23 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • Content of a Research proposal (continuous….) Discussion – Note down the possible results of proposed research. research. – Express your confidence to complete it – Mention the future scope; limitations of scope; the research project. project. – Justify all the activities by time and financial constraints. constraints. 24 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • How to write a technical Paper?A question…..Teacher: Which is the oldest animalin world?Respondent: ZEBRATeacher: How?Respondent: Bcoz it is ………..
  • The structure of a Typical Technical Paper IntroductionRelated works System Model Problem Statement Your Solution Analysis simulation Experimentation Conclusion Future Work 26 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • Basic Structure of a paper 1. Introduction (What question was asked?) 2. Methods (How was it studied?) 3. Results (What was found?) 4. Discussion & Conclusion (What do the finding means?) 27 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • 1. Introductions• It gives the background on and motivation for your research, establishing its importance.• It gives a summary and outline of your paper. It should be short and arresting Should answer the question: why have you undertaken the study? Clarify what your work adds some thing new. Follow the advice of publishers for about the format. Make sure that what you are aware of earlier studies. Think about using journalistic tricks 28 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • 1. Introductions (continuous….)Effective introduction: Know your audience Keep it short Explain why it’s important Convinces readers that it is better than what was gone before Try to hook them in the first line 29 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • 2. MethodsIt should describe:– Logical sequence of your study process– How you analyze your data 30Shahi 3/9/2013
  • 2. Methods (continuous….) Testing Hypotheses – For descriptive study: who, what, why, when, where? – For Research: should state exactly what hypothesis was tested Null hypothesis (significant test for given possibility) Statistics Design: how the sampling was done? – Participants and materials for laboratory test 31 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • 2. Methods (continuous….) Good “Methods” should explain: explain: – Does the text describes what question was being asked? – What was being tested? – How trustworthy the measurement of the variable under consideration would be? – Were these measurements recorded, analyzed, and interpreted correctly? – Would a suitable qualified reader be able to repeat the experiment in the same way? 32 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • 3. The results This section should answer the question: question: – What was found? It doesn’t contain data or statement that requires referencing. referencing. It is composed of words, summarizing tables, illustrations, statistics to support the statement. statement. Start chronologically, and continue logically to the end. end. 33 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • 3. The Results (continuous…) The words: words: – Start this section by characterizing the participants and objects of your study. study. – Continue it by presenting the answer the main questions. questions. – Dress one topic per paragraph – Differentiate clearly between data and results. 34 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • 3. The Results (continuous…)– Consider revised version of the same result– Emphasize most important results: as a results: topic sentence– Do not use table headings or figure legends as topic sentence– Report the results of discrete events in Past tense, and descriptive nature in the present tense– Avoid the use of quantitative words
  • 3. The Results (continuous…) Tables and Illustrations – Strong visual impact and easy to comprehend. comprehend. – Table & illustration title should be in brief. brief. – Always follow the “instructions to the authors” for specific journal – Figure legends should be placed next to the figure. figure. – Republishing figures needs permission from Shahi the copyright holder 36 3/9/2013
  • 3. The Results (continuous…) The statistics – Statistics must accompany data. data. – Always sample size and probability value – Do not list the data to a greater degree of accuracy than that of the measurement. measurement. 37 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • 4. DiscussionGetting started: Answer the question: so what? Begin with the summary, of the work. Explain: Why your study is unique? – (this study is unique…is special….) Do try to repeat the sentences from “Introduction”. Give the reason why your own data are firmer. 38 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • 4. Discussion (continuous….)Stating your case: Refer to your own results (without repeating) in terms of: of: – What they add to the body of knowledge? – How they are advance to understand the subject matter? Deal with the practical lessons to be learnt. learnt. Shahi 39 3/9/2013
  • 4. Discussion (continuous….)Finishing up : Use the combinations such: such: (perhaps… (perhaps….; possibly….; possibly… more research is needed…; here’s another needed… problem solved….) solved…Avoiding pitfalls : Conclusions should be backed by the data. 40
  • 4. Discussion (continuous….) Three ways of ending: – Problem solved – More research needed – Uncertainty remains At the last of the discussion, you ,may need to enter acknowledgements to those who enabled the project successful 41 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • 42Shahi 3/9/2013
  • Titles It should encourage the reader to read on Concise an precise Informative and descriptive Specific As brief as possible while conveying essential features of the article’s content Words appropriate for classification Shahi 43 3/9/2013
  • Titles (continuous……) Tip for developing a title: title: – Describe your paper in two or three sentences. sentences. – Precise these sentences: remove unnecessary occurrences of sentences: “as” and “the” as well as any references to the results. results. – Now write a draft title. title. – Review this. Perhaps try the technique of “a title in two this. parts”, for example:….. example: – Check it: it: Is it accurate? Is it in any way misleading? Does it contain essential keywords? Is it interesting? 44 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • Abstracts Usually they are the only part of the paper freely available via electronic search engines and are read by many people than the rest of the paperSome tips to write Abstract: Start to write the paper with the abstract. Check for maximum number of words (200-300 words) Check for sense: ask to a colleague who is not involved in the research to read it. Do they understand your massage? Check for consistency: it should describe your message briefly and accurately. Compare it with the paper. Remember: more people read the abstract than the whole paper. 45 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • AuthorsAuthors are writers: “rarely there is a single author of a scientific paper”Authorship is shared with others. However many authors are neither theoriginator nor the write of the paper, but they are all essential to the team,to the development of ideas, to the technical input, to the interpretation ofresults. Some tips: tips: – Discuss early about contribution for the paper. paper. – Ask everyone to write down their contribution. contribution. – Agree contributions. contributions. – Agree order of contributors. contributors. – Agree who should be acknowledged. acknowledged. 46 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • 8. References References are the foundation on which the paper is built. They provide scientific background that justifies the research you have undertaken and methods you have used.Reference format: Journal article: article: – Surname and initials of authors. Full title of paper. authors. paper. Title of journal, year of publication; Volume publication; number: number: first and last page numbers of article. article. Book or monograph: monograph: – Surname and initial of authors. Full title of book. authors. book. Number of edition. Town of publication: Publisher, edition. publication: year of publication. Shahi publication. 47 3/9/2013
  • Is this possible? 48 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • What is Technical paper?Technical Paper is for:1. For attending a conference.2. Contains more detailed data, figures, and discussion.3. Many people refer this as more important and permanentliterature.4. More easily found by future researchers.5. Selected by committee, based on abstract of the paper.6. If technical society has a journal, may also be publishedthere.7. Lead time to publication may be long.8. Audience reached may be very small.9. Only selected readers probably understands terminology. 49 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • Bibliography How to write a paper. Edited by George M. Hall, paper. BMJ Books, London, 2004 Patrick Valduriez, Projet Rodin INRIA. Some Hints INRIA. to Improve Writing of Technical Papers. France Papers. 1994. 1994. Ron Dusterhoft, Halliburton, and Jim Giddens. How Giddens. To Write Technical Papers and Journal Articles. Articles. Valley Forge Technical Information Services.Services. Houston, USA. USA. Georgios Varsamopoulos. How to Write a Technical Varsamopoulos. Paper: Paper: Structure and Style of the Epitome of your Research. Research. Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Arizona State University, Arizona, USA 50 Shahi 3/9/2013
  • Thanks a lot for your attention 51Shahi 3/9/2013