Kids are Commuters Too!The Mode Shift Potential of Walk to School Programs                   Wendy Landman                ...
Why do we need to better target SafeRoutes to School programs?
What are the ingredients of a “successful” SRTS modeshift p...
Brockton has:
1.  Enthusiasm2.  City buy in – including funding for SRTS efforts at    five participating schools3.  Terrifi...
What we learned…
•    The SRTS program is thus being delivered almost     entirely to students who live far away.•    It t...
Conditions vary hugely - we should pickplaces where we can have impact
•    Whelan School: 330 students living within ½ mi...
Back to the beginning:   Our Research Questions
 1.  Can we better target SRTS programs to achieve     mode shift, reach c...
Walkshed Assessments – Sample 1                            •  Lots of                               sidewalks             ...
Walkshed Assessments – Sample 2
                            •  Little street                               connectivity   ...
Community walksheds                       How much                       of the                       community           ...
How many children are there?
How many children are near schools?
How to target programs to children in need?                                 Because income                                ...
Assignment policies
•    Massachusetts does not maintain any consolidated     information on district assignment policies ...
Surveyed Districts                     We                     approached                     many                     dist...
Survey 
Instrument•  New, 6-question   school commute   survey•  Seven languages•  Pilot survey in two   schools•  On-line...
On-line tool, great in SOME districts
Sample Survey Results
Enormous range in commute patterns
Great variety in patterns
Great variety in patterns
Great variety in patterns
UnderstandingtheDifferencesUsing data tomake choices canlead to greatdifferences in thesuccess of modeshift programs
The Heart of the Matter
A few more details – which will help toinform program understanding andoptions 

Morning and afternoon commutes
Connected (chained) vs dedicated trips                           Trip chaining may                           make it more ...
Vehicle availability and mode choice                                 Fewer cars                                 translate ...
Distance and mode choice                            ½ mile                            walking                            d...
GHG emissions and school mode choiceEstimated Emissions and Cost of Auto School Commuting, by Surveyed District           ...
Molly O’Reilly, board member  www.americawalks.org
National Unified Voice for WalkingVision for a Walkable America  •  300+ organizations …  •  Steering Committee  •  D.C. A...
April-June, 2011
The National Walking Survey was acollaborative effort between America Walksand Hunter College ProfessorsPeter Tuckel (Soci...
Purpose: to examine attitudes and behaviors concerning walking ◦  Focus on frequent walkers           www.pedbikeimages.or...
On-line survey sponsored by America Walks  Partner Organizations:    AARP (participating state chapters)    Active Transp...
About the survey:  Survey conducted between April 27 & June 13  Publicized through       homepages       e-mails     ...
“I love it. Power walk 40 minutes a day outside...rain,   snow, or sleet...never miss it.”“Walking rocks! It is the best s...
Demographic profile                                Survey       U.S. ◦  Race      White, non-Hispanic       90.1%     67....
Frequency of Walking                              Frequency   Percent     ◦  Never                    33         0.5     ◦...
Walk Frequency by Age                                                 Frequent           Infrequent                       ...
Walk Frequency by Education
Length of Time a Person Has Been Walking                                Frequency   Percent     ◦  < 1 year               ...
Where Do People Walk?              Gym                     Treadmill at home        Mall              Parks/forests       ...
Source of Original Encouragement                                     Frequency   Percent     ◦    Family member           ...
Orientation toward Walking for Non-Pet Owners & Pet Owners     Non-Pet Owners                      Pet Owners             ...
Orientation toward Walking by Age                       (excludes pet owners)               18-24 25-30 31-44 45-64 65+   ...
What is a Walkable Neighborhood? There are many places to go within easy walking distance of my home.It is easy to walk to...
Walking and Walkability                                           Frequent walker        Infrequent walker                ...
“We moved to Baltimore Citys Federal Hill neighborhood  specifically because of its walkability.”“When deciding which neig...
Orientation toward Walking and Walkability                (excludes pet owners)                       Low         Medium  ...
Orientation toward Walking and Population Density                (excludes pet owners)                         Low        ...
