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PwC - Revitalising corporate Japan: A prescription for growth


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Corporate leaders need to champion organisational transformation to succeed in today’s complex international environment. …

Corporate leaders need to champion organisational transformation to succeed in today’s complex international environment.

Japan was the trailblazer for today’s emerging economies, as the first non-Western nation to become a modern economic power. Its meteoric rise from postwar poverty and landmark achievement in establishing “Made in Japan” as the global catchphrase for quality set the benchmark in economic development.

Today, Japan is also the pacesetter for the advanced economies, the first to face challenges looming in everyone’s future: the ageing of society and the imperative to transform mature economies to meet the demands of an increasingly complex global business environment. How Japan fares will hold lessons for us all — which is why PwC believes the world needs a deeper understanding of Japan’s current situation.

We saw an opportunity to focus the unparalleled expertise of the PwC global network on the issues facing Japan and Japanese corporations. A PwC team sat down with 60 senior business and political leaders, academics and specialists for extensive discussions, and to learn what changes they’re making in their own organisations in response to current challenges.

We hope our analysis will contribute to today’s debate on the future course of Japan and its leading firms. Our aim — pursued with great respect and affection — is to enrich the dialogue between Japan’s business leaders and their stakeholders.

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  • 1. Corporate leaders need to champion organisational transformation to succeed in today’s complex international environment.Revitalisingcorporate JapanA prescription for growth
  • 2. Table of contents 02 essage from our chairman M 03 ransformation towards tomorrow T 04 Executive summary 11 Introduction 16 27 Reality 1: Reality 2: The arrival of Asia Increasing business 19 Maintaining leadership complexity in high-value niche 29 Operating in a markets G-Zero world 22 Myanmar 31 Complexity’s new 23 rise of collaboration The demands: QA with in Asia Harvard Law School’s 24 Business implications David Kennedy 34 Acquisitions in an era of complexity 36 Business implications
  • 3. 39 50Reality 3: Reality 4:New models Ageing economicof innovation metabolism43 Inside high: Mazda’s 60 Business implications Seita Kanai on innovation and branding strategies44 Seeking solutions: Incubating new businesses in mature companies47 Innovation in action: QA with Twitter Japan’s James Kondo48 Business implications 62 A final word 66 List of interviews 69 Contributors
  • 4. A message from our chairman Japan was the trailblazer for today’s emerging economies, as the first non-Western nation to become a modern economic power. Its meteoric rise from postwar poverty and landmark achievement in establishing “Made in Japan” as the global catchphrase for quality set the benchmark in economic development. Today, Japan is also the pacesetter for the advanced economies, the first to face challenges looming in everyone’s future: the ageing of society and the imperative to transform mature economies to meet the demands of an increasingly complex global business environment. How Japan fares will hold lessons for us all — which is why PwC believes the world needs a deeper understanding of Japan’s current situation. We saw an opportunity to focus the unparalleled expertise of the PwC global network on the issues facing Japan and Japanese corporations. A PwC team sat down with 60 senior business and political leaders, academics and specialists for extensive discussions, and to learn what changes they’re making in their own organisations in response to current challenges. I would like to thank each of them for taking time from their busy schedules to meet with us. We greatly appreciate their candid participation; they have added invaluable context to our research. We hope our analysis will contribute to today’s debate on the future course of Japan and its leading firms. Our aim — pursued with great respect and affection — is to enrich the dialogue between Japan’s business leaders and their stakeholders. Dennis Nally Chairman PricewaterhouseCoopers International Limited2 PwC
  • 5. Transformation towards tomorrowThis is an exciting chapter in Japan’s history. It’s a time of change and transformation. A time thatpresents opportunities for leaders to take bold steps that will redefine how their organisationscontinue to be economic trailblazers. A time for decisions that will leverage existing strengths andsubstantial advantages to improve competitiveness and optimise globalisation.As advisors to the world’s largest companies, we know that change can be difficult. It presentsa measure of uncertainty that requires strong leadership. While there is a measure of risk inpursuing new approaches and ideas, the risks of doing nothing are far greater.After speaking with Japanese CEOs over the past year, we believe that many business leadersare already aware of the degree of change required. Our hope is that this report will helpmany Japanese corporations start the process of strategic and operational transformationthey seek.But we’re not just offering a report. PwC has been doing business in Japan for over 80 years.Our people work very closely together to support the growth of Japan’s great companies —its global champions — providing services here in Japan and around the world. We remaincommitted to helping Japanese businesses take the necessary steps to pivot, adapt and growin an extraordinarily complex and fast-paced international environment.Juan Pujadas Hiroyuki SuzukiVice Chairman Territory Senior PartnerGlobal Advisory Services PwC JapanPricewaterhouseCoopersInternational Limited Revitalising corporate Japan 3
  • 6. Executive summary4 PwC
  • 7. Japan is an inspiration to the world. Its people live longerand are healthier than in any other nation. Japanese societybenefits from an extraordinary degree of social cohesionand trust that allows it to accomplish remarkable things.Japan’s corporate community has long held the world’srespect. For decades, corporate Japan has been countedamong the short list of global leaders for its advancedtechnology, standards for quality, dedicated workforceand internationally competitive private sector.The world needs a strong, confident and vibrantcorporate Japan. Revitalising corporate Japan 5
  • 8. Executive summary And the need today is greater than The country’s longevity sits at the That is not to say the answers to ever. The extraordinary postwar era top of Organisation for Economic the new global questions will come of peace, prosperity and dominance Co-operation and Development easily. All nations must weigh their for businesses in the world’s mature (OECD) rankings, while fertility current advantages and circum- industrial economies appears on rests at the bottom, leaving the stances in the face of new global the surface to be coming to an end. country with a shrinking work- “Realities,” which include: Issues around globalisation and force and rising elderly population. 1) The arrival of Asia Asia, the newly emerging competitive nations Demographics combined with very engine of the world’s economic and companies, resource pressure, high public debt levels and operating growth, is producing fierce, new environmental degradation and cli- costs much higher than emerging competitors. However, a new mate change have destabilised the competitors’ imply that without a middle class of Asian consumers traditional economic structures. revitalisation of its economic perfor- gives Japan an opportunity to mance, Japan’s society is going to secure its niche market advantages. The countries and sectors that suffer a decline in living standard. formerly dominated international 2) Increasing business complexity commerce are giving way to emerg- But PwC strongly believes this vital- Growing connectedness between ing markets with growing middle ity can — and must — be restored. economies and more complex classes and increasing exports. While there are many dimensions trade and financial relationships While these new competitors on the to this nexus, in this report we focus necessitates updated management global stage present real challenges on what Japanese corporations can approaches. for the economies and businesses do. We chose this focus because 3) New models of innovation that have traditionally dominated while public policy initiatives are Encouraging entrepreneurship and world markets, they also offer an essential, the needed reforms will innovation within companies can opportunity for growth, improve- not be effective unless Japanese boost competitiveness and help cap- ment and greater competitiveness. corporations also play their part. italise on diverse ideas and efforts Indeed, competition breeds success, to support new and better product and Japan is in an excellent position In many ways, Japan is the world’s development and manufacturing. to capitalise on this critical moment first advanced economy to face chal- in history. lenges like an ageing society and how 4) Ageing economic metabolism to transform a mature economy so it Restructuring domestically focused And yet, despite Japan’s capabil- can thrive in an increasingly complex businesses as well as addressing ity to be the trailblazer, those both global business environment. How it Japan’s ageing workforce and inside and outside Japan feel its tackles these challenges will serve as need for skilled human capital extraordinary vitality ebbing. models for the world. are important for greater national prosperity.6 PwC
  • 9. Revitalising corporate JapanA prescription for growthCorporations need to embrace rapid transformational change withattitudes of boldness, risk-taking, velocity, flexibility and adaptability.1 3The arrival of Asia New modelsGlobalisation is a business of innovationimperative and Asia is a Entrepreneurship and co-creationfocal point. New, aggressive re-energise the innovationcompetitors are emerging processes as corporations pursuefrom Asia. open models.• How can you compete with • How well is your organisation your “fiercest competitor” adapted to working with from the new Asian 3I outsiders and new partners? NN economic powers? A O SI • How are you encouraging• What is the right collaboration among your VA A 1 TI approach to deal- employees and partners in ON making and alliances innovation? 4 in the region? Global Realities2 What is your company’s 4Increasing strategy? Ageing economic M 2Cbusiness complexity metabolism LIS OM PL BONew strategies are required Japan is the first advanced EX Ato deal with the growing IT Y ET economy to face challengesinterconnectedness in trade 4M like an ageing society andand financial relationships. transforming the organisation• How integrated are your to thrive. foreign operations within • Is your organisation using your business? capital efficiently?• Do your board and • How will you compete in executive team have a the global war for talent? diverse view of the world?Strategic prioritiesTransform Adapt Grow Focusthe organisation innovation your leadership pipeline your growth strategyLeaders need to champion Put yourself in the place of Corporations need to Consider aggressive growthmajor organisational changes an outsider — perhaps an understand the full range strategies such as MAto achieve success in the twenty- entrepreneur with a good idea of capabilities required to activity, direct investmentfirst century. Embrace diversity or technology that will advance successfully lead in today’s and partnerships. The objectivetop to bottom to have the talent, your business: How easy is it for world and makes changes to is to focus more effort onfresh perspectives and vitality these potential partners to work promotions, training, rotation opportunities that will deliveryou need in today’s world. with your organisation and find and compensation that will the type of value-added the right people? produce more global leaders. activities Japan needs in markets that are growing. Revitalising corporate Japan 7
  • 10. Executive summary Each of these Realities has enor- For Japan, there are specific areas • Transform the organisation – mous consequences for corporations where focused effort can produce Leaders need to champion major aiming to survive and prosper. real and lasting competitive busi- organisational change to enable ness advantages. On the whole, their companies to succeed in To be sure, Japan, the US, European Japanese corporations must do more today’s world. The talents and countries and other nations face to adapt. To be sure, many Japanese fresh perspectives of a wider similar challenges. The need for corporations are doing lots of the group of people, throughout the human capital, entrepreneurship right things, and some are doing organisation and in the gover- and innovation, and a pro-business many of the right things — but given nance structures, are needed. atmosphere — these and other the enormous size of the Japanese Japanese women, foreigners, issues will require solutions unique economy, not enough companies midcareer hires and the young to each country’s traditions, social are adapting fast enough to trans- generation are all groups that makeup, business strengths and his- form and thrive in the future. bring a huge amount of energy tory of success. and multitude of ideas. Japanese This type of rapid transformation corporations that embrace these Japan holds attributes no other requires new attitudes that will groups will find they are better country can match. To maintain embrace boldness, risk-taking, able to win against both domestic these advantages, it is important velocity, flexibility and adaptability. and foreign competitors. for Japanese business leaders to • Adapt innovation – Open up closely consider the many aspects of Armed with these attitudes, the organisation to accelerate the dynamic international business Japanese companies should innovation. Put yourself in the landscape. With external changes pursue a combination of four place of an outsider — perhaps comes an inevitable need to adjust themes of major actions to help an entrepreneur, small business and improve to access emerging navigate today’s complex interna- owner or foreign multinational opportunities and leverage existing tional environment: corporation — with a good idea, national strengths. technology or even a network8 PwC
