Role of Research in Policy Making (in terms of policy research)


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Role of Research in Policy Making (in terms of policy research)

  1. 1. Pabitra Gurung, PhD Student Presentation for the course NRES-803 Natural Resources and Environmental Studies (NRES) University of Northern British Columbia Prince George, BC, CANADA Role of Research in Policy Making (in terms of policy research)
  2. 2.  Policy Formulation Process  Experience-based Policy Making  Evidence-based Policy Making  Policy Research  Problems: Linking Research to Policy  Conclusions  Discussion Questions Outline
  3. 3. Policy Formulation Process
  4. 4. Stages of Policy Formulation Process 1. Developing the Policy Agenda 2. Identifying the Specific Objectives & Policy Options 3. Evaluating the Options 4. Advancing Recommendations 5. Building a Consensus 6. Legislation 7. Implementation 8. Policy Evaluation & Impact Assessment Important stages where research results can be feed into process the right information, in the right form, at the right time
  5. 5. Politics and Policy making Media, Advocacy, Networking Research, learning & thinking Factors which Influence Policy Formulation Process Political context Links Evidence External Influence External Influence Campaigning & Lobbying Policy analysis & research Scientific information exchange & validation
  6. 6. Local Innovation System Immergence in innovation facilitation and realization Experience-based Policy Making Local Policies National Policies International Policies Provide interaction with international policy making Connecting national policies to local innovation system
  7. 7. Policy makers access and use research to inform policy How evidence-based is policy? Evidence-based Policy Making Evidence-based policy contributes to development Demand Policy makers have incentives to access and use research Why use research? Policy makers have capacity to access and use research How evidence-literate are policy makers? Supply Relevant research is effectively communicated to policy makers How well connected are policy makers and research? How well is research communicated to policy makers?
  8. 8. Policy Research Policy Research is a special type of research that can provide communities and decision-makers with useful recommendations and possible actions for resolving fundamental problems. Policy Makers Government Universities Policy Organizations Individuals Private Sectors Community Organizations Special Interest Groups Lobbying Groups Voluntary Sector Pragmatic Action-oriented Recommendations Issues Questions Problems
  9. 9. Type of Policy Research 1. CASE STUDIES Analyze experiences of organizations or communities 4. SURVEYS Identify opinions and concerns of peoples and community through questionnaires or polls 6. QUALITATIVE METHODS Analyze narrative data from focus groups, interviews, observation 2. FIELD EXPERIMENTS Analyze gather data and information; Monitor and evaluate impacts 7. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS Compare cost and benefit of alternative policy options 3. SECONDARY ANALYSIS Statistical examination of data from the databases 5. REVIEW OF RESEARCH Based on research findings: articles, discussions, experiences, memoranda POLICY RESEARCH
  10. 10. Major Sources of Information in Policy Research 1. SPECIALIZED POLICY UNIT Policy & Planning Departments of the Government 4. ACADEMIC COMMUNITY Universities/Research Institute (Source of Knowledge) 6. POLLS Public opinion on specific topics 2. OFFICIAL STATISTICS Data on the economic and political aspects of society 7. MEDIA Newspapers, Radio, Television, Internet 3. THINK TANKS NGOs that engage in the study of public policy 5. TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE Accumulated knowledge passed from generation to generation SOURCES OF INFORMATION
  11. 11. How Policy Research can be used in Policy Making? - Identify specific issues or problem - Influence policy making process Recognizing Problems and Identifying Issues - Monitor and evaluate impacts - Answer questions - Identify areas for improvement - Refine solutions Monitoring Process and Evaluating Impact - Implement strategies - Gather evidence to support proposed solutions Supporting a Selected Plan of Action - Identify key policy issues - Identify potential solutions Understanding Key Issues RESEARCH FOR THE POLICY MAKING PROCESS
  12. 12. Problems: Linking Research to Policy Importance & Acknowledgement of Research Pragmatic & Data Reliability Participation of Key Stakeholders Information Accessibility & Interpretation Simplicity & Translation Level of Understanding Copy and Paste Scope and Target External Influences
  13. 13. Conclusions  Research can play a major role in the policy making process, so that the focus should be on policy research  Policy research will be effective for the sustainable development national or local level  Participation of different stakeholders and community is required to address the specific issues and problems  The academic and policy makers should work together for evidence-based policy making.  Policy brief is essential for policy maker  Concise and readable abstracts or summaries in simpler language Therefore, researchers and policy-makers need to cooperate closely to understand specific needs, ensure relevance of topics, and improve communication, dissemination and implementation of the research recommendations.
  14. 14. Discussion Questions  Why research to policy?  What is the role of policy makers and researchers in the process of policy making?  How can the usefulness of research in policy making be increased?  How to make applied research policy-relevant?  What is the evidence in evidence-based policy making?
  15. 15. References Bach, T.; Niklasson, B.; Painter, M.; 2012. The role of agencies in policy-making. Policy and Society. 31: 183-193. Dukeshire, S.; Thurlow, J.; 2002. Understanding the Link Between Research and Policy. Rural Communities Impacting Policy Project. pp 18. Editorial; 2010. Reconsidering evidence-based policy: Key issues and challenges. Policy and Society. 29. 77-94. EUROPEAN COMMISSION; 2008. Scientific evidence for policy – making. Research Policy. Socio-Economic Sciences and Humanities. pp 31. Grebmer, K.V. Converting Policy Research into Policy Decisions: The Role of Communication and the Media. Unpublished Articles. pp 4. Henriques, L.; Laredo, P.; 2013. Policy-making in science policy: The ‘OECD model’ unveiled. Research Policy. 42: 801-816. Jones, B.; 2011. Linking Research to Policy: The African Development Bank as Knowledge Broker. Working Paper No. 131. African Development Bank. pp 36. Keohlmoos, T.; Rashid, M.; Rahman, Z.; Cravioto, A.; Hanney, S.; 2009. Understanding the Role of Evidence in Policy Making in Bangladesh. Report 1: An Analysis of Interviews with health Sector Decision Maker. ICDDR, B. pp 12. Kingdon, T.; 1993. The relevance of research to policy formulation: an Australian perspective. Addiction. 88. 61S-65S. Newman, K.; Capillo, A.; Famurewa, A.; Nath, C.; Siyanbola, W.; 2013. What is the evidence on evidence-informed policy making?. Lesson from the International Conference on Evidence-Informed Policy Making. INASP. pp 18. ODI; 2009. Helping researchers become policy entrepreneurs. Briefing paper 53. Overseas Development Institute. pp 4. UNCTAD, 2006. Research-Based Policy Making: Bridging the gap between researchers and policy makers. UNCTAD VIRTUAL INSTITUTE. pp 6. UNESCO, 2011. Research – Policy Linkages of Science – Related Ministries and Their Research Organizations. Economic
  16. 16. T H A N K Y O U