Orientation and Duration of Walking (mins.)                   (excludes pet owners)               15 to < 30 30 to < 60 60...
Reasons for Walking     (percentage who answered very important)Walking helps me to maintain good health - - - - - - - - -...
“It is a win/win form of transportation.”“Walking helps me reduce my environmental impact.”“Gives me uninterrupted talk ti...
Type of Walker and Medical Conditions                                  Frequent Walkers            Infre-                 ...
Frequency of Walking and Medical Conditions                                Type of Walker             number of         Fr...
Walkability and Medical Conditions           Neighborhood walkability:     # of Medical Conditions   0       1   2   3+Res...
Physical Activities Besides Walking                Swimming      Tennis                Golf          Jogging              ...
Physical Activities Besides Walking: Frequent Walkers               number of Infrequent   Frequent                activit...
Physical Activities Besides Walking: Dog Walkers                    number of     Without    With                     acti...
Walkability and Physical Activities Besides Walking           number of                                 Walkability       ...
Reasons for Not Walking          (percentage who strongly agree)I am involved in other physical activities and do not feel...
“no sidewalks, speeding cars, and unrestrained dogs”“laziness!”“My girlfriend does not like walking that much.”“Theres no ...
Safety Problems for Walkers                                                       Very big   Somewhat of                  ...
“Drivers in my area do not give pedestrians the right of  way in cross walks.”“The greatest physical danger to frequent wa...
Transportation Used by Grade K – 8 Children   of Respondents (n=775)Automobile - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 31....
Transportation to School by Walkability                            Walkability of Neighborhood     Transportation         ...
Transportation to School and Parents’ Walking                                 Walking by Parents      Transportation      ...
    Only 6.6% heard or read about the benefits of     walking through the media.    Only 4.0% said that a health care pr...
    Among infrequent walkers, a higher percentage cite     “neighborhood” factors (e.g., not enough     sidewalks, speedi...
    Large percentages of respondents noted     infrastructure as a problem:     ◦  Unsmooth sidewalks (43.4%)     ◦  Lack...
    People in more walkable neighborhoods have a     fewer number of serious medical conditions. This     finding holds e...
Meet the needs of health/relaxation walkers    Make neighborhoods walkable     ◦  Nearby destinations     ◦  Connectivity...
    The medical community needs to advocate     walking with their patients one on one    Health/fitness messages need t...
    Messages need crafting for minority     populations and those less advantaged     ◦  Why walking is important     ◦  ...
Walking Action Network ◦  Steps to a Walkable Community ◦  Training and technical assistance ◦  Information Collection and...
Thank you…….
#81 Using Data and Survey Information to Guide Safe Routes to School Programs and Advocacy Strategies - Landman
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#81 Using Data and Survey Information to Guide Safe Routes to School Programs and Advocacy Strategies - Landman

  1. 1. Kids are Commuters Too!The Mode Shift Potential of Walk to School Programs Wendy Landman WalkBoston September 2012 ProWalk ProBike On twitter: @WalkBoston
  2. 2. Why do we need to better target SafeRoutes to School programs?
What are the ingredients of a “successful” SRTS modeshift program (separate from safety focused programs) –and have we been getting there?Brockton – One of WalkBostonʼsfavorite urban, lower income municipalpartners, and what we learned from ourresearch…
  3. 3. Brockton has:
1.  Enthusiasm2.  City buy in – including funding for SRTS efforts at five participating schools3.  Terrific leadership from school department wellness coordinator 4.  Participation by police, local semi-pro sports teams, terrific local press5.  After two years of pretty intensive investment saw a ~2% increase in walking6.  Brookfield School selected to receive state SRTS funds for infrastructure project
  4. 4. What we learned…
•  The SRTS program is thus being delivered almost entirely to students who live far away.•  It turns out that at the Brookfield School only about 25% of the students live within ½ mile of the school and 35% within one mile – 65% of students live more than a mile from school. •  With 16 – 17% of all students walking, we may be seeing close to 70% of the students who live with ½ mile already walking which translates into only 40 students who live with ½ mile and are not already walking.•  The geographic distribution of students make the Brookfield School a poor choice for investing in a
 mode shift focused SRTS program.