  • 11. that will advance the aims of your not risk averse and have the skills progress simultaneously on a variety business: How easy is it for these to confidently guide their organ- of issues, including globalisation, potential partners to work with isations in new directions. governance, innovation, strategic your organisation and find the thinking, capital planning, MA, • Focus your growth strategy – right people? For most Japanese pay and performance management. Many Japanese corporations corporations, the answer is, not can become more aggressive, easy at all. Japanese corpora- Japan is at the forefront of change. with options including mergers tions are going to have to use new Its longstanding global leadership and acquisitions (MA) approaches like intrapreneurship gives the country an opportunity to activity, direct investment and and co-creation with outside act and adapt before many of its com- partnerships. As of yet, domestic organisations to re-energise the petitors. The challenges addressed markets have not rationalised, innovation processes required to today will be those that the rest of conglomerates continue to be be global leaders. the world attempts to overcome in too many businesses and tomorrow. In this sense, quick• Grow your leadership pipeline – corporations’ use of capital is action is important. Some Japanese Understand the full range of inefficient. Understand the unique corporations have already begun capabilities required to suc- opportunities that a high yen taking important steps to address the cessfully lead in today’s world. provides. The objective is to focus issues detailed in this report. With a Corporations must make changes more effort on opportunities that more robust and complete corporate to promotions, training, rota- will deliver the type of value- effort, there is no question that Japan tion and compensation that will added activities Japan needs in will continue to lead the world in produce more leaders who are markets that are growing. many respects. Action, attentiveness able to navigate the challenges of to innovation and detail, and courage today and tomorrow. Companies Of course, different corporations to overcome any challenge are the should open themselves up to are at different starting points, qualities that will win the day, all more merit-based promotion and and in different industries, so the of which are attributes Japan has external senior-level recruitment exact required mix of action will enjoyed for centuries. in order to foster leaders who are vary. Companies will have to make Revitalising corporate Japan 9
  • 12. 10 PwC
  • 13. IntroductionCorporate Japan’s rise to the centre of the globaleconomic system throughout the second half of thetwentieth century represents an economic achievementwithout parallel or precedent. During the postwarperiod, Japan laid the foundation for economicstrength, becoming the world’s second-largesteconomy in 1968 and experiencing explosive growthin the subsequent two decades. The reconstructionwas backed by an almost unmatched mastery of themanufacturing process; “Made in Japan” was firmlyestablished as the global benchmark for productquality. Japan’s global reputation for quality standsas the collective achievement of hundreds of enterprisesand millions of people. The strength of Japan Incis a testament to the exceptional characteristics ofthe Japanese people: personal diligence, respect foreducation, teamwork, loyalty, craftsmanship anda tireless work ethic. Revitalising corporate Japan 11
  • 14. Introduction Exhibit 1: GDP growth for developed vs emerging economies Gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP). In current international dollars 1980 2010 2030 32% 49% 51% 43% 57% 68% Non-OECD OECD Source: The World Bank: World Development Indicators; World Bank, International Comparison Program Database; and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): Perspectives on Global Development 2010: Shifting Wealth. Japan’s extraordinary dedica- When Japan began its export drive with fundamental changes to the tion to quality and engineering in after 1945, most market opportuni- domestic economy: the decline in every aspect of life means not only ties were found in North America working-age population is accelerat- its companies offer extraordinary and Europe. Today, the hotbed of ing, public debt levels are rising and products, but over the past 50 years, global growth is in Japan’s backyard. domestic consumption is declining. it has led a restructuring of global With a capacity for RD that rivals manufacturing, pressuring every the United States’, as well as the To capture today’s opportunities, company and country to up its capital resources needed to invest in Japan’s business leaders at home game and deliver much improved new ventures across the globe, Japan and abroad must move quickly quality at every price point in every is in a prime position to develop and decisively. corner of the globe. This dedica- and provide innovative solutions tion continues to manifest itself in to emerging market aspirations. Businesses cannot wait for new fields such as nanotechnology, government policies that, for robotics and material science, areas Yet, despite Japan’s capability example, seek to soften the impact that need to progress to improve our to be the trailblazer, those both of a stronger yen rather than quality of life. inside and outside Japan feel its focusing on strategic planning and extraordinary vitality ebbing. global diversification strategies. But the global economy is changing. The phenomenal achievements An important impetus for change Emerging markets are challeng- of postwar Japan are in danger must arise from the nation’s ing developed economies, shifting of being eclipsed by 20 years of business leaders. Some Japanese away from low-tech assembly “flat” growth at a time when other businesses are already taking towards research and development countries like South Korea and steps to adapt to today’s economic (RD)–driven innovation. To meet China took flight and are catching realities, and even more robust these new competitors on the global up to Japan. The erosion of historic private sector efforts will support stage, the nations and businesses competitive advantage is coupled a competitive and growing Japan. that have traditionally led world markets must pivot, adapt and grow. (See Exhibit 1.)12 PwC
  • 15. To identify the current challenges • How has the world changed? • What do companies need toand opportunities for Japan’s Shifts in the global economy can do to address these Realities?corporations, PwC spoke with over be summarised as four Realities: To effectively address the four60 business and political leaders, the arrival of Asia as an economic Realities, companies must faceacademics and other specialists powerhouse; an increasingly and overcome central challengesand combined this with extensive complex international business common to many establishedresearch and analysis. We began landscape; the emergence markets. For Japanese compa-with two fundamental questions: of new models of innovation; and nies, these include accepting an ageing economic metabolism. a measure of risk with their business strategies; embracing diversity throughout the corpora- tion, including in the boardroom; encouraging entrepreneurship; and fostering a more diverse workforce, including expand- ing leadership opportunities for women and foreign workers. This will require bold leader- ship. Indeed, Japan will be hard-pressed to navigate the fourNow is the time when everyone in Japan needs to Realities without addressingshare a sense of crisis and act quickly so that the entire these challenges.power of the nation can be applied to the issues athand. However, I feel a sense of crisis because that isnot happening.Eizo KobayashiItochu Corporation Revitalising corporate Japan 13
  • 16. Introduction The challenges identified here will Our interviewees highlighted the Change can be difficult, in part only increase. Nevertheless, Japan issues. We were struck by the con- because it presents a measure of has substantial advantages and sistent and considered messages we uncertainty. There is risk in pursu- strengths, which, leveraged cor- were given, whether the interviewee ing new approaches and ideas, but rectly, can support a renaissance in was from industry, the government as this report shows, the risks of Japanese competitiveness. or academia. This consistency from doing nothing are far greater. The such a broad group of distinguished business implications are presented Overall, while many Japanese cor- Japanese and friends of Japan gives as a series of provocative questions porations are adapting and pursuing us a great deal of confidence in put- that Japanese corporations should solutions (and we feature many of ting forward this report’s ideas in a be asking themselves. The purpose these in the report in special call-out bold and direct way. is to help Japanese companies to boxes), more need to do so in order begin the process of transformation to revitalise their prospects for eco- Of course, diagnosing the chal- that they require. We believe many nomic success. lenges is just a first step. In each of business leaders are already aware the sections, we start to describe the of the degree of change required, type of business implications that as evidenced by the responses of Japanese corporations will need to Japanese CEOs to PwC’s annual address to adapt and thrive. CEO survey. (See Exhibit 2.) Japanese CEOs see a greater need for change in some key areas than their counterparts elsewhere. Exhibit 2: Business leaders in Japan recognise the need for change CEOs in Japan 72% CEOs globally 57% 50% 38% 34% 24% 22% 12% Plan strategy Plan a major change Entered an Are “not very confident” changes to RD and alliance in past they have the talent innovation 12 months they need Source: PwC, Delivering Results — Growth and Value in a Volatile World: 15th Annual Global CEO Survey, 2012, Japan base: 169 CEOs of which 45% are from companies with at least US$ 1 billion in revenue in the last fiscal year and 73% are from organisations in business for over 40 years.14 PwC
  • 17. Japanese corporations, like theircompetitors, need talent modelsthat fully mobilise and engagethe best and brightest from Japan Changing the way we workand around the globe. This needmust be addressed and embraced Some leading companies in Japan are already taking importantthroughout the organisation. How measures to adapt how they work. More of Japan’s corporatecompanies manage, incentivise, community should address contemporary challenges andcollaborate and communicate with quickly, as global competition is accelerating. Among manytheir employees and partners can important actions, companies should consider making criticalset them apart in a world where changes to allow them to:highly skilled people are an increas-ingly scarce and valuable resource. • Harness the energy of entrepreneurs and employees alike – Large companies can make changes big and small toTo best identify the steps Japanese support their innovative employees and Japan’s communitycorporations — and in particular, of entrepreneurs. There are ways to empower employeestheir leaders — can take to improve (both young and old) and outside partners to share theirnational competitiveness and ideas and bring new approaches into their companies, evengrowth, it is important to under- when this may involve tough choices and challenging morestand the ways in which the world traditional business practices and approaches. Discontinuoushas changed and what that means innovation often means breaking with the location andfor the realities of today’s global culture of the mother company. In Japan, the concepts ofbusiness community. “incubation from within” and “intrapreneurship” are critical to fostering the risk-taking that Japan so sorely needs. • Cultivate leadership from new sources – Reversing today’s low retention rates of career-oriented women and opening companies up to talent from around the world can bring in new perspectives to top-level management and provide a competitive advantage in a complex marketplace. • Seek greater diversity in the boardroom – Diverse perspec- tives and experiences are an important asset for corporations, all the more so in times of change. The accelerating pace of change today — whether in technology, regulations or the global economy — means diverse perspectives and experi- ences at the board level can be a real asset to the corporation. • Refine the decision-making process – Enhancing and refin- ing chains of authority helps ensure companies fairly consider important new strategies or innovations that might disrupt existing business units. • Strengthen corporate governance – With global investors placing an increased emphasis on corporate governance, corporations should evaluate whether their governance struc- tures meet evolving international standards. Revitalising corporate Japan 15
  • 18. Reality 1 The arrival of Asia Opportunities on Japan’s doorstep16 PwC
  • 19. • Asia is now the world’s engine of economic growth.• Asia’s emergence is producing not only new consumer markets, but also world-class competitors.• Japan appears to be lagging some other economies in integrating with the overall Asian economy.• Competitiveness in the region can’t be achieved by simply trying to “catch up.” Japan Inc is too far behind already, so a different — and much more aggressive — approach is needed to fully participate in Asian growth. Revitalising corporate Japan 17
