A simple data muling protocol

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A simple data muling protocol

  1. 1. A simple data-muling protocol** Pablo Basanta Val Marisol García-Valls Miguel Baza-Cuñado http://www.it.uc3m.es/drequiem/ **Accepted in IEEE Transactions on Industrial informatics (I.F.: 3.1).
  2. 2. Outline • Introduction • The D&U Data-Muling Protocol – Constraints &Model – Discovery and Updates • D&U Evaluation – Mote characterization – Benchmark Results • Conclusions JTR 2014 2
  3. 3. Introduction • Traditional industrial infrastructures were wired – There a trend towards wireless infrastructures (IWSNs) – Future industrial infrastructures would be hybrid (wired+wireless) • In addition to wired and wireless, infrastructures may extend wired and wireless with data-muling – To have a more flexible infrastructure JTR 2014 3
  4. 4. Wired, Wireless and Data-Muling in an Industrial Infrastructure • Potentiality: – Versatility in supporting different applications – Data-muling in industrial infrastructures (e.g. a train) is more predictable than in general (random muling behaviour of people) scenarios JTR 2014 4
  5. 5. Some challenges for industrial datamuling [CH1] Resource constraints related to energy, memory and CPU - Mules and motes may have energy constraints and run on embedded devices [CH2] Topology problems and environmental issues. - Networks that appear and disappear dynamically [CH3] Quality of service requirements [CH4] Redundancy [CH5] Security [CH6] Deployment and ad-hoc integration [CH7] Internet integration. - Access from other higher order networks This work is mainly concerned with CH1 CH2 and CH7. JTR 2014 5
  6. 6. D&U Data Mulling Protocol Bounds and Limitations • Actors: 1) motes, 2) host nodes and 3) the mules • Communications – Intermittent communications and no direct vision among different motes • Energy constraints – In the mule but not in the motes (they have a supply source) JTR 2014 6
  7. 7. D&U Data Mulling Protocol The protocol • Periodically, the mote looks for other nodes with sleep periods JTR 2014 7
  8. 8. D&U Data Mulling Protocol Node Discovery subprotocol JTR 2014 8
  9. 9. D&U Data Mulling Protocol Basic Data Update (of b and a) in the D&U protocol • Two steps for downloading data: – Clock synchronization for each mule to mote interaction – Data transmission JTR 2014 9
  10. 10. D&U Data Mulling Protocol data model • Communication model: -A distributed data table with motes that read and write data -Synchronized by the mule JTR 2014 10
  11. 11. D&U Data Mulling Protocol Data freshness JTR 2014 11
  12. 12. Implementation hardware • The mule and the mote run the same hardware – On Java’s SunSPOT – Software modified to run more efficiently Description CPU ARM920T -32 bits (ARMv4) at 180MHz Memory S71PL032J40 Mem 512 KBytes pSRAM and 4 Mbytes NOR Flash Network Battery I/O ports TI CC2420 at 2,4 GHz (IEEE 802.15.4) Li-ION de 3,7V (720 mAh) 1 x USB 1.1/2.0, 2 x UARTs, 5 x general purpose I/O Ports 802.15.4 Tx pot.=-3dbm and freq 26 (2480 Mhz) setup Max transmission distance= 10 meters API Clock access and battery access via API facilities Send/Receive data via connections or diffusion (802.15.4) JTR 2014 Energy model of the mote Mode Consumption (mAh) 70-120 mAh 24 mAh Run mode Shallow-sleep mode Deep sleep mode 32 µAh Mote Wakeup 70-120 mAh time Duration 6-10 hours 30 hours 22500 hours 10 ms (max) 12
  13. 13. Implementation software stack and protocols JTR 2014 13
  14. 14. Empirical evaluation General issues Based on the iLAND project and other internal real-time Java benchmarks JTR 2014 14
  15. 15. Empirical evaluation Mote characteristics: data rate and energy costs JTR 2014 15
  16. 16. Empirical evaluation Mote characteristics: mule speed • The maximum update time in ideal conditions - clocks perfectly synchronized - Mote detected as soon as the mote is in the 10 meters range. JTR 2014 16
  17. 17. Empirical evaluation Mote characteristics: maximum data transferred • non-feasible area – 1 mote and 1 mule at 330 km/h – 128 motes with a mule at 5km/h. • Original vs. D&U protocol – 25% of additional motes JTR 2014 17
  18. 18. Empirical evaluation Mote characteristics: battery profile • With (TIUmin=1 hour) and (TIDmin=1 second) – 18000 hours of operation – Ideal data-mulling add 15% of energy JTR 2014 18
  19. 19. Benchmark Memory in the mule • Infeasibility area - 512 bytes sampling period of 2.5 minutes - with 1 byte and 10 milliseconds) • Idealized version may add 100% to 190% additional motes JTR 2014 19
  20. 20. Benchmark Time in the mule • Feasibility area – 1byte-2us intra period – 512 bytes-2 ms intra period range • With an idealized protocol you may add 20% to 190% more motes JTR 2014 20
  21. 21. Benchmark Energy in the mule bound • The mule may recharge in each round • Infea • sibility area - [1 byte each 3µs] - [512 bytes each second] • The Ideal data-muling protocol improves by 25% to 197% JTR 2014 21
  22. 22. Conclusions and ongoing work • Proposed a new communications protocol – Called the D&U protocol that runs on IEEE 802.15.4 • Evaluation results highlight the importance of having save energy strategies – Identified an idealized protocol • Ongoing work – To extend this results to other protocols – E.g. 802.11 and DPWS, UPnP JTR 2014 22
  23. 23. http://www.it.uc3m.es/drequiem/ JTR 2014 23

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