  5. 5. Conditions vary hugely - we should pickplaces where we can have impact
•  Whelan School: 330 students living within ½ mile are being driven to school – and thus present great potential for mode shift programs of high impact – this the community that WalkBoston is now working with. Our goal is to add 5 – 8% walking trips each year and we have a lot of short car trips to work with!•  Lincoln School: 220 students are already walking and only 74 students are being driven from within ½ mile. This school has expressed interest in SRTS, but presents a relatively small opportunity for mode shift.
  6. 6. Back to the beginning: Our Research Questions
 1.  Can we better target SRTS programs to achieve mode shift, reach children in need, and reduce GHG emissions? 2.  Can we find out what schools or school districts have a lot of children who live near school but are currently being driven? 3.  What information is missing? •  Walksheds of schools – not “as the crow flies” •  Number of children near schools •  Demographic information •  School assignment policies •  Geography of transportation choices
  7. 7. Walkshed Assessments – Sample 1 •  Lots of sidewalks •  Low volume, low speed streets •  Open space •  Highly connected street network
  8. 8. Walkshed Assessments – Sample 2
 •  Little street connectivity •  High volume, high speed streets •  Missing sidewalks
  9. 9. Community walksheds How much of the community is within walking distance of any school?
  10. 10. How many children are there?
  11. 11. How many children are near schools?
  12. 12. How to target programs to children in need? Because income is a good proxy for children at risk of overweight or obesity, % of children eligible for free or reduced price lunch was used to identify places of need
  13. 13. Assignment policies
•  Massachusetts does not maintain any consolidated information on district assignment policies which vary from all neighborhood schools to district-wide magnet programs•  Almost every one of the stateʼs 351 cities and towns has a separate school district (332 districts)•  Based on density and demographic data we called many districts to find the ones that had primarily neighborhood- based school districts where most students go to nearby schools•  From among this set we solicited districts to participate in the survey
  14. 14. Surveyed Districts We approached many districts – found nine who participated
  15. 15. Survey 
Instrument•  New, 6-question school commute survey•  Seven languages•  Pilot survey in two schools•  On-line map interface•  51% response rate
  16. 16. On-line tool, great in SOME districts
  17. 17. Sample Survey Results
  18. 18. Enormous range in commute patterns
  19. 19. Great variety in patterns
  20. 20. Great variety in patterns
  21. 21. Great variety in patterns
  22. 22. UnderstandingtheDifferencesUsing data tomake choices canlead to greatdifferences in thesuccess of modeshift programs
  23. 23. The Heart of the Matter
  24. 24. A few more details – which will help toinform program understanding andoptions 

  25. 25. Morning and afternoon commutes
  26. 26. Connected (chained) vs dedicated trips Trip chaining may make it more complicated to shift trips from cars to feet
  27. 27. Vehicle availability and mode choice Fewer cars translate to more walking and bus use and less driving
  28. 28. Distance and mode choice ½ mile walking distance really seems to be the place where mode shift is most likely to succeed
  29. 29. GHG emissions and school mode choiceEstimated Emissions and Cost of Auto School Commuting, by Surveyed District Annual GHG Avg. Student Annual Fuel Cost per Emissions (kg) per Annual Auto GHG Commutes as a Share Municipality Student Auto Student Auto per Household (kgs) of Avg. Household Commuter*+ Commuter* GHGBrockton 425 $152 7,196 5.9%Lawrence 240 $86 5,611 4.3%Malden 329 $113 5,374 6.1%Newton 157 $59 7,485 2.1%Revere 267 $95 5,572 4.8%Somerville 369 $120 4,505 8.2%Winchester 266 $95 8,352 3.2%Source: MassGIS analysis of MA RMV vehicle inspection records, 2005-07; MAPC analysis; MAPC survey, 2011. * Surveyed Schools only,+Assuming Avg. gas price of $3.70/gal (fuel gauge report)
  30. 30. Molly O’Reilly, board member www.americawalks.org
  31. 31. National Unified Voice for WalkingVision for a Walkable America •  300+ organizations … •  Steering Committee •  D.C. Advocacy •  Walking Action Network
  32. 32. April-June, 2011
  33. 33. The National Walking Survey was acollaborative effort between America Walksand Hunter College ProfessorsPeter Tuckel (Sociology) andWilliam Milczarski (Urban Planning).