  • 20. Reality 1 We are moving to another stage. Now we are expanding exports of final goods to China, and those final goods that are produced in China are being consumed by the Chinese rather than by Americans. So in this real sense our economy is becoming more dependent on China. Takahide Kiuchi Nomura Securities Over the past 40 years, the world Asia. In 1970, only three countries in The rising attractiveness of nearby economy has expanded by a steady Asia had a GDP in excess of US$ 100 markets has not escaped the average of more than 3% per year, billion (in 2005 constant prices), led attention of Japanese companies. notwithstanding the decline of 2009. by Japan’s growing economic might. Outward foreign direct investment Masked beneath this stable path, By 2010, 16 countries in Asia were (FDI) headed to Asia averaged however, has been a dramatic change members of the US$ 100 billion club, 31% of total FDI in the 2005–2011 in the engine of global growth: The boosting billions of new consumers period, a trend that needs to accel- world’s economic centre of gravity into the Asian middle class. (See erate. For example, Kunio Yoda, has shifted demonstrably towards Exhibit 3.) CEO of Morito Company, Limited, a components supplier for automo- bile, train and apparel makers with global operations in China and the Exhibit 3: World GDP per capita, growth and population distribution U.S. and, later in 2012, Vietnam Customers from different markets are at different stages of development, each with vastly different needs and price points. Japan’s corporations accustomed to serving customers in and Myanmar, explains his com- the top left quadrant of this chart need to change their approach, product mix and strategy pany’s changing approach: “We are to successfully go where the new growth markets are. shifting control of the network to Hong Kong. It is a global market, Annual per capita income, US$ and so the president of the Hong Kong office is the top leader for our United States Rich (over $12,000) overseas subsidiaries. He is not an $50,000 executive but an operating officer, Middle ($4,000–$12,000) Japan Germany and all of the overseas offices have Global emerging middle ($1,000–$4,000) been placed under him. He reports France 40,000 everything to Japan but it is all Low (under $1,000) United Kingdom under him. We are moving manage- Size of bubble = population ment operations to the Hong Kong 30,000 headquarters little by little.” And the pace of economic integration Russia is accelerating. Aided by a strong yen 20,000 and aware of constraints on domestic Brazil Argentina growth, Japanese companies have South Africa recently ramped up their acquisitions 10,000 Indonesia across Asia. In 2011, the number of Egypt Algeria Angola China Japanese deals in the region rose Senegal India 42%, compared to a 26% rise in deals in Europe (which includes high-value -2 0 2 Pakistan 4 Kenya 6 Nigeria 10 12 deals such as Takeda’s purchase of Nycomed) and a decline in North Real GDP growth, 2011 (%) America. (See Exhibit 4.) Source: IMF and World Bank18 PwC
  • 21. Exhibit 4: Change in Japan’s outbound MA, by destination Outbound MA has grown accompanied by an increasing focus on smaller acquisitions in the last year; however, investment in Asia and other emerging regions still lags investment in more mature markets. Deal value, US$ billion Deal volume change, 2010–2011 $60 EU 50 Others Asia 40 44% 42% 30 EU 20 26% NA 10 North A America O 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 –9% EU European Union NA North America A Asia O Others Source: RECOF Corp.Small and medium-sized Japanese the factories and heavy industry as the right talent within these mar-companies are participating in that’s where the opportunity is,” kets, and leveraging their expertisethe deal flow. According to Robert he told PwC. “They are right in the to expand into other markets, is theEberhart, research leader of the middle of the global supply chain key. When the company entered theStanford Project on Japanese and, in my view, they’re driving it.” Thai market, for example, they sentEntrepreneurship, Japanese start- a Japanese manager with techni-ups in software and the high-tech For many large corporations with cal knowledge and manufacturingmaterials and machinery that sup- existing operations in Asia’s largest experience. Yet as the Thai economyport new factories across Asia are economies, expansion across Asia is grew, he said, “we came to need aseeing “explosive” growth. MA the next growth strategy. According general manager who could man-in the region is a core strategy for to Yukio Toyoshima, General age all of the business processes,these medium-sized firms. “Their Manager, International Strategy including sales, procurement, etc.,innovations are directed towards Division of Hitachi, Limited, finding to explore another emerging market Maintaining leadership in high-value niche markets Tochigi-based Mani, a producer of precision surgi- — among other products, the firm makes 100 cal and dental equipment, generates two-thirds of million disposable needles a year and each needle is sales today in Japan, the US and Europe, where inspected by a person — Mani plans to continue to its “tier one” customers reside. Offerings for “tier focus on equipment that surgeons and dentists need two” and “tier three” customers in developing to use by hand, including needles and root canal economies largely follow from the products sold to instruments. In addition, RD will remain in Japan, tier-one markets. staying close to what Mani believes are that market’s standard-setting demands. Yet as production shifts Toshihide Takai, Senior Executive Vice President to locations outside of Japan, Mani is more deeply and CFO, believes that developing Asian economies integrating management from across its operations, will eventually represent a majority of sales — that rotating foreign employees into Japan, for example. markets currently categorised as “tier two’’ will Indeed, Takai believes that within two years it is become much more important to Mani’s business. likely that either one or two senior company officials To protect its advantage in a space that a low- in its Vietnam production centre will become a cost, mass-producer will find difficult to take over board director for the company. Revitalising corporate Japan 19
  • 22. Reality 1 in order to build a new plant for the increasing its share of high-tech and Germany, which started with a business in Thailand.” The company services exports, and deemphasising similar high-value, manufacturing decided that the head of a new man- lower-value-added exports, where export–led economy as Japan in ufacturing plant outside of Thailand lower-wage Asian countries have the 1980s, has maintained its terms “should be a local Thai resource who already eroded competitive advan- of trade, while Japan has seen an knows our Thai business opera- tages. Yet, Japanese high-tech exports alarming decline — particularly tions very well. Such a cycle will be have actually decreased as a percent- over the last five to seven years. repeated when we grow our business age of total exports to China over the in emerging markets.” past decade. High-tech exports to What this shows is that Japanese India also showed a slight decline in companies are often not moving fast Implied within this conversation is the same period. This is not just an enough and are retaining lower- the need for a new breed of lead- issue for Japan, but for all high-wage valued activities even as they are ership — one which can operate economies. (See Exhibit 5.) increasingly attacked by lower-wage effectively both in Japan and globally. countries such as China. To date, Japan’s superb reputation But are corporations moving fast for quality, innovation and advanced Asia’s increasing importance is enough? As Asia’s most advanced technology hasn’t led enough not just producing new consumer economy, Japan should be thriv- Japanese corporations to find and markets; it is also creating new ing; its corporations are ideally fill the high-value niches where they competitors. Korea’s emergence placed both geographically and are uniquely qualified. In fact, Japan has led to new global champions in, strategically because of previous has seen an alarming decline in its for example, electronics (Samsung investments and existing economic export-pricing power. (See Exhibit and LG Electronics) and automo- relationships in the region. Yet 6.) That is, in a number of industries, biles (Kia and Hyundai), two sectors even as exports to the region have Japan is maintaining a position in where Japanese companies have increased, Japan’s share has not. products where the value is declining had great success historically. Many precisely at the time maintaining and other companies emerging from Japan’s export mix tells the story. As enhancing living standards in Japan China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Asian economies develop, Japan’s requires increasingly focusing on Singapore and other growth prosperity depends on maintaining or higher-value products. economies are battling Japanese Exhibit 5: Japan’s export structure to China and India Our generation has a Japan is experiencing a declining share of high-tech and services exports to China relative to its total exports. The export structure to India shows better performance, albeit from a chance because markets smaller base. are growing in India, % share of total exports China and elsewhere China in Asia, and we need to Services High-tech goods Mid-tech goods Low-tech goods Other get to those markets. 2000 Gen Miyazawa 2010 Yahoo! Japan 0% 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 India Services High-tech goods Mid-tech goods Low-tech goods Other 2000 2010 0% 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 High-tech, mid-tech and low-tech are terms classified by the OECD. High-tech includes the majority of ICT products and also refers to electronic engineering, computers and office equipment, precision and optical equipment, aerospace and pharmaceuticals. More information is available at: docserver/download/fulltext/5lgsjhvj7nkj.pdf?expires=1343065200id=idaccname=guestchecksum=7CB5ECD0 D19E00A01F24393FA89C8287 Source: Oxford Economics/OECD20 PwC
  • 23. corporations in their own home Exhibit 6: Decline in ratio of export prices to import pricesmarkets, across Asia and the world. The terms of trade — the ratio of import prices to export prices and an important indicator of the competitiveness of a nation’s exports — are declining for Japan while holding steadyServices are playing an important for the United Kingdom, Germany and United States. The decline shows that in a number of industries, Japan is getting less for its products.role in Asian growth. Indeed, growthin services industries will outpace 160 Japan GermanyGDP growth in most Asian econo- US UKmies for the foreseeable future. 140Aside from demands from growing 120middle-class markets for services,increasing intra-Asian businesspenetration will create new services 100opportunities as modes of com-munications, capital markets and 80regulatory policies across thosemarkets adapt. And, of course, 60 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010services exports tend to be highvalue-added. No doubt, there has (Year 2000 = 100)been some progress. Retailers Source: Oxford Economics/Haver Analytics— notably online, in domestic con-venience stores and in global chainssuch as Fast Retailing Company’sUniqlo brand — are making sig-nificant headway.1 But Japanesecompanies overall are just catchingup — and need to quicken the pace.1 “Japanese Banks in Asia: Lending a Hand,”The Economist, May 19, 2012. Revitalising corporate Japan 21
  • 24. While the world is evolving to system thinking, unfortunately Japan is becoming a parts supplier. The margins are getting thinner and thinner, and [companies] still justify their existence because of this, yet it is very dangerous because you are on the lower end of the cost-profit side. William H. Saito Intecur, KK Exhibit 7: FDI growth to Asia Companies can do their part; policy A relatively lower rate of FDI growth means that Japan’s share of investment into important changes are also important. Takeshi Asian markets, particularly China, is declining rapidly. Niinami, President and CEO of Lawson, one of Japan’s leading % growth in FDI to Asia 172% Japan: % share of FDI into China convenience store operators, told 2005–2010 PwC, “Bold reforms and revisions of regulation must be undertaken 12% decisively in order to root out vested interests and create jobs. This will 10 give hope to the younger generation and activate the nation.” 8 Japanese investment in Asia has 66% 6 room to grow. Japanese companies 60% 54% have long experience working in 4 Asia as they’ve shuffled production 33% over the past few decades. That 2 experience needs to shift from the arm’s-length supply relationships to 0 complex market-facing collabora- World Japan UK Germany US 1996 2000 2004 2008 tions, as we cover in Reality 2 and Reality 3. Source: Oxford Economics/Haver Analytics Japanese foreign direct investment is not keeping pace with other major investors. (See Exhibit 7.) The absolute level of FDI is not the most important factor to consider; after all, it can be wasted. Yet given the overall weight of the Asian economy and Japan’s own economic structure, Japan should play a significant and Myanmar meaningful role investing in Asia. Similarly, Japanese MA remains Myanmar offers an example of the significant opportunities that below that of Europe and the US, exist in frontier markets as well as the large role South-South relative to the sizes of their econo- trade can and does play. For example, Myanmar’s GDP is fore- mies, notwithstanding a record cast to expand by 4.8% annually in 2012 and 2013, driven by year in 2011. Japanese corporations large investment projects funded by investors from China, South continue to sit on a large stockpile Korea and Thailand in natural gas and infrastructure. Growth is of cash despite ideal conditions for projected to accelerate to an average of 6.5% a year in 2014–2016 acquisitions, including a soaring yen due to anticipated increases in foreign investment following the and a need to enter growth markets. expected lifting of sanctions in 2013 as the local government pro- gresses on human rights issues. As Northern firms begin to gain “Global competition is getting harder access to this market, the risks and opportunities presented by and harder for Japanese compa- existing South-South trade and investment will come to fruition. nies. They have to change, probably by restructuring by themselves, domestically and also globally,” said22 PwC
