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#14 Part 2: Presenting the Model Design Manual for Living Streets (Implementation) - Schwartz
 

#14 Part 2: Presenting the Model Design Manual for Living Streets (Implementation) - Schwartz

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    #14 Part 2: Presenting the Model Design Manual for Living Streets (Implementation) - Schwartz #14 Part 2: Presenting the Model Design Manual for Living Streets (Implementation) - Schwartz Presentation Transcript

    • 10 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING MYTHS THAT HAVE THWARTED THE BEST OF PLANS
 Presented at Pro Walk Pro Bike 2012 Conference Samuel I. Schwartz, P.E. September 11, 2012 Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • MAKING IT WORK, PLANNING IN A CONNECTED WORLD 10 Transportation Engineering Myths1.  We will never get people out of their cars2.  Americans won’t walk or bike in significant numbers3.  Reshaping city transportation is expensive & takes a long time4.  Fatter lanes are safer lanes5.  A “B” is better than a “D”6.  It’s a zero sum game between peds, traffic and public space7.  Closing or narrowing a congested street leads to gridlock8.  Adding highway capacity is key to reducing congestion9.  Knocking down a highway will cause gridlock10.  “You can’t make an omelette without breaking a few eggs” Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 1. WE WILL NEVER GET PEOPLE OUT OF THEIR CARS “The future aint what it used to be.” -Yogi Berra Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 1. WE WILL NEVER GET PEOPLE OUT OF THEIR CARS Trends: Younger people driving less, walking & biking more (active transportation) Source: The Sightline Institute The Future Isn’t What It Used To Be, Victoria Transport Policy Institute•  Portion of 19-yr-olds with a driver’s license fell from 92% in 1977 to 77% in 2008•  Average VMT by drivers aged 16 to 34 dropped by 23% between 2001-2009*•  Bike trips for 16 to 34-year-olds jumped 24% between 2001-2009* *Source: National Household Travel Survey Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageNew York, NY and Visionary in Expression
    • 1. 2012 TRANSIT RIDERSHIP TRENDS 1st Quarters 2012 vs 2011 % Change Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 2. AMERICANS WON’T WALK OR BIKE IN SIGNIFICANT NUMBERS SHARE OF COMMUTERS WHO WALK AND BIKE Sources: J. Pucher and R. Buehler,2010. “Walking and Cycling for Healthy Cities” and 2007 -2009 ACS (3-year average) Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 2. AMERICANS WON’T WALK OR BIKE IN SIGNIFICANT NUMBERS ACTIVE TRANSPORTATION Any method of travel that is all or partly human-powered. It refers to transportation that supports walking, stair use, cycling, and transit. It includes long-term land use and transportation planning to encourage alternate (non-motor vehicle) forms of transport. Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 2. ENCOURAGING ACTIVE TRANSPORTATION•  Dense cities, mixed land-use generate short trips•  Safe convenient cycling including bike parking•  Connected, direct, and pleasant sidewalks and paths•  Traffic systems and designs with pedestrians and cyclists in mind•  Calm residential neighborhoods•  Walk-to-School programs•  Good transit•  Coordinate transit + cycling + walking•  Laws + enforcement to protect peds + bikes > cars•  Education programs•  Equitable cost of transportation by mode Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 2. VEHICLE TRIPS GENERATED PER DAY Suburban Houses vs. Urban Apartment Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • PEDS: WALKING Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • BICYCLE Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression Bike Share, B-cycle, Chicago
    • 2. NYC PEDESTRIAN / BIKE ‘RIBBON’ BRIDGES Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 2. MILLENNIUM FOOTBRIDGE – LONDON, ENGLANDCost: $38 MillionTotal Length: 1,214 Ft Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 2. GATESHEAD MILLENNIUM BRIDGE - TYNESIDE, ENGLANDCost: $35 MillionTotal Length: 344 Ft (rotates 40 degrees to permit vessels to pass) Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 2. BOB KERREY PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE - OMAHA, NEBRASKACost: $22 MillionTotal Length: 3,000 Ft Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 2. MILLENNIUM BP PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE – CHICAGO, ILLIONOISCost: $14.5 MillionTotal Length: 935 Ft Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 2. OTHER PEDESTRIAN BRIDGES EXPO BRIDGE PAVILION – ZARAZOGA, SPAIN Max-Eyth-See Bridge - Stuttgart, Germany Expo Bridge Pavilion - Zaragoza, Spain Kokonoe Bridge – Oita, Japan YAS Marina Link Bridge, Abu Dhabi Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 3. RESHAPING CITY TRANSPORTATION IS EXPENSIVE & TAKES A LONG TIME DESIGN Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • WORLD CLASS STREETS Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 3. POP-UP CAFE Sullivan St., NYC Pearl St., NYC 44th & 3rd Ave., NYC Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 3. RESHAPING CITY TRANSPORTATION IS EXPENSIVE & TAKES A LONG TIME AMSTERDAM AVENUE Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageNew York, NY and Visionary in Expression