  34. 34. Purpose: to examine attitudes and behaviors concerning walking ◦  Focus on frequent walkers www.pedbikeimages.org/LucianoRizzi
  35. 35. On-line survey sponsored by America Walks  Partner Organizations: AARP (participating state chapters) Active Transportation Alliance Alliance for Biking & Walking American Public Health Association Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals (APBP) Bike Walk Virginia California Walks Initiative for Bike & Ped Innovation (IBPI) at Portland State U. PedNet Coalition PEDS Rails-To-Trails Conservancy Safe Routes to School National Partnership Vermont Bicycle & Pedestrian Coalition Walk Boston Walk San Diego Walk San Francisco Walking.About.com Willamette Pedestrian Coalition
  36. 36. About the survey:  Survey conducted between April 27 & June 13  Publicized through   homepages   e-mails   Facebook  Went “viral” – Facebook, twitter, blogs  Purposive sample; n = 7,019  Some less avid walkers also included among respondents
  37. 37. “I love it. Power walk 40 minutes a day outside...rain, snow, or sleet...never miss it.”“Walking rocks! It is the best stress buster going and free and easy to do!”“Walking is a very important part of my life.”“My parents encouraged me to walk a lot when I was a young child and the habit of walking and my pleasure in it has persisted.”
  38. 38. Demographic profile Survey U.S. ◦  Race   White, non-Hispanic 90.1% 67.0%   Asian 1.6% 4.8%   African-American 2.4% 11.6%   Hispanic 2.1% 14.2% ◦  Education   Bachelor’s degree 33.8% 17.4%   Grad training or degree 47.2% 10.1% ◦  Median HH Income $46,256 $41,994 ◦  % ≥ 45 55.0% 34.4% ◦  % Female 65.0% 50.9%
  39. 39. Frequency of Walking Frequency Percent ◦  Never 33 0.5 ◦  Rarely 257 3.7 ◦  A few times a month 415 6.0 ◦  1-2 days a week 889 12.8 ◦  3-4 days a week 1589 22.8 ◦  5-6 days a week 1510 21.7 ◦  Everyday  2264 32.5  Total 6957 100.0  77.0% are avid walkers!
  40. 40. Walk Frequency by Age Frequent Infrequent Age Walker Walker 18-24 63.7% 36.3% 25-30 57.6% 42.4% 31-44 51.6% 48.4% 45-64 52.9% 47.1% 65+ 61.1% 38.9% frequent infrequent 63.7 61.1 57.6 51.6 52.9 48.4 47.1 42.4 38.9 36.3 18-24 25-30 31-44 45-64 65+
  41. 41. Walk Frequency by Education
  42. 42. Length of Time a Person Has Been Walking Frequency Percent ◦  < 1 year 301 7.5 ◦  1 year up to 2 years 349 8.6 ◦  2 years up to 3 years 356 8.8 ◦  3 years up to 5 years 439 10.9 ◦  > 5 years 2,592 64.2  Total 4,037 100.0  Almost two-thirds have been walking more than 5 years.