  • 25. Many of my customers are moving to Vietnam, Indonesia and now Myanmar. A ton of companies are in Myanmar right now. We are going to open [a sales] office [in Myanmar too]. Kunio Yoda Morito Company LimitedTamotsu Adachi, Managing Directorand Co-Representative in Japan forThe Carlyle Group, “They need toexpand their global businesses by The rise of collaborationacquiring global companies andforeign companies; also, within in AsiaJapan, consolidation is probablycritical for a lot of industries.” The infrastructure sector illustrates how multinationals use new strategies involving complex alliances. InfrastructureWhile there are examples of Japanese projects, such as new power generation plants, are complex andcorporations that have done an have components that extend for years. Services, maintenanceexcellent job adapting to the rise of programs, skills training and project financing are no longerAsia, these seem to be exceptions. sideline programs for infrastructure companies in Asia; theyMany mid-sized Japanese companies are an integral part of a product offering. It often takes severalstill view their main competition as partners to bring these offerings to market.domestic rather than global. On top of these structuring complexities, heightened com-“Globalisation is obviously impor- petition from low-cost rivals based in Asia and changingtant but what is needed to achieve environmental standards are influencing market dynamics.globalisation is more than simplygoing abroad. It is also extremely Given these realities, Electric Power Development Co., Ltdimportant that globalisation is (J-Power), is pursuing what Yoshihiko Nakagaki, a Senior Boardin-bound too, that foreigners come Advisor and former President, calls integrated infrastructureto Japan,” said Eizo Kobayashi, systems and project-based solutions to expand in Asian markets.Chairman of Itochu Corporation. The clean-coal technology company’s Build-Own-Operate-“We must deeply understand Transfer (BOOT) investment in a coal-fired power generationthe ways of thinking, laws, regula- plant in Indonesia in 2011 is a case in point.tions, commercial ethics, businesspractices, religions, history, cultures Working together with Japanese trading group Itochuand other characteristics of the Corporation and Indonesian coal company PT Adaro Energy,people of each country in order the deal involves the construction and operation of a new plantto promote globalisation.” in central Java. J-Power’s ultra-supercritical (USC) technol- ogy for higher energy efficiency and lower carbon emissions is an important component of the joint offering. “As we faceWe cannot do everything vehement competition in this export business, our quality inin Japan. We have technology determines whether or not we can win a deal. This is going to be the next challenge we will face,” Nakagaki told PwC.RD centres in Europe “What enabled us to win the deal was our technology develop-and the United States ment results.”but we are shifting to Engagements for J-Power in developing Asia won’t end withmore emerging markets; construction. The company expects to continue with skillsfor example, to India training and technology development in the countries where it operates. This too, Nakagaki believes, is part of the attractionand China. of its offering for Asian customers.Toshiyuki ShigaNissan Motor Company, Limited Revitalising corporate Japan 23
  • 26. Reality 1 Business implications Where is your company Fast-growing Asian economies are within the region is as important as focused in Asia? evolving quickly. The spread of deciding in which countries to mar- low-cost assembly and production, ket your products. These decisions an array of trade pacts and infra- involve a host of considerations such structure build-outs are pushing the as intellectual property (IP) strategy, boundaries of business-to-business tax credits, local market requirements opportunity in high-value niches and access to talent. A successful for those domestic markets. growth strategy will, in part, be Understanding where to best locate driven by a thorough assessment manufacturing or development assets of these and many more factors. Given the diversity in markets — The processes that make opera- On top of locally driven adapta- and in standards — how will your tions efficient in developed markets tions, companies are optimising company achieve scale in your don’t always work in regions where global capabilities where they can priority Asian markets? suppliers are undercapitalised and to achieve cost, talent and market infrastructure insufficient. This is access goals. This is evident in that particularly true as different com- almost every major company is petitive models such as state-owned establishing RD centres around enterprises thrive in this region. the globe and they are sourcing from an ever-wider base of global as well as local suppliers.24 PwC
  • 27. What is the right approach to Any strategy for Asia needs to have management needs to “think locally” deal-making and alliances in MA as a key tool. And yet, the to take advantage of any newly the region? traditional Japanese approach to acquired assets. acquisitions will not work in these rapidly evolving markets. A hands- There are a variety of partnership off strategy — where few operations structures — from joint marketing are integrated and local manage- or development agreements to joint ment runs largely independent of ventures and acquisitions — that headquarters after an acquisition — can be used in the pursuit of growth faces diminishing returns in a region and establishing a presence in these that is rapidly changing. A cohesive, economies. As a result of the speed company-wide integration strategy with which these alliance models can better balance global and local are changing, companies need capabilities, achieve synergies and, to actively manage their various in turn, establish the flexibility relationships. The rewards of required to respond more quickly to effective management will be high opportunities, as they are more likely (in the form of profitable growth) to spread from investments in these — and the costs of not doing so high markets than from headquarters. as well (in the form of lost IP or Whichever the approach, however, competitiveness). How is your company planning Needs differ greatly from country to in another. Product and services to address the changing needs of country, and even city to city. As the offerings need to be tailored — or emerging middle classes in Asia? (updated) saying goes, “if you’ve built from scratch — for the par- seen one emerging market, you’ve ticular needs and tastes of emerging seen one emerging market” — in middle-class segments. Brands often other words, don’t assume that need to be rebuilt too. what worked in one place will work How can you compete with your Within Asia, new competitors are “fiercest competitor” from the growing rapidly. From giants like new Asian economic powers? Samsung to government-sponsored entities in China, understanding the competition is a critical first step. From there, it is imperative to consider novel approaches to these markets in response. One way to do this is to have management, including local representatives in new markets, imagine that they have been given access to capital and local talent to compete against their own company. Most executives know their company’s major market weaknesses — the soft underbelly, if you will — and where the opportu- nities lie in a market for a firm that can move with a new model. This exercise helps senior executives find new ways to Henk Braam/Hollandse Hoogte/Redux Revitalising corporate Japan 25
  • 28. 26 PwC
  • 29. Reality 2Increasing businesscomplexityCompanies are managing a greaternumber — and a wider range —of stakeholders• Interconnectedness among economies is vastly increasing the number and diversity of meaningful economic relationships.• Complexity manifests not only in trade and financial relationships, but also in stakeholder relations.• This environment requires organisational principles that are different from those that have succeeded in the past. Revitalising corporate Japan 27
  • 30. Reality 2 It comes as little surprise that 59% Exhibit 8: Two decades of increasing complexity of CEOs around the world believe Despite remarkable global economic growth of 67% over the last 20 years, many emerging markets are more impor- factors related to the global economy are growing even faster. The result is a world tant to their future growth than with deepening complexity. developed markets.2 Yet, when thinking of emerging markets, some analysts focus attention on a select few economies with size and influ- ence — think of acronyms like BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) or N11 (the “Next 11”). Those groupings alone don’t fully capture how broad and diverse the global economy has become. If South World GDP: 67% growth America, developing Asia, Africa and the Middle East were combined into a single market, it would represent 85% of the world’s population, half of the world’s GDP and an aggregate Mobile subscriptions: growth rate much higher than that of 47,919% growth developed economies.3 Hedge fund industry: 5,079% growth That’s an enormous opportunity — World data stored: 4,185% growth but one fraught with complexity. The Value of stocks traded: 1,079% growth growing interconnectedness among fast-growing regions and countries Regional trade agreements: 600% growth has vastly increased the number of Market cap of listed companies: 498% growth economic relationships — in trade and investment, culture and people World shipping fleet: 329% growth — that an organisation must keep up Air freight transport: 237% growth with. (See Exhibit 8.) Trademark applications: 127% growth 2 PwC, Delivering Results — Growth and Value in a Volatile World: 15th Annual Global CEO Survey, 2012. Countries with US$ 1 trillion GDP: 100% growth Available at: download.jhtml. 3 PwC uses the term SAAAME to describe this Source: PwC analysis based on data from various sources, including UN, World Bank, World Shipping Association grouping of South America, emerging Asia, Africa and and government databases the Middle East. See PwC, Project Blue: Capitalising on the Rise and Interconnectivity of the Emerging Markets. Available at: services/projectblue/rise-of-the-emerging-markets- saaame/rise-of-the-emerging-markets-saaame.jhtml.28 PwC
  • 31. Why can’t we run the decision processdifferently to support [local staff] sothat they can innovate themselves,decide on the business, the speed, howto communicate? You can’t succeed inthe US or Europe in the Japanese way.You need people to do it on their own.My responsibility was really to stylethat kind of management organisation.Ray HatoyamaSanrio Company, Limited Operating in a G-Zero world “It’s not enough to invest in partnerships. These them. The ability to pivot is a critical advantage. companies must invest in a culture of adaptability.” Bremmer provides examples of some “pivot” Ian Bremmer, President, Eurasia Group countries, like Brazil, Indonesia, Turkey, Vietnam and Singapore. Africa, the world’s most under- G-ZERO - - JEE-ZEER-oh - - n rated growth story, has become a pivot continent. A world order in which no single country or And not all pivot countries are in Asia or emerg- durable alliance of countries can meet the chal- ing markets: on the back of recent energy deals, lenges of global leadership. What happens when Canada has successfully pivoted from an exclusive the G7 is history and the G20 doesn’t work. US sphere to one that includes China. In his new book, Every Nation for Itself — Winners What are the lessons for business leaders? and Losers in a G-Zero World, geopolitical strategist Multinational companies will have to move past Ian Bremmer argues that a new political reality traditional models of cross-border collaboration is taking shape, defined by the lack of a single and integration. The successful companies will be power or alliance capable of providing global adapters — those that understand the changing leadership. The resulting leadership vacuum and competitive landscape and are agile to exploit the diverse political and economic values have pro- advantages it provides. Perhaps that means invest- duced global gridlock when coordinated action is ing in markets with different tax or regulatory required on many issues, from the stability of the landscapes. Or it can mean transforming a state- global economy and climate change to cyberattacks, backed rival into a commercial partner by offering terrorism, and the security of food and water. something that a government-controlled enter- prise can’t get anywhere else, like unique expertise Who wins and who loses in this exceptionally or specific technology. Adaptability, however, is fluid international environment? The key is to not one-size-fits-all. Successful companies in the be a “pivot state,” a country able to build profit- G-Zero world will be the ones who can “pivot” eas- able relationships with multiple other countries ily and quickly to respond to fast-evolving markets, without becoming overly reliant on any one of cultures, economies and governments. Revitalising corporate Japan 29
