New Challenges, Tools, and Opportunities inPlanning for Healthy TransportationJeremy Nelson, PrincipalNelsonNygaard Consulting AssociatesPro Walk / Pro Bike / Pro Place ConferenceLong Beach | 9/11/2012 1
Excerpted from Evaluating Public Transportation Health Benefits, by Todd Litman, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, for The American Public Transportation Association,June 2010.
Excerpted from Evaluating Public Transportation Health Benefits, by Todd Litman, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, for The American Public Transportation Association, June2010.
January 22, 2010 Costs of Pedestrian-Vehicle Collisions(San Francisco, 2004-2008) Total Cost Collision Year 2008 Popula7on Cost Per Capita (2008 Dollars) 2004 $11,257,143 840,462 $13.39 2005 $13,480,653 840,462 $16.04 2006 $16,574,113 840,462 $19.72 2007 $17,673,297 840,462 $21.03 2008 General Plan Update $15,358,023 840,462 $18.27 Total Cost for 5 years $74,343,229 840,462 $88.46 Total Cost Adjusted for Inﬂa7on $171,000,000 (2008 dollars) Image source: San Francisco Injury Center, 2008
January 22, 2010 20 15Relative Risk Index Walking 10 Bicycling General Plan Update 5 0 0% 5% 10% 15% Journey to Work Share Image source: Peter Jacobsen
January 22, 2010 General Plan Update Image Source: RFF Press
January 22, 2010 For more information… Jeremy Nelson 116 New Montgomery, Suite 500 San Francisco, CA 94103 (415) 284-1544 firstname.lastname@example.org
Health and transporta>on go together Jean S. Fraser, Chief San Mateo County Health System Pro Walk/Pro Bike: Pro Place 2012
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 1985 No Data <10% 10%–14% *BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person, BRFSS
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults 2009 <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30% *BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person, BRFSS
Health needs Planning and vice versa 60% of what constitutes health is about environments“The public health approach to elimina2ng health dispari2es”; Satcher, D.2008.
What can Health bring to the Planning table? Posi7ve framing Data about eﬀects on people New advocates
Where do you ﬁnd allies in your Health Department? Injury Preven7on Epidemiology Chronic Disease Preven7on Policy and Planning Wellness Health Equity
Louisville, KY: Department of Public Health and Wellness Center for Health Equity Ø Community engagement Ø Investment in place Chronic Disease Preven>on: Healthy HomeTown Ini>a>ve Ø Community grants for home town preven>on work Ø Health staﬀ dedicated to this work
Somerville, MA: City Health Department Shape Up Somerville Ø Community Transforma>on Grant Recipient Ø Somerville Cares about Preven>on Program; Preven>on Director and Staﬀ Ø SomerStreets
We are happy to help you Ac>ve transporta>on work for San Mateo County is taking place as Get Healthy San Mateo County We have developed and collected many resources that you can ﬁnd at www.gethealthysmc.org stay up to date facebook.com/GetHealthySMC
New Challenges, Tools, and Opportunities in Planning for Healthy Transportation A New Generation ofSidewalk Profilers & GIS-based Planning Tools to Implement Infrastructure Improvements Sally Swanson Architects, Inc. (SSA) 220 Sansome Street, Suite 1100, San Francisco, CA 94104 P: 415.445.3045 F: 415.445.3055 E: email@example.com
Challenge: Walkability › Driveability• Growing emphasis on walkability o New Urbanism o Healthy Communities o Livable Communities o Complete Streets• Requires vigilance on maintaining and upgrading our pedestrian infrastructure
Sidewalks can be hazardous to your health Aging population: 1 in 5 age 65 & over by 2025 o Leading cause of death for 65 and over are falls o Proactive vs. Reactive o Paratransit services at capacitylists
Traditional Devices for Testing Sidewalk Surfaces • Using a Smart level or inclinometer is a laborious process • The Ninth Circuit ruled that sidewalks Level Measurement Devices are a program under the ADA • Sampling and Extrapolating • Addressing trip hazards through a maintenance program
Solution: Sidewalk Surface Profiling DevicesWalking Profiler Sidewalk Attributes Measured • Ride Quality (Longitudinal Level) ◦ International Roughness Index ◦ Profile Ride Index ◦ Localized Roughness (bumps/ dips) • Grade ◦ Running grade ◦ Maximum grade change (subject to ability to traverse surface) • Cross-Slope
Inventory Sidewalks: Barriers/Hazards• 100% Sampling• Surface Profiling System collects Surface Data – slopes, level changes, gaps, etc.• Minimal Input by Operator Federal Highway Administration. Bellevue ADA Transition Plan implemented by Transportation Dept.