  43. 43. Where Do People Walk? Gym Treadmill at home Mall Parks/forests Other Sidewalks/streets Combination of places 2% 1% 0% 8% 2% 23% 64%
  44. 44. Source of Original Encouragement Frequency Percent ◦  Family member 287 5.4 ◦  Friend 219 4.1 ◦  Health care professional 212 4.0 ◦  Organization in my community 59 1.1 ◦  Organization I work for 140 2.6 ◦  Media 353 6.6 ◦  Just decided on my own 3,037 56.7 ◦  Don’t remember 284 5.3 ◦  Other 763 14.3  Total 5,354 100.0  Only 4% received encouragement to walk from a health care professional
  45. 45. Orientation toward Walking for Non-Pet Owners & Pet Owners Non-Pet Owners Pet Owners Care for pet & health Both reasons Health/relaxation Care for pet & destination Get to a destination Care for pet 24% 14% 41% 17% 69% 35%
  46. 46. Orientation toward Walking by Age (excludes pet owners) 18-24 25-30 31-44 45-64 65+ TOTALHealth/ relaxation 7.7% 13.0% 27.6% 45.8% 52.5% 35.3%Get to a destination 50.5% 43.3% 31.4% 13.0% 10.3% 23.6%Both reasons 41.8% 43.7% 41.0% 41.3% 37.2% 41.2%Walking for health/relaxation increases with age.
  47. 47. What is a Walkable Neighborhood? There are many places to go within easy walking distance of my home.It is easy to walk to a transit stop (bus, subway, train) from my home.There are many interesting things to look at while walking in my neighborhood.
  48. 48. Walking and Walkability Frequent walker Infrequent walker 88.1 78 64.9 Percent of people who are frequent walkers by neighborhood walkability 35.1 22 11.9 Low walkability Middle walkability High walkability People in highly walkable neighborhoods are much more likely to walk
  49. 49. “We moved to Baltimore Citys Federal Hill neighborhood specifically because of its walkability.”“When deciding which neighborhood to live in, walkability was a main factor for me.”“My neighborhood is really nice in terms of walkability.”“Walkability is a dealbreaker for me. Wont live anywhere without good transport and local shopping.”
  50. 50. Orientation toward Walking and Walkability (excludes pet owners) Low Medium High Walkability Walkability Walkability TOTAL Health/relaxation 56.2% 32.8% 14.2% 31.4% Get to a destination 11.5% 25.0% 35.6% 25.7% Both reasons 32.3% 42.3% 50.3% 42.9% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%Low walkability – health/relaxation; high walkability – instrumental.
  51. 51. Orientation toward Walking and Population Density (excludes pet owners) Low Middle High Density Density Density TOTAL Health/relaxation 59.4% 41.3% 12.4% 35.1% Get to a destination 8.7% 19.1% 38.1% 23.6% Both reasons 31.9% 39.6% 49.4% 41.3% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%Low density – health/relaxation; high density – instrumental.
  52. 52. Orientation and Duration of Walking (mins.) (excludes pet owners) 15 to < 30 30 to < 60 60 to < 90 90+ Don’t knowHealth/ relaxation 33.9% 50.1% 12.2% 3.6% 0.3%Get to a destination 83.5% 14.0% 0.8% 0.8% 1.0%Both reasons 57.1% 33.2% 6.4% 2.3% 1.0%Health/relaxation – long trips; instrumental – short trips
  53. 53. Reasons for Walking (percentage who answered very important)Walking helps me to maintain good health - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 71.1Walking helps me to feel calm and less stressed - - - - - - - - - - -60.6Walking gives me more physical energy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 58.2Walking gets me out of the house and I feel better afterwards - - - 53.6Walking helps me to maintain my weight - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 52.0Walking allows me to get to a specific destination such as work, school, or a store - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 51.8Walking gives me an opportunity to go out and explore my surroundings - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 47.7Walking helps me to lose weight - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 34.2Walking allows me to take care of my pet - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -22.4Walking is how I get to/from transit stops - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 22.1Walking gives me an opportunity to spend time with family or friends - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 17.0Walking is my main form of transportation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9.7
  54. 54. “It is a win/win form of transportation.”“Walking helps me reduce my environmental impact.”“Gives me uninterrupted talk time with my husband or daughter.”“I enjoy the time alone.”“I simply feel better after a walk.”“Walking is the most sensible way to go short distances.”