  • 32. Reality 2 Established patterns of doing an OECD analysis, over the past 30 As are the risks. The profound business are changing. Traditional years, G7 economies have become effects of deeper economic inte- centres of commerce are being more concentrated, with the top gration started to become more bypassed. Sovereign wealth funds four sectors representing 55% on appreciated after the Great East in the Middle East, for example, no average of total value added as of Japan Earthquake in 2011. The trag- longer need to flow capital through 2007.4 edy devastated the entire country of banking centres in London, Tokyo Japan, not just the Northeast area. and New York. They can invest Complexity creates tremendous But businesses around the world directly in Latin America, develop- new management challenges. in sectors such as automotive and ing Asia and Africa. And consider As Yoshihide Fujii, CEO of Toshiba electronics also realised that their how Africa, with its fast population America Incorporated, explains, supply chains were much more growth and huge resources, cer- business leaders face a much wider exposed to the region’s tragedy tainly adds to the complexity of the range of strategic choices. “Where than they first thought. As leaders world economic system. do you allocate RD? Where do you understood how quickly the effects do designs, manufacture, procure of distant events could spread, One consequence of this is that the parts and components, and cascading both financial risks and economies have become more where do you sell? The logistics are inventory supply chain risks, they specialised over time. According to very complex.” began to reposition inventories to erect firewalls across their supply chains and to seek greater transpar- ency — especially into the strength and resiliency of their business partners — from their networks to assure robustness. And business continuity planning was reinforced as a critical exercise. In one survey during the fall of 2011, a quarter of CEOs across Asia Pacific planned to build more redundancy — not less — into their supply chains.5 Just 10 years ago, those moves would have been inef- ficiencies targeted for elimination under “lean manufacturing disci- plines.” Now they are important risk management responses to an integrated environment. Complexity is not limited to the supply chain. Today’s complexity is giving rise to demands for greater transparency as diverse pressures of governance and accountability in different locales rise, argues David Kennedy, Director of Harvard Law School’s Institute for Global Law and Policy. The more businesses rely on collaboration between diverse 4 OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry, “Competing in the Global Economy: Sectoral specialisation.” In OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2011. Available at: 5 PwC, The Future Redefined: Asia Pacific at an Inflection Point, 2011. Available at: PwC
  • 33. Complexity’s new demands: QA withHarvard Law School’s David KennedyDavid Kennedy is Manley O. Hudson Professor of Law the significance of industry-set and industry-monitoredand Director of the Institute for Global Law and Policy at manufacturing standards for disciplining their ownHarvard Law School, a member of the Council on Foreign supply chains. That exact analogous process is nowRelations, and past Chair of the World Economic Forum’s happening across a wide range of other elements of theGlobal Advisory Council on Global Governance. Here, he business process.speaks with PwC on the implications of rising businesscomplexity for executives and corporate directors. PwC: How is management changing as a result? DK: The challenge is to develop and sustain a culturePwC: What is behind the drive for more corporate of leadership that is responsive to this newly integratedtransparency? and diverse global environment. Management teamsDavid Kennedy: First and foremost it is coming from that are multinational, that involve people who havebusiness partners who need to understand who they are had a lot of global experience, who are familiar withdealing with. If they cannot see your exposures across dealing in diverse business and regulatory environ-geographies, then there is a risk, which will change ments at the same time are going to be more easily abletheir assessment of investing with you. It may not be to assess those risks in a satisfactory way. Building thedecisive, but it will be a factor. judgements and insights of diverse components into the central leadership structure is a challenge to everySecond, it is coming from an investment community. industry that has long depended upon leadership candi-They want to understand the management structure dates who have come up through the lines.and corporate governance patterns in the same waythey understand accounting practices. PwC: Is there a particular challenge for Japan withThird, it’s coming from a diverse regulatory environ- global business complexity?ment. We continue to live in a world in which the DK: Japan has supported their national champions ateconomy is becoming increasingly integrated but the home, supported their penetration of foreign markets,political and regulatory environment for that remains but they have not seen their role as participating in afragmented. global strategic discussion about the regulatory playingIf you put the pressure from business partners and field for transnational business. Supporting Japaneseinvestors together, plus the internal pressure to be able companies in an increasingly divergent globalisedto make your business model and regulatory prac- economy will mean partnering with business in quitetices visible and compliant with diverse regulatory different ways from those characteristic of the export-demands, then you have a recipe for a reexamination of led period of expansion.governance structure. And that requires a kind of man- Leading Japanese industry has benefited fromagement innovation that will be difficult and is difficult governments that understood very precisely howfor everyone. to move the levers of their national regulatory and financial systems to support national leaders as theyPwC: What are some of the ways corporations are penetrated the global market. The game has changed.becoming more visible? They must now figure out how they can change theDK: The ISO14000 standards in environmental man- environment for their companies abroad rather thanagement are an example. They provide a vocabulary of change the structure of incentives for them withintransparency across businesses. Japan was very quick to Japan, as businesses insert themselves into a morebecome a leader in compliance because they could see dispersed global economy. Revitalising corporate Japan 31
  • 34. groups of people, the more they Renault-Nissan Alliance, told the The electronics need to open up on procedures and French Chamber of Commerce processes and thus accelerate the and Industry in Japan in March: industry, including shift from disclosure to dialogue. “Corporate social responsibility semiconductors, is one of is not a fad. It is the building of Corporate governance “is probably relationships between companies the cores of monozukuri. the weakest area that Japanese and communities. Ethically and Japan has lost out companies have,” said Carlyle’s morally, it’s the right thing to do — miserably and why? Tamotsu Adachi. Weak financial and it’s also the smart business disclosure among a minority of choice because corporate social In my mind, it is because companies “is definitely hurting the responsibility ensures competitive- of the marketing. image of Japanese companies and ness and allows us to understand the Japanese business community.” current and future customers on Shoichi Oka Japan Industrial Solutions (JIS) a truly personal level.” Different governments have differ- ent expectations for private-sector Japan’s corporations — like actors. Other stakeholders have corporations everywhere — become more demanding and new need to deal with complexities stakeholders, such as corporate such as increased economic social responsibility (CSR)–driven integration. When the world was groups, have arisen, increasing simpler, executives could control the dimensions of demands. And, production conditions in a few key of course, technology makes this locations and understand customer all happen in a compressed time dynamics in relatively similar core frame. Product cycles in consumer markets from headquarters. electronics, for example, have accel- erated to 18 months or less with Today, there is a greater need to software upgrades in between. ensure a central strategy is adapted to fit operations in different mar- The auto industry, for instance, kets. That usually means devolving depends on good collaboration greater authority to increase the with the community where produc- corporation’s ability to respond to tion sites are located. As Carlos local conditions. Thus, decisions can Ghosn, Chairman and CEO of the be taken under greater uncertainty, with greater speed.32 PwC
  • 35. We need drastic change in order to respond to global competition. Maybe it’s not just a leadership problem, but (one that is) an overall aspect of the company. Takahide Kiuchi Nomura SecuritiesOn balance, Japanese corpora- Exhibit 9: Japan deal activity lags mature economy peerstions have been slower to adaptto today’s complexities. They have Average of MA from 2005–2010 Domestic MA as a % of GDPtraditionally been more deliberate as a % of GDP Outbound MA/GDPwhen considering major strategic Inbound MA/GDPdecisions. A conservative approachto investing risk capital has served 7.0Japanese companies well in the 6.5past. Yet being deliberative can 5.7actually put more capital at risk and 4.9it is now exposing them to fast-moving competitors — both from 4.0outside Japan and from Japaneseupstarts — that are more ready 2.8and willing to take big bets quickly 2.4 2.3 1.9 2.1(See Exhibit 9.) 1.8 1.4 1.4 0.7 0.5Ray Hatoyama, Director andGeneral Manager of Sanrio UK US France Germany JapanCompany, Limited, the companybehind the Hello Kitty brand, Source: Thomson Reuters, with PwC analysisbelieves more responsibilitiesshould be held within operationsin priority markets to speed updecision-making and address inno-vation needs. “You can’t succeedin the US and in Europe with the If the yen stays high, and Japanese companiesJapanese way,” he said. “You need are smart, they will buy more and more assetspeople in local areas to do it on their overseas, and try to integrate them. That isown. My responsibility was reallyto implement that kind of manage- where their lack of ability to interface becomesment organisation style.” a real problem. Kenneth Grossberg Waseda Marketing Forum Revitalising corporate Japan 33
  • 36. Reality 2 Acquisitions in an era of complexity Japanese corporations are in the midst of a wave of accelerate the expansion of its infrastructure and cloud MA activity; the surge in deals in 2010–2011 — and services in the Indian market. “Speed is key,” said Akira extending into 2012 — is bigger than previous booms in Arima, President and CEO of NTT Communications the late 1980s and early 2000s. Now, as then, a strong Corporation. “Everybody is talking about cloud-based yen and high corporate cash holdings support the acqui- services. You need to enter the markets as soon as pos- sitions drive. sible to obtain a leadership position.” But much has changed. A recent Economist Intelligence Sister company NTT Data Corporation, an IT service Unit (EIU) analysis says this time, targets have been provider, has been focused on large IT markets, still strategic rather than the sort of “trophy” deals seen mainly in the US and Europe, with the aim to become in previous MA bursts. Acquisitions today tend to be one of the five biggest IT vendors in the world. “When smaller and targets tend to be closer to core competen- we think about our growth in terms of the next 10 or cies. Growth in deal numbers is strongest in Asia, where 20 years, it seems really obvious that there is no future companies are seeking to extend their market reach. for companies that rely on the domestic market,” said The EIU further concluded that Japanese buyers are Takashi Enomoto, a corporate advisor and former also more likely today to seek full control over their Senior Executive Vice President and Executive Board acquisitions, suggesting a move away from the minority- Member. “The hurdles [for NTT Data’s acquisition tar- stake investments that restricted buyers’ influence to a gets] get higher and higher. The companies that we are limited sphere of operations such as sales.6 approaching after having whittled down our long list are entirely different from the companies seven years As recent deals at an active acquirer such as the Japan ago and even three years ago.” telecom conglomerate NTT Group show, growth strate- gies can be achieved by acquiring access to markets NTT Data has changed how it approaches acquisitions, outside of Japan. NTT Communications Corporation, incorporating lessons from previous experience in the a long-distance and international communication and early 1990s. “In hindsight, it is clear that in those early information and communications technology (ICT) days we were somewhat naïve in our projections,” solutions provider within the Group, is taking a control- said Enomoto. “However, those early experiences ling stake in data centre operator Netmagic Solutions to now enable us to do what we are doing today.” Top 6 The Economist Intelligence Unit, Buying Up the World: Japan’s Outbound MA Spree and the Bid for Value, March 2012. Available at: PwC
  • 37. management is involved in face-to-face meetings with How quickly an acquisition is integrated, with athe management team of target companies, often in process that makes the strategy transparent to allEnglish. “It is very important to understand not only stakeholders, is important. A PwC survey of deal-the financial figures, but also who they are.” makers found a clear and direct link between the speed at which integration activities are pursued, the rate atEven with the most disciplined approaches to acquisi- which integration goals are achieved and deal success.tions, the risks of failure are high. As Kathy Matsui, In fact, those reporting higher levels of deal successChief Japan Strategist for Goldman Sachs Japan — especially financial and operational success — alsoCompany, Limited, noted, “It is one thing just to acquire reported a tendency to align leadership styles and speakan asset, a company abroad, and say, ‘I’m 20% global with one voice in three months or,’ but it is quite another thing to run the business…How are you integrating that business? How are you Talent, in particular, must be addressed directly ingoing to make that business 1 + 1 = 3 as opposed to postmerger integration. Buyers who are accustomed1 + 1 = 2?” to keeping a foreign acquisition (and its managers) at arm’s length from headquarters — to allow the businessDoubts remain whether Japanese acquirers, particularly to continue doing what it’s good at — are finding thislarge companies, in general are moving fast enough approach will no longer suffice. Just as IT systems aretoday to fully integrate target companies once an acqui- now integrated quickly at the close of the deal — pre-sition closes. The EIU report terms this the “one area in cisely because the advantages of a fully linked globalwhich Japanese companies seem to be still off-course.” network are so clear — so too must global manage-The larger the acquirer is, the more difficult it can be to ment teams integrate. The strong rise in MA activitymove quickly through the various stages of an acquisi- in the past two years is a welcome sign, but these dealstion, starting with the investment decision. Tamotsu will need to follow through with strategies that tackleAdachi, Managing Director and Co-Representative in important integration hurdles and retain pivotal talent.Japan for The Carlyle Group, said the private equity As Carlyle’s Adachi noted, “In order for Japanese com-investment group finds a lot of opportunities to work panies to really manage their acquired companies well,with midcap companies, but added that “as far as the they really have to bring the global management teamlarge corporations are concerned, they are still very into the Japanese management team. That is the key.”slow at making decisions.” Revitalising corporate Japan 35