Inventory Sidewalks: Barriers/Hazards (short video clip)
Sidewalk Inventory of ADA Barriersusing Surface Profiling Technology
Browser-based GIS-viewerGIS data and GIS-viewer• GIS: The raw GIS data allows • GIS-Viewer: allows access to for in-depth organization and simplified version of data in an querying of the data. This is accessible and easy to use done with software such as format (Non-technical). Esri’s ArcGIS Software (Technical).
Reduce Trip and Fall HazardsProactive with Detailed Data• Identify high severity barriers• Reducing the potential for falls and accidents.• Easily Update or check-off items when corrected
ADA VIEWER- Mid-blocks & Street view integration
Documentation • Demonstrate good faith effort (reduces legal exposure) • Address deficiencies in planning stage and not mid-project • Documentation of ‘improvements’ for litigation
Case Study: City of Clovis, CAScope: 638 linear miles of sidewalkArea: 23 sq. milesPopulation: approx. 95,000Status: 2010-2012Solutions and Benefits: Court-mandated Timeline• The City of Clovis, under a consent decree, was required to prepare a revised ADA Transition Plan to include its pedestrian facilities within public rights-of-way.• The City evaluated its baseline condition for sidewalks and curb ramps. Using a profiler allowed the City to fast-track their project.
Case Study: City of San Marcos, CA Scope: 210 linear miles of sidewalk Area: 24.3 sq. miles Population: approx. 85,000 Status: Completed 2012Solutions and Benefits: Budget Savings and Planning Tool• After evaluating several technologies, City chose a sidewalk profiling system sponsored by FHWA to develop a comprehensive inventory of sidewalks, curb ramps and other pedestrian infrastructure.• Survey data was integrated into GIS for the City’s engineering department to use as a planning and scoping tool.
Case Study: County of St. Louis, MO Scope: 810 linear miles of sidewalk Area: 524 sq. miles Population: approx. 992,000 Status: 2011-2013 Solutions and Benefits: Large Inventory• County staff were trained to perform field inventory of barriers using surface profilers and handheld data collectors• This data is integrated into and analyzed in the County’s existing GIS to determine an overall implementation schedule
Cost Savings• Scope a specific project area o Sychronize with Capital Improvement Projects• Reduce costs for paratransit services o Identify and prioritize those sidewalks that connect paratransit riders to fixed route services• Generate work orders o Maintenance work orders - Trip and fall hazards - Tree trimming
Pooling Resources • Barrier mitigation, planning and prioritization at the Metropolitan scale • Savings together with Cities and Counties pooling resources to inventory barriers and maintaining GIS-based Planning tools
SFMTA | Municipal Transportation Agency Image: a bus in front of the Palace of the Legion of honor PLANNING FOR WALKING AND BIKING IN A TRANSIT-FIRST CITY: Regional Bike Sharing and Pedestrian Action Planning 09 | 10 | 2012 | LONG BEACH, CALIFORNIA
San Francisco % of Commuters 8% 4% 34% 54%Image Source: Thunderhead Alliance 59
Changes in Mode Share in SFSource: SFMTAUS Census AmericanCommunity Survey 60
SFMTA LIVABLE STREETS BICYCLE – PEDESTRIAN – TRAFFIC CALMINGLivable Streets Vision San Francisco is the North American leader in providing safe, attractive streets and sidewalks; a place where everyone chooses to walk and bike for most non-transit travel.Livable Streets Mission Create safe and inviting streets and sidewalks for all who walk and use a bicycle. 61
Project Lead:Bay Area Air QualityManagement District(BAAQMD)Partner Agencies:• SFMTA• VTA• CalTrain• City of Redwood City• County of San Mateo 64
RegionalBicycle Sharing Pilot• 1,000 bicycles• 100 stations: – San Francisco (50) – Redwood City (10) – South Bay (40) • Palo Alto • Mountain View • San Jose – 2013 Launch 65
Planning for Stations: Service Area • 1.78 sq mi. • Dense • Mixed Use • Transit Rich • Flat • Bikeable 66
San Francisco Suitability Analysis Raster-based GIS overlay using 11 factors:1. Retail Job Density 7. Bicycle Commuters/2. Population Density Square Mile3. Employment Density 8. Bicycle Infrastructure4. Zoning 9. Transit5. Slope 10. Tourist Sites6. Pedestrian Commuters 11. Per Capita Income per Square Mile 67