  55. 55. Type of Walker and Medical Conditions Frequent Walkers Infre- Health/ Get to a quent relaxation destination Both walkers TOTAL≥ 15 lbs. overweight 36.6 19.5 25.9 41.9 31.8Hypertension 19.4 7.2 12.5 18.7 15.0Depression 7.8 9.3 9.4 12.8 9.9Arthritis 11.8 5.2 9.2 10.9 9.6Asthma 7.8 8.4 9.1 8.5 8.5Osteoporosis 6.9 1.4 4.1 4.1 4.4Diabetes 6.1 1.8 3.5 4.8 4.2Heart disease 4.4 0.6 2.0 3.1 2.7Cancer 2.2 0.5 1.5 1.6 1.5None of the above 36.4 60.3 49.0You 38.5 44.9 should walk more.
  56. 56. Frequency of Walking and Medical Conditions Type of Walker number of Frequent Infrequent conditions Walker Walker 0 48.7% 40.5% 1 31.0% 30.2% 2 13.0% 18.3% 3+ 7.3% 11.1% Number of Medical Conditions
  57. 57. Walkability and Medical Conditions Neighborhood walkability: # of Medical Conditions 0 1 2 3+Residents of more walkable communities have fewer illnesses.
  58. 58. Physical Activities Besides Walking Swimming Tennis Golf Jogging Skiing Bicycling Hiking Physical fitness (e.g., aerobics, weight lifting) Gardening Bird watching Team sports Yoga
  59. 59. Physical Activities Besides Walking: Frequent Walkers number of Infrequent Frequent activities Walker Walker Total None 7.1% 4.5% 5.7% 1–2 35.9% 29.0% 32.2% 3–4 36.2% 40.0% 38.3% 5+ 20.7% 26.6% 23.9%Frequent walkers participate in other activities. This is true even when controlling for several demographic variables.
  60. 60. Physical Activities Besides Walking: Dog Walkers number of Without With activities a Dog a Dog Total None 5.3% 3.1% 4.8% 1–2 31.6% 24.1% 29.8% 3–4 39.3% 40.5% 39.6% 5+ 23.8% 32.4% 25.8%Most walkers participatein other physical activities;dog walkers even more so.
  61. 61. Walkability and Physical Activities Besides Walking number of Walkability activities Low Medium High 0 7.5% 4.8% 3.7% 1–2 36.8% 31.5% 27.0% 3–4 37.2% 37.4% 41.5% 5+ 18.5% 26.3% 27.8%People in walkable communities are more active in general. www.pedbikeimages.org/MaxBushell
  62. 62. Reasons for Not Walking (percentage who strongly agree)I am involved in other physical activities and do not feel the need to walk more - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 16.9In my neighborhood things like not enough sidewalks or speeding motor vehicles discourage me from walking more - - - 13.3I do not have time to walk more - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12.8With things like work or family responsibilities, I do not have the energy left to walk more - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10.8There are not many desirable places nearby in which to walk - - - 10.6I am just not that enthusiastic about walking more - - - - - - - - - 6.9The level of crime in my neighborhood discourages me from walking more - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4
  63. 63. “no sidewalks, speeding cars, and unrestrained dogs”“laziness!”“My girlfriend does not like walking that much.”“Theres no point. You have to drive anywhere to get to anything.”“I dont usually consider walking as an alternative. I just hop in the car to go somewhere without thinking.”
  64. 64. Safety Problems for Walkers Very big Somewhat of problem (%) problem (%) Total%Drivers talking on cell phones or using other electronic devices _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 26.5 27.7 54.2Speeding motor vehicles _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 22.9 30.3 53.2Unsmooth sidewalks or other walking surfaces _ _ 13.4 24.7 43.4Not enough sidewalks __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 18.7 20.7 39.4Poorly-lit streets _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 10.7 22.6 33.3The sidewalks are too narrow _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 6.8 16.5 23.3The walk signs or street signals do not give me enough time to walk across the street safely _ _ _ 5.5 12.6 18.1Crime _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3.4 10.1 13.5Dogs or other animals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3.4 9.7 13.1
  65. 65. “Drivers in my area do not give pedestrians the right of way in cross walks.”“The greatest physical danger to frequent walkers in my community are speeding drivers who run red lights and fail to slow at crosswalks.”“I would walk MUCH more often if we had sidewalks and more tickets for cell-phone/texting drivers.”“Cars turn right on red without stopping or looking even when I have the WALK signal.”“Distracted drivers is my number one concern while walking.”