  • 38. Reality 2 Business implications Have you assessed and prepared How integrated are your foreign Are members of your manage- for the impact of global risks? operations within your business? ment team in agreement on the important stakeholders in Having a plan for different scenarios Organisations that are able to your organisation? — from food shortages in Africa to speak with one voice globally and a Euro-zone breakup to an outbreak are more fully integrated, from IT Corporations operating globally are of cyberwarfare — is essential. You systems to management, are better dealing with a much wider array of can’t prepare for every risk that’s equipped to compete in a more com- partners and stakeholders than in the out there — try to do so, and the plex global business environment. past. Businesses need to understand costs would be overwhelming. So If all decision-making takes place who is shaping the agenda for their you need to focus on the threats at home, foreign operations will companies and industries — and how with the greatest potential impact, become slow and inflexible. They the globalisation of their business and forcing yourself to consider will be out-manoeuvred by smaller, is transforming stakeholder maps. these risks invariably increases the more nimble, local competitors. At Management needs to constantly leadership team’s grasp of a very the same time, if far-flung opera- reassess who has the most at stake complex situation. As an example, tions are granted a large degree of from their operations. Relatively considering supply chain risks autonomy, headquarters is missing small increases in the transpar- today, some companies have identi- out on understanding the market ency of businesses — internally (on fied alternate outsourcing providers dynamics on the ground. Finding promotion practices, for example) if their primary provider’s contin- the right balance is a key challenge and externally (in explaining gency planning is less mature. In for today’s top management. corporate decisions to sharehold- the end, this kind of exercise should ers, for example) — can pay big lead an organisation to be more dividends. This is especially true as flexible and adaptable. Japanese corporations come into contact with new stakeholders from increasingly diverse perspectives and backgrounds than they did in the A discussion about what governance is past. With recent scandals fresh in needs to take place; otherwise, it will be their minds, investors are calling for more disclosures or improvements to de-minimised to an internal control or corporate governance. compliance discussion, which is not really governance, it is only a part of governance. As the size and complexity of your operations increase, how can you Shoichi Oka ensure that your board has the right Japan Industrial Solutions (JIS) information to effectively oversee the business and communicate effectively with investors?36 PwC
  • 39. Do your board and executive Are you planning your post- How are you modelling for futureteam have a diverse view of acquisition strategy to meet constraints on energy supply?the world? tactical integration goals? Restrictions on electricity supplyThe more that dialogue and Integration of acquisitions must — and rising costs — are deeplydiscussion at the highest levels of happen quickly and systematically concerning to Japanese manufactur-the organisation are infused with to successfully capture anticipated ers, but the new realities of energydiverse global experiences and value. This is true even in Japan constraints will affect Japaneseperspectives, the better the com- where important measures must business more broadly. The summerpany can grasp how the world is be taken to preserve the culture of 2011 was challenging for all inchanging. Diversity can help keep a and value of acquired institutions. Japan as building temperature con-board’s collective skill sets sharp for The period of time between deal trol and electric usage — includingoverseeing and mentoring manage- announcement and deal close, and in manufacturing facilities — werement and being connected. the first 100 days postclose, are limited to make up for the decreased absolutely critical to preparing the supply. Corporate management combined company to maximise should consider drawing up mid- to value over the long term. Your long-term energy supply and usage approach to deal integration will plans, based on the national energy vary with geography and transaction. policy. Changing environmental standards regarding emissions, for example, are an important compo- nent of such plans. Revitalising corporate Japan 37
  • 40. 38 PwC
  • 41. Reality 3New models ofinnovationAre Japanese businesses adapting theirapproaches to innovation?• Japan ranks highly with patents in nanotech, biotech and energy alternatives, key technologies that will lead future growth.• Global innovation today embraces open and collaborative approaches to attract more ideas and technology — and to lower the risk.• Japan’s innovation abilities are clear, but one of the issues is whether companies are exploring enough avenues with customers and other partners to expand their innovation capacity. Revitalising corporate Japan 39
  • 42. Reality 3 Anyone can manufacture or design, but I still think we can find new spaces for us to survive or become more successful. I am very confident that technology will continue to progress. Yoshihide Fujii Toshiba America Incorporated With advancing technologies driving US. There are many components The capacity for innovation in whole new industries and shaking to success in innovation, and Japan is not in question. Japanese apart established modes of doing harnessing knowledge in new firms have surprised and delighted business, being innovative in part ways is one of them. customers worldwide over decades simply means being open enough with hit products developed by to see what’s coming. To do that, a Breakthroughs will still come from engineers in a process continually company has to join the conversation RD centres, but innovation now refined by diligent factory workers — and that conversation has become encompasses the continuous need — the genba. increasingly global. to improve and reinvent products, processes and services and even And Japan’s technology achievements The amount of knowledge and brands. That task involves a lot are highly regarded by researchers experimentation in business is more people — inside and outside worldwide. When asked to rank 10 exploding, as are the number of the organisation. Thus businesses top nations’ pole positions in 10 RD- countries, companies and people are working far more closely with intensive areas, researchers scored developing innovative products, suppliers, customers and a wide Japan as first or second in 4 out of ranging from mobile payment network of external partners to 10. Crucially, Japanese researchers systems in Kenya to refrigeration extend competencies. In short, they received high marks in areas that in India to tablet computers in the are innovating how they innovate. are likely to drive significant future growth: nanotech, biotech and energy efficiencies. (See Exhibit 10.) Exhibit 10: Global researcher views of leading countries in RD by technology research area Automotive Composite, Environmental Healthcare, Information Instruments other motor nanotech sustainability medical, communications other non-ICT vehicles other advanced life sciences technology electronics materials biotech (ICT) Japan #1 US Germany US US US Germany Japan #2 US UK Japan #2 Japan #2 US Germany Japan #3 Germany China Germany China China UK Japan #4 India China South Korea UK China China Germany UK Source: Battelle/RD Magazine, 2012 Global RD Funding Forecast, Dec. 201140 PwC
  • 43. Japanese companies have to adapt to cope with changing circumstances but they also need to keep their corporate strategy or culture of fostering, or cultivating, people within the company. Professor Atsushi Seike Keio UniversityYet bringing inventiveness to Exhibit 11: Info-tech exports: % of share of ICT manufacturers’ total exportsmarket is more challengingtoday for companies. Threats toJapan’s comparative advantages 1995 2000 2010in technology are most apparent 47in high-value ICT goods (thisincludes, for example, computers,communications equipment,consumer electronics and related 32components). By 2010, China had 30 29become the preeminent exporter in 22this segment, with the US secondand Japan dropping to third. (See 17Exhibit 11.) 12 11 10 10 9 10 8 8 6 6 4Japanese RD spending is not being 3comparatively matched by market Japan US Germany Korea France Chinashare in RD-intensive exports.(See Exhibit 12.) Source: Oxford Economics/Haver AnalyticsOne possible explanation forthis misalignment is offered by Exhibit 12: RD spending and export trendsMichael Porter, who highlights thatJapanese corporations tend to focuson product feature enhancement RD spend as % of GDP, 2010 RD-intensive exports as % of total manufacturedto the detriment of other types exports, 2010 25%of deeper innovation — businesssystem, place in the economic 21%ecosystem, etc.7 20% 18%7 Michael E. Porter and Scott Stern, “National 3.4%Innovative Capacity.” In The Global Competitiveness 15%Report 2001–2002, Oxford University Press, 2002. 2.8% 2.8% 2.2% 1.8% UK France Germany US Japan Germany Japan US UK France Source: Oxford Economics/OECD/Battelle/World Bank Revitalising corporate Japan 41
  • 44. Reality 3 Many global competitors for business RD, up from 12 in start-ups as an alternative to have learned to collaborate 1995.8 Open and collaborative traditional vendor relationships internationally on innovation approaches are being adopted to that are strictly under the company’s and in RD in more open ways. attract more ideas and technology control. This type of innovation A wave of initiatives in the form of and to lower the risk, not merely for is also occurring outside sectors RD credits and other incentives cost savings.9 traditionally considered RD underscores the importance of intensive. For example, the economic openness for policy- Greater openness can take many experiences of IHI are instructive. makers to secure business growth dimensions. Some businesses As we detail nearby, the industrial and foreign investments. Today are experimenting with partners conglomerate discovered investing in more than 20 OECD countries, on joint marketing and product new companies can also inject IHI’s including Japan, offer incentives development, with technology expertise into wholly new areas. 8 Andrea Beltramello et al., “Opening Japan: Comparisons with Other G20 Countries and Lessons Learned from International Experience.” OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2011. Available at: 9 Indeed, an OECD analysis in 2010 found that firms that collaborate spend more on innovation than those that do not collaborate, suggesting costs are not the driving force for shared innovation endeavours. The lack of innovation, and the aversion to risks, are the outcome of monoculture, an absence of diversity. Toshiyuki Shiga Nissan Motor Company, Limited42 PwC
  • 45. Inside high: Mazda’s Seita Kanai on innovation and branding strategiesGetting closer to customers How does a manufacturer with a smaller sales volume than itscan also drive innovation. But peers compete in the global innovation stakes? We asked Seitait becomes difficult with more Kanai, Representative Director and Executive Vice President atdiverse end markets. “In the Mazda Motor Corporation and a key figure in the automaker’spast, we may have been overly monozukuri innovation strategies, to discuss balancing newpreoccupied with technologies technology development with cost considerations and changingfrom an engineering perspective, customer demands.where we needed to consider whattechnologies were really good from Perhaps surprisingly, staying competitive in a tough global mar-the customers’ perspectives,” said ket begins with a longer planning horizon than many businessYukio Toyoshima, General Manager, leaders would consider possible, given accelerated technologyInternational Strategy Division at cycles. Most of the technology in new cars today, Kanai believes,Hitachi, Limited. “We need to focus can be overtaken in about three years.more on our customers’ perspectives,particularly in social innovation and “Even if we established a goal three years in advance, everyonesocial infrastructure.” would gather reasons as to why they would not be able to meet it, and declare their inability to carry it through. In actual fact, they would probably not be able to do it. However, if it were six years in advance, we would also attempt to undertake projects that we do not know we would succeed at until we try. In two and a half to three years, we can terminate the attempt if it appears to be failing.” Kanai continued, “If it goes well, the start line would have shifted forward significantly at that point in time. After that, we would only need to succeed in mass production.” So given the challenge of fast-moving customer demands and a longer product cycle for new models, how does Mazda gear up to compete with larger rivals? Kanai, an avid baseball fan, describes a “strike zone” mind-set. Strong brands will attempt to capture the centre, but Mazda knows it must aim differently and has been successful doing so. “The markets, segments and eras that we produce our prod- ucts in are the elements that contribute to changes in the strike zone,” Kanai said. “For instance, the strike zones for sports cars and the B-cars, and on top of that the so-called minivans, are different in Japan, the US and Europe. So too for emerging economies and developed countries. It is also different today compared with 10 years ago. It moves and evolves.” Kanai concluded that he is confident as he prepares to pitch his fastball. “Larger automakers can and do aim for the centre of the strike zone. Yet if we first took aim at the same course and threw, it would not enable the customer to find a reason to buy a Mazda. Too much competition. That is why Mazda does not aim for the centre, but shifts away from it. All Mazda cars must be distanced from this vector, rather than be in the centre of the market. Where do we target? Inside high.” Revitalising corporate Japan 43