    • 3. RESHAPING CITY TRANSPORTATION IS EXPENSIVE & TAKES A LONG TIME MELROSE AVENUE Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageWest Hollywood, CA and Visionary in Expression
    • 4. FATTER LANES ARE SAFER LANESa)  This may be true on higher speed roads but..b)  “There are no studies to support this on urban streets.” Richard Retting Former Insurance Institute for Highway Safety Engineer, now with SSE 48’ Lanes = 12ft, 3.66m 14.6m 44’ Lanes = 11ft, 3.35m 13.4m 40’ Lanes = 10ft, 3.04m 12.1m Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 4. FATTER LANES ARE SAFER LANES (CONT’D) Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageNew York, NY and Visionary in Expression
    • 4. FATTER LANES ARE SAFER LANES (CONT’D) Technical Advisory Committee Findings Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageNew York, NY and Visionary in Expression
    • 4. FATTER LANES ARE SAFER LANES (CONT’D)c)  “Analysis of geometric, traffic volume, and accident data has found… no consistent , statistically significant relationship between lane width and safety for midblock sections of urban and suburban arterials. There is no indication that the use of 3.0- or 3.3m (10-11ft lanes), rather than 3.6m (12ft) lanes for arterial mid segments leads to increases in accident frequency. Relationship of lane Width to Safety for Urban and Suburban Arterials by Potts, Harwood & Richard, TRB 2007 Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 5. A “B” IS BETTER THAN A “D”? Levels of Service A.  Free FlowingSpeed (MPH) B.  Slightly Restricted C.  More Restricted D.  Substantial Delays E.  Significant Delays F.  Jammed Volume (Vehicles per Hour) Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 5. A “B” IS BETTER THAN A “D” Proposed Level of Service Ratings for Main StreetsA.  Traffic moving slowly, 10-15 mph. Good pedestrian density, separated bike lane. Frequent buses stop every 2-3 blocks. Shoup parking at curbsB.  Traffic moving slow to moderate, speeds 15-20 mph, moderate pedestrian density, Class II bike lane, metered parking, moderate transit use.F.  Traffic moving swiftly 25-30mph, few pedestrians, no parking at curb, no provisions for bikes. Long headways for buses. Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 5. A “B” IS BETTER THAN A “D”Old Rating A Old Rating ENew Rating F New Rating A Broadway - Los Angeles, CA State Street - Chicago, IL Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 6. IT’S A ZERO SUM GAME BETWEEN PEDS, TRAFFIC & PUBLIC SPACE BATTERY PLACE – ¾ ACRE PARK ADDED, TRAFFIC BETTER BEFORE AFTER Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageNew York, NY and Visionary in Expression
    • 6. CANAL PARK: HISTORIC PARK EXPANDED, TRAFFIC BETTER 1871-1921 1921-2005 2005 – Present Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 7. CLOSING/NARROWING A CONGESTED ST LEADS TO GRIDLOCK Times Square & Herald Square, NYC Broadway is a pedestrian mall from 47th to 42nd Sts. and from 35th to 33rd Sts. Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageNew York, NY and Visionary in Expression
    • 7. HERALD SQUARE (CONT’D) Before After Broadway Broadway Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageNew York, NY and Visionary in Expression
    • 7. HERALD SQUARE SIGNAL TIMING Existing Signal Timing Adjusted Signal Timing (90 sec cycle) (90 sec cycle) 30 s 30 s Broadway 6th Avenue 45 s 45 s 34th Street 6th Avenue 30 s 34th Street Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 7. CANAL STREET PEDESTRIAN & TRAFFIC SAFETY STUDY “Canal Street may appear to be a busy thoroughfare but it is remarkably inefficient in moving vehicles.” “The vehicles are moving so slowly that, for the most part they are merely providing "seating" on Canal Street and movement is the exception. Clearly, the existing amount of road space is not needed to move so few vehicles.” Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageNew York, NY and Visionary in Expression