  66. 66. Transportation Used by Grade K – 8 Children of Respondents (n=775)Automobile - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 31.4%Walking - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 23.5%School bus/van - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 20.4%Child (children) uses a combination of means - - 14.8%Bicycle - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3.6%More than one child in elementary school and they use different means of transportation - - - 2.8%Public transportation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1.7%Other - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1.7%
  67. 67. Transportation to School by Walkability Walkability of Neighborhood Transportation Low Medium High Total to school Automobile 38.3% 32.3% 17.2% 29.4% School bus 25.7% 20.4% 9.9% 18.7% Bike 1.5% 4.4% 5.9% 3.9% Walk 17.0% 21.7% 40.4% 26.1% All other 17.5% 21.2% 26.6% 21.7% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
  68. 68. Transportation to School and Parents’ Walking Walking by Parents Transportation Infrequent Frequent Total to school  Automobile 45.5% 26.4% 31.3% School bus/van 22.5% 19.6% 20.3%  Bicycle 3.0% 4.0% 3.8% Walking 16.0% 26.2% 23.6% All else 13.0% 23.8% 21.0%
  69. 69.   Only 6.6% heard or read about the benefits of walking through the media.  Only 4.0% said that a health care professional encouraged them to walk. ◦  Even among those with serious medical conditions, only a small proportion received encouragement to walk from a health care professional.  Many health/relaxation walkers have a serious medical condition. ◦  For them, walking is for the purpose of preventing further deterioration in health.  Greater efforts are needed to publicize the multiple benefits of walking.
  70. 70.   Among infrequent walkers, a higher percentage cite “neighborhood” factors (e.g., not enough sidewalks, speeding motor vehicles) rather than “personal” factors (e.g., not enough time).  54.2% of respondents cite “drivers talking on cell phones or using other electronic devices as a “very big problem” or “somewhat of a problem.”  53.2% of respondents cite “speeding motor vehicles” as a “very big problem” or “somewhat of a problem.  More resources should be devoted to protecting people walking, especially from motor vehicles.
  71. 71.   Large percentages of respondents noted infrastructure as a problem: ◦  Unsmooth sidewalks (43.4%) ◦  Lack of sidewalks (39.4%) ◦  Poorly lit streets (33.3%)  Walkability matters.  Walkability and population density are not the same. Avid walkers are in cities, suburbs and rural areas.  Walkability matters.  Children walk to school if their parents are walkers and if they live in walkable neighborhoods.  Walkability matters.
  72. 72.   People in more walkable neighborhoods have a fewer number of serious medical conditions. This finding holds even after controlling for age, sex, education and other background variables.  Walkability matters.  People in more walkable neighborhoods engage in a greater number of physical activities besides walking. This finding holds even after controlling for age, sex, education and other background variables.  Walkability matters.
  73. 73. Meet the needs of health/relaxation walkers  Make neighborhoods walkable ◦  Nearby destinations ◦  Connectivity ◦  Accessible to transit stops ◦  Attractive, safe, interesting walking environment ◦  Tame the motor vehicle ◦  Safety from crime
  74. 74.   The medical community needs to advocate walking with their patients one on one  Health/fitness messages need to be aimed at young adults to build walking habits that will endure or be restored later  Organizations working for arthritis, heart and other specific types of health need to continue their work to get people walking
  75. 75.   Messages need crafting for minority populations and those less advantaged ◦  Why walking is important ◦  Fitting walking into your busy life ◦  Walking is cool  Walking infrastructure needs improving ◦  Safe, usable by all, and attractive  Slower, safer vehicle speeds
  76. 76. Walking Action Network ◦  Steps to a Walkable Community ◦  Training and technical assistance ◦  Information Collection and Dissemination ◦  Evaluation
  77. 77. Thank you…….
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