  • 46. Seeking solutions: Incubating new businesses in mature companies “Corporate venturing” adopts the role typically played do it as a headquarters function,” he said. Full support by venture capitalists to connect companies more from top IHI executives released the venture team to go closely to emerging technologies. The experiences of after various collaborative projects with start-ups on the Yukiya Nakagawa, who ran the first such fund for IHI, sharp end of new, disruptive technologies, such as clean a 150-year-old industrial conglomerate that produces energy and desalination processes. They expanded their ships, jets and turbine engines, show how this more visits for research to 300 companies, some of which open approach to innovation can evolve in Japan. were focused on technologies well removed from IHI’s core competencies. In 2002, IHI sent 11 young managers to work with a venture group in Boston to explore the potential of over Among other investments, IHI would eventually make one hundred start-ups based in the US, Canada and a US$ 25 million equity investment in a US-based Europe. By 2006, they had cemented alliances with battery-maker. They also signed a licensing agreement seven of these firms by creating comarketing or joint in 2011 that helps IHI access customers in Japan with RD projects. new products that include, for example, hybrid engines for tugboats. Tugboats require massive power over a The team was making the right connections for IHI’s short time; rechargeable batteries are effective for start- core businesses, precisely what they were expected to ing up an electric motor and help decrease emissions do. Yet it was not enough. Nakagawa, an engineer by to meet environmental standards on diesel fuel. “Our training, believed what IHI needed was investments company did not realise that this new technology could that could seed new business opportunities. be applied to our products, and now we have found a commercial market for it,” he said. Engaging with early stage start-ups to support existing businesses “could not be considered efficient,” Nakagawa Looking back, Nakagawa, now a senior advisor for IHI, told PwC. Division heads with deep experience in their believes that collaborating closely in marketing and markets and a short-term market view on product life- product development with start-ups in targeted tech- cycles had little appetite for innovative improvements. nologies is critical for innovation success. This creates a relationship that can be more productive for both Thus four years into project, Nakagawa’s team moved parties than a classic vendor relationship. “It’s impos- out of RD and operations and into IHI’s Corporate sible to find the embryo of new businesses by reading Planning Group. “We concluded that if you are going to the literature or sitting in conferences. You have to go start new businesses in a mature company, you have to to the labs and the factories,” he said.44 PwC
  • 47. Reality 3Japanese companies are outside of their home markets. natural barrier to outside ideas andcollaborating — but not enough Japan trails only the US in absolute creative thinking. As Akira Arima,by some measures. While Japan’s spending on RD, and spent NTT Communications Corporationresearchers and institutions more as a percentage of GDP in President and CEO, noted, “Thegenerate significant patents, 2011. Nonetheless, European model whereby products researchedinnovative Japanese firms have majority-owned affiliates outspent in our research institute werebeen less likely to collaborate with their Japanese counterparts developed and manufactured byinternational researchers. In 2010, on RD spent within the US in Japanese manufacturers, thenjust 3% of patent applications were 2008.11 Separately, a survey of US released in markets worldwide,filed listing a foreign co-inventor companies in 2011 found that only has already collapsed.” Instead,in Japan, as opposed to 9% of EU 6% plan to expand RD operations Arima recognises that a morepatents and 12% of US patents.10 in Japan, as opposed to 30% in open approach to innovation is China and 24% in India.12 taking hold. “In reality, our formIn addition, while Japan invests of innovation would probably besubstantially in RD, Japanese To be sure, collaborative innovation in the sense of combining the latestcompanies aren’t spending isn’t easy, particularly in large technologies in the world.”resources outside of Japan at organisations. The inward focus ofthe same rate as some peers are very large organisations creates a With the commitments to innovation already in place, innovation models in Japan can adapt to work more effectively in today’s global economy, generating results that more closely reflect the skills and investments beingExhibit 13: The highly competitive world of high-tech goods placed in RD and innovation efforts. Collaborative innovationJapan: World: approaches are an important toolSectoral output: High-tech goods Market shares in high-tech goods in this regard.13% of GDP % of world exports of high-tech products6 10 OECD, Directorate for Science, Technology and 25 Industry, Economic Analysis Statistics Division, “Patent Applications Filed under the PCT: Patents with5 Foreign Co-inventor(s),” International Co-operation in 20 US Patents, 2012. Available at: aspx?DatasetCode=PATS_COOP.4 J 11 National Science Board, Table 4–12, “RD 15 Performed by Majority-Owned Affiliates of Foreign3 Companies in the United States, by Selected NAICS Industry 10 G of Affiliate and Country: 2008,” Science and2 UK Engineering Indicators 2012. Available at: F1 5 12 Battelle/RD Magazine, 2012 Global RD Funding Forecast, Dec. 2011.0 13 There is one model of innovation with proven power 0 in the Japanese context: kaizen, the process 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 1989 1999 2009 of continuous improvement that engages research engineers and factory workers alike. Japan might J Japan G Germany US United States do well to dispatch expert veterans of its auto assembly lines to fine-tune innovation processesSource: Oxford Economics/Haver Analytics F France UK United Kingdom in those same companies. Revitalising corporate Japan 45
  • 48. Reality 3 Ultimately, successful innovation requires courageous leadership. Nissan Motor Company COO Toshiyuki Shiga cites an example where leadership from the top was critical in Nissan’s decision to take on innovative risk. In 2007, Nissan was tagged as an environmental lag- gard while archrival Toyota reaped rewards from its hybrid technology. CEO Carlos Ghosn decided to roll the dice on electric vehicles. But in tak- ing this gamble, he had to overrule Nissan’s “powertrain tribe,” engi- neers strongly wedded to the internal combustion engine. “The powertrain is the heart of the car,” Shiga said. “With a hybrid, you still have an internal combustion engine, so the engineers could accept that. But to eliminate the internal combustion engine was — wow — to completely go against all the expertise of the industry. In the end, I think innova- tion requires strong leadership and a diversified organisation.” Much of innovation today requires driving deeper changes. Bolder leadership is required to move away from sheltering innovation as a way to enhance existing products and services. The growing scale of innovative capacity around the world means that it is increasingly easy to be left behind by disruptive technological changes. Businesses that encourage innovation within the company — such as the intrapreneurship scheme employed by IHI — may well be better equipped to deal with the new reality.46 PwC
  • 49. Innovation in action: QA with TwitterJapan’s James KondoPwC: Twitter opened its first office outside of the PwC: What are you seeing in general in howUS in Japan in 2011. Why? Japanese firms are approaching innovation?James Kondo: Japan is one of our top markets in JK: I do see a tremendous amount of innovation.terms of the number of Twitter users. Japanese users When we go out and talk to engineers, there are huge,are also very active and tweet a lot. From a commercial huge pockets of ideas that we run into. People who areperspective, Japan is one of the top online advertis- truly smart, doing great things. One thing that Japaning markets in the world. Also, Japan leads the world really needs to do as well as it used to do, and it is prob-in many mobile technologies — whether it be mobile ably more important because the marketplace is justgaming or electronic payments. By meeting the high more competitive, is apply the intensity with which onestandards of Japanese users and advertisers, and by scales globally. The skill set needed to do that is what Icollaborating with the most innovative mobile technol- see as the missing link these days. Whenever I see greatogy firms, Twitter would gain competitive advantage to ideas, at least in my industry right now, those greatscale those learnings across the region and the world. ideas are also in Japan. People have tested them. TheyWe had to be here. are in this marketplace. Look at electronic payments in Japan. Nowhere elsePwC: Twitter played an important role in Japan in the world will you see that many stores just usingin 3/11, acting as a lifeline at times when people electronic payments on mobiles as you do see regularlycouldn’t use their mobiles. How has that changed in Japan. Yet this practice is not spreading because,things for Twitter? for one, Japan may just be comfortably large enoughJK: Because this is the first place where we encountered for those companies to operate in and so they are nota huge disaster, in a hugely mobile, well-connected, high- aggressively pushing it out, creating joint standards,tech country, we now know what we can be doing within getting it out there in the market and scaling drastically.seconds. We are definitely fleshing that out, and I think But I know that in three years there are probably goingthe more Japanese users are in on it, the better, but it has to be five other places in the world that are going toalso become a source for innovation within Twitter to say, have electronic payment formats.“Okay, let’s build a framework.” I do think that companies need to be much moreWe hadn’t done it by design. It is interesting in hind- aggressive about doing something on a global scalesight. We knew that Twitter usage really picks up much faster. That is primarily about top managementwhenever there is a disaster because people want to get decision-making.real-time information and they also want to find real-time solutions. For example, in Japan, people who werestranded would type #stranded in Japanese and the fireservices could geolocate them and pick them up. Therewere a lot of hashtags created, like “pregnancy,” whichwas developed by women who were about to give birthand were in places where the hospitals couldn’t operate.Doctors could answer questions on that hashtag to help. Revitalising corporate Japan 47
  • 50. Reality 3 Business implications How is your organisation One way of looking at this question resistance from management incubating innovative ideas? is to put yourself in the place of an focused on cost or the day-to-day outsider — perhaps an entrepreneur, activities of the business. In order for a small business or a large foreign an organisation to support innova- company — with a novel idea, tech- tive thinking and help incubate an nology or even a network that will idea, it needs to be able to balance advance your business aims. How the “everyday” with the new. Good easy is it for these people to work product development practices will with the right people in your organ- allow this. But will the process allow isation to move the idea forward to truly innovative ideas to survive? the testing stage and eventually to In some cases, this may even mean market? Potentially disruptive inno- establishing organisational separa- vations often encounter significant tion for the new idea or model. How well is your organisation Steps businesses can take range side seeks to extend their reach to adapted to working with outsiders from small considerations — for new customers. Being flexible on and start-ups? example, adapting to the cash where incubation takes place is an management requirements of start- important factor in the success of a ups — to larger transformations partnership. Incremental enhance- that can involve ceding control by ments are the norm in a well-funded forming joint marketing or product and experienced RD organisation, development and licensing activities but market-changing innovations with smaller companies rather than often emerge from the outside. The large, established vendors. Working challenge is recognising good ideas, with smaller companies is much and taking the risk to support them. more about partnerships as each Do you have broad perspectives Innovations must look beyond involving the customer earlier from across your value chain the product itself to the complete in the development cycle represented in your development system of environment, products to ensure their needs are fully process? and services that ultimately delivers met. A new technique called value to very particular customer co-creation can significantly segments. This often means support innovation success.48 PwC
  • 51. How are you encouragingcollaboration among youremployees and partnersin innovation?Being open means fostering anenvironment internally whereemployees from different functionsand from different geographic oper-ations are collaborating. Openingup the development process cancounter a culture where RD divi-sions in large organisations competeagainst one another for resourcesrather than against emergingcompetitors. Talented people, too,should be able to actively partakein the global information flow andbe given a degree of autonomy topursue their ideas. 3M and Google,for example, set aside blocks of timefor some employees to do this.