    • 8. ADDING HIGHWAY CAPACITY IS KEY TO REDUCING CONGESTION “Adding highway lanes to deal with traffic congestion is like loosening your belt to cure obesity.” Lewis Mumford Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 8. NYC IS ONLY MAJOR CITY WITHOUT AN INTERSTATE IN CBD Yet cross town speeds in the 1940’s were 6-7 mph about the same as today. 388,000 vehicles entered CBD in 1948, 762,000 enter today. Source: Traffic and Parking Study, 1943 Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 8. IF YOU BUILD IT, THEY WILL DRIVE The Fundamental Law Of Road Congestion Evidence From U.S. Cities by Duranton and Turner, 2009•  VMT increases proportionally to roadway lane miles for interstate highways and probably slightly less rapidly for other types of roads•  People drive more when the stock of roads in their city increases•  A new roadway diverts little traffic from other roads. THE COROLLARY “IF YOU KNOCK IT DOWN, THEY WILL DISAPPEAR” Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 9. KNOCKING DOWN A HIGHWAY WILL CAUSE GRIDLOCK December 16,1973 NYC’s West Side Highway Collapses The Start of Highway Teardowns Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageNew York, NY and Visionary in Expression
    • 9. WEST SIDE HIGHWAY RAN FROM 72ND STREET TO BATTERY Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageNew York, NY and Visionary in Expression
    • 9. WHERE DID THEY GO? Of the 89k people no longer using West Side Highway   Parallel roads   Transit   Circumferential routes   ? Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 9. WHAT HAPPENED TO THE TRAFFIC? 10% of traffic disappeared Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 9. WHAT HAPPENED TO THE PEOPLE? 37K Cars Transit grew by 36K Note: The number of people entering /exiting CBD increased by 25,000 people 1973 vs. 1975 Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 9. CROSS SECTION OF WEST SIDE HIGHWAY Looking North of Chambers St. Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageNew York, NY and Visionary in Expression
    • 9. EMABARCADERO FREEWAY Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageSan Francisco, CA and Visionary in Expression
    • 10. “YOU CAN’T MAKE AN OMELETTE WITHOUT BREAKING A FEW EGGS” Robert Moses, 1951 NY Times “When you operate in an overbuilt metropolis you have to hack your way with a meat ax.” Robert Moses, 1964 NY Times Modern highways standards require wide lanes, wide shoulders and buffers Proposed Typical DRIC Cross Section With 6 Highway Lanes And 4 Service Road Lanes 80-160m Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 10. HOW TO DO IT RIGHT: CENTRAL PARK Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageNew York, NY and Visionary in Expression
    • 10. MANHATTAN’S BIGGEST HIGHWAY: CENTRAL PARK, 16 LANES 6 lanes North-South 10 lanes East-West Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageNew York, NY and Visionary in Expression
    • Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageNew York, NY and Visionary in Expression
    • Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageNew York, NY and Visionary in Expression
    • 10. DOING IT RIGHT IN WINDSOR GREEN OPPORTUNITY CAR-FREE COM M UNIT Y Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression
    • 10. CREATING USABLE SPACE Narrow the right of way by moving the access roads closer to the highway, minimizing inaccessible, non-functional space between roadways wherever possible HWY 401 Innovation in Sustainable 2012 Engineering Award Bottom line = put added green areas in places people can enjoy Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageWindsor, ON and Visionary in Expression
    • 10. BELLEWOOD / HURON ESTATES COMMUNITY TUNNEL Cross section at Bellewood / Huron Estates Community Tunnel SOUTH-BOUND NORTH-BOUND SERVICE ROAD SERVICE ROAD HIGHWAY 401A(Section A-A’) A’ Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageWindsor, ON and Visionary in Expression
    • 10. EXAMPLES: ELYSIAN PARK OVER ARROYO SECO PARKWAY Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageLos Angeles, CA and Visionary in Expression
    • 10. EXAMPLES: I-71 FORT WASHINGTON WAYThe old way of highway thinking… A more compact highway—converting asphalt to park Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageCincinnati, OH and Visionary in Expression
    • 10. EXAMPLES: CANTILEVERED GRAND CENTRAL PARKWAYDepressed Roadway, Cantilevered Service View of Streetscape of CantileveredRoads to mitigate roadway visual impacts Service Roads Brilliant in Design, Clear on MessageBrooklyn, NY and Visionary in Expression
    • 10 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING MYTHS THAT HAVE THWARTED THE BEST OF PLANS
Presented at Pro Walk Pro Bike 2012 Conference Samuel I. Schwartz, P.E. sschwartz@samschwartz.com September 11, 2012 Brilliant in Design, Clear on Message and Visionary in Expression