Guiding Principle: Key to Success = Station Density“The number one indicator of success is densityof stations. You dont want to have stations morethan a couple blocks away from each other. Inthe off-chance, hopefully, that someoneencounters a completely full or empty station,they dont have to walk far to a station that doeshave capacity or bicycles.”Alison Cohen, President, Alta Bike Share 73
Station Spacing• Paris Benchmark: 300 meter grid• 1 station every 2-3.5 blocks• 28 stations per sq. mile• 50 stations• 50 ÷ 28 = 1.75 sq. mile service area 74
Key Funding Sources for Bicycle and Pedestrian Improvements• Public: Federal, State, Regional, Local• Private: Non-profit organizations, property and business owners and private developers
Key Federal Source US Dept. of Transportation• National Highway System- bicycle and pedestrian walkways adjacent to highways• Surface Transportation Program TEAs – 10% set-aside for Transportation Enhancement Activities (TEAs) – 10% set-aside for Hazard Elimination and Railway-Highway Crossing programs 90
Federal Funding For Pedestrian and Bicycle Programs in CaliforniaYear Annual Funding 2007 $53.8 million 2008 $64.5 million 2009 $137.3 million 2010 $72.6 million 2011 $45.0 million Source: FHWA Fiscal Management Information System 91
Key State Sources• TDA Local Transportation Fund• Bicycle Transportation Account• California Safe Routes to School• Prop 84 Statewide Park and Urban Greening• California Disabled Rights Settlement ($1 billion over 30 years)
Regional and Local Government• Taxes: Property Tax Increment, Sales, Hotel• Revenues: Bridge tolls, Parking meter revenues• Impact Fees: Transportation/Transit, Parks/Open Space• Tax exempt financing vehicles: GO Bonds, Assessment Districts (BIDs, PBIDs), Mello Roos Community Facilities Districts (CFDs), Infrastructure Financing Districts
Transbay Transit Center, San Francisco• Intermodal Transit Center is• 5.4 acre urban park on roof• Centerpiece of new downtown neighborhood• Extensive pedestrian and bicycle improvements to create walkable, bikable and transit friendly neighborhood 94
Key Transbay Funding Sources for Transit and Neighborhood Improvements• Federal: Transit grant and loan funding (TIFIA), rental operating funds, tax exempt bond debt• State: Former highway land, State voter- approved bonds, tax exempt bond debt• Local/Regional: Agency land, sales tax, bridge tolls, property tax increment, impact, Mello-Roos CFD• Private: Developer contributions to streetscape improvements, payment of CFD special taxes, foundation grants
San Francisco Major TOD/Sustainable Projects Treasure Island 97
Local Government Catalysts• Street, bicycle and pedestrian master plans• Local land use plans• Special programs – Sunday Streets – Safe Streets – Livable Streets• Expedited processing with development requirements• Repurpose surplus land
Better Streets Plan “A Better Street attends to the needs of people first, considering pedestrians, bicyclists, transit, street trees, stormwater management, utilities, and livability as well as vehicular circulation and parking.”
North Beach Parklet atTony Gemignani’s Pizza NapoletanaTony commissionedRebar Group todesign this parkletfabricated fromgalvanized steelclad with bamboodecking. Photos from www.rebargroup.com 100
Mint Plaza, San Francisco• Mint Plaza converted a former City street, Jesse Street, to a 24/7 public plaza• Street and sidewalks replaced with a new Key Features • Arbor with climbing vines, pedestrian surface • trees and several rain gardens Runoff feeds two rain gardens • Restaurants and cafes ring the plaza
Mint PlazaMartin Building Company donated the finished Plazaimprovements to San Francisco. The City conditioned itsacceptance with requirement that Friends of Mint Plaza (FoMP),a non-profit organization, assume full responsibility for the costsof all future maintenance and repair of the Plaza area.
Proposed Broadening of SF’s Transit Impact Fees• Current Transit Impact Development Fee (TIDF) – Fees range from about $9 to $12 per SF of new non-residential development – Funds support new transit facilities and operations• Proposed Transportation Sustainability Program – Would include residential development – Focused on improved transit service and access, including funds for pedestrian and bike improvements 103