  • 52. Reality 4 Ageing economic metabolism The longer Japanese corporations delay responding to demographic realities, the more painful the adjustment50 PwC
  • 53. • With Japan’s working-age population now in decline, business leaders should expect intensifying competition for talent.• Higher capital costs are a distinct possibility as Japan seeks to attract foreign investors to service its debt.• Domestic operations need to adapt to the reality of a slower growth environment. Tomorrow’s competitors are not just in Japan; they come from around the world. Revitalising corporate Japan 51
  • 54. Reality 4 Rising public debt and ageing popu- lations are trends common to many Graduates used to want to join large, famous mature economies. Japan is no different in this regard. But Japan companies and then work there for the rest of their is also in the vanguard. How Japan life. The C Generation [Millennials] are interested and its leading businesses manage in developing their skills — they want to do what these trends will be a lesson for other nations. (See Exhibit 14.) they want to do as individuals. Yoriko Kawaguchi Japan’s economic expansion in the National Diet of Japan period after the Second World War coincided with a growing popula- tion and a shrinking dependency ratio. During Japan’s economic boom, these favourable demograph- ics combined with an increase in Exhibit 14: Working-age population trend projections worker productivity — fuelled by education and technological Index of working-age population (1.0 = 1980) advancement — to create extraordi- nary prosperity. 1.5 That demographic dividend has now reversed. Japan’s popula- UK tion hasn’t grown since the 2005 F census figure of 126 million. With K no change in net immigrant or birth 1.0 rates, there will be 2.2 working adults for every person at retire- ment age by 2025, according to G current projections.14 Productivity J gains have slowed just as Japan will face relentless upward pressure on its expenditures to support social 0.5 programs including public health- 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 care and eldercare. J Japan G Germany K Korea F France UK United Kingdom 14 United Nations, Department of Economic and Source: UN Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs Social Affairs, Population Division, World Population Prospects, the 2010 Revision, 2011. Available at: PwC
  • 55. We have to increase the capital market here. And governance is essential to doing that. It is also essential that there be a more dynamic and efficient MA market to reallocate assets to their best uses faster. Nicholas Benes The Board Director Training Institute of JapanThese factors have led to a What are some consequences of These are not easy consequences to“decrease in economic metabolism” this slowing economic metabolism? swallow. Yet there are a few ways byas characterised by Bank of Japan Consider, for example: which companies could get ahead ofGovernor Masaaki Shirakawa.15 these trends in domestic operations. • With limited opportunities toThe pace of change in Japanese reinvest in Japan, there will bebusiness has equally slowed. Face the realities of an ageing increasing pressure for firms toAccording to Toshihiko Mukoyama economic metabolism at home. invest outside of Japan if theyat the University of Virginia, Growth abroad is an imperative. But are to grow.Japanese companies start up and the Japanese domestic market is tooclose at a rate about 4% per year, • Paradoxically, the need to attract large to be easily ignored and willsignificantly lower than the 10–12% foreign portfolio investors to buy continue to be an important sourcerate in the US.16 Japanese shares and bonds will of revenue. A fundamentally differ- rise, as older Japanese spend ent strategy will be needed at home their savings in retirement. versus in the faster-growing markets abroad. Without the traditional • A shrinking domestic workforce secular growth drivers of population will intensify competition for increases, household formation and skilled talent. a growing consumer class employed • Continued deflationary pressure in the private sector, revenue will affect housing, office space, growth will be difficult to achieve and industrial and commercial in the domestic market. real estate markets.There are more than 900 corporations in theHitachi Group. We are planning to create adatabase and install a common grading systemfor every position throughout the group.Yukio ToyoshimaHitachi, Limited15 Jon Hilsenrath et al.,“Transcript: Shirakawa on Japan’s Economy,” Wall Street Journal, March 1, 2011.Available at: Greg Ip, “From Zombie Banks to Zombie Mortgages? Japan misallocated capital during its lost decade. How the U.S. can avoid its mistakes,”Wall Street Journal, September 10, 2010. Available at: Revitalising corporate Japan 53
  • 56. Japanese firms will have to focus You should promote people with potential. on cost control, exiting unprofitable business lines and consolidating You should let them know that they can climb up market share to achieve greater pric- in the company and align your interests together. ing power and economies of scale on the one hand, and building new busi- Ray Hatoyama Sanrio Company, Limited ness lines that match demand from a changing demographic on the other. The firms that can accelerate their internal metabolism will be best positioned for this long-term change in the economy. Given the economic outlook, Toshiba’s Yoshihide Fujii expects more restructuring to take place as demands for higher return on sales force businesses to reconsider strat- egies in Japan. “There will be a few executives who can fully understand what is happening right now. There will be a few executives who will take proper action. On the other hand, there are many executives who will not do that. The winners will take over the losers.”54 PwC
  • 57. Reality 4 If people can really have a work/life balance, that would be really good. I think that is something that can attract new graduates. Kanai Doi Human Rights WatchBridge persistent skills gaps. Two common talent practices in par- Tokyo University (Todai) may moveAs the working-age population in ticular are leaving many Japanese the academic start to the fall. ByJapan declines — and graduat- companies less competitive in the aligning with international norms,ing classes get smaller each year global market for skills: A rigid tal- the university hopes to attract more— changes to the way Japanese ent intake structure that relies on foreign students and to enablecorporations manage workforces new graduates and a compensation/ Japanese graduates to competeare inevitable. Managerial recruits promotion system that is largely more readily for opportunities out-that move in step with one another, based on longevity. Combined, side of Japan.through rotations designed to culti- these features help sustain a generalvate deep corporate knowledge, will lack of diversity in the Japanese Without similarly bold reforms togive way to immediate needs to plug workforce, reinforcing traditional open their own organisations toskills gaps at home and in opera- modes of work at a time when new a larger pool of candidates, manytions outside of Japan. approaches are needed to get the Japanese companies may find most out of the best. themselves on the wrong side ofThe strains are already present: the global talent equation. A call80% of managers for Japanese Highly skilled and/or entrepreneur- for radical policy reform from thecompanies reported difficulty hiring ial people have many more choices. Keidanren, the influential big-busi-in 2011, the highest of any country If they can’t find what they need, ness club, in an April 2012 reportin Manpower Group’s global survey. they are likely to leave. This shift that advocates sweeping changesRapid growth in Asia and the degree in favour of greater opportunities to meet the looming demographicof specialisation required to oper- is happening now. Consider that crisis underscores the urgency.ate in many regions today virtuallyensure that the difficulties in hiringwill not abate any time soon. Revitalising corporate Japan 55
  • 58. Reality 4 Lack of diversity is depriving women rank highly in global mea- companies of the perspective they sures of educational attainment. need to navigate a big, compli- This represents a failure to engage cated world. Women are Japan’s half of Japan’s productive capacity. neglected resource. If Japanese female participation rates rose to levels of the US, this “I am living proof that business alone would add 2.6 million people performance can be enhanced when to the workforce, raising the GDP a woman makes headway in a sector growth rate from 1.2% to 1.5% over that has traditionally been domi- the next two decades, according to nated by men,” said Fumiko Hayashi, Goldman Sachs’ Kathy Matsui. Mayor of the City of Yokohama and formerly a top sales performer in the The outsize economic impact of auto industry, who rose to the rank gender equity is strongly sup- of president of both BMW Tokyo, ported by analysis conducted by Corporation, and Tokyo Nissan Auto Keio University and the National Sales Company, Limited. Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.17 Japan’s GDP is currently A strong voice for working women the third largest in the world, but in Japan, Hayashi is pulling for more by 2050 they estimate that real nursery spaces to ease the return GDP could fall by more than $USD to work following maternity leave 1.1 trillion, reducing Japan to the as well as for assistance for women ninth largest. This decline can only starting new businesses. “I believe be stemmed by improved gender that we must act proactively so equity in the workplace: an improved that women can fully realise their female participation rate. The potential and grow into professionals economic simulation projects that, who can compete on the global even with a participation rate as high stage,” she told PwC. 17 Kotaro Tsuru, Takero Doi and Takashi Shiraishi, Japan has the lowest female labour Global Japan: 2050 Simulations and Strategies participation rate among the OECD (summary), Keio University and National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, April 2012. Available at: nations, even though Japanese It is obvious that Japanese society has to change drastically. Even compared to the other East Asian countries like South Korea or Taiwan, Japan is still behind in terms of the proportion of women in parliament, in CEO-class positions in the business sector, in mayoral or municipal board chief positions. Professor Mariko Hasegawa Sokendai, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies56 PwC
  • 59. as Sweden’s, Japan will drop to theworld’s 4th largest economy (behind It was a little bit difficult to developthe U.S., China and India). a career in a Japanese company afterAkiko Domoto, the first female getting an MBA. There are not tooGovernor of Chiba Prefecture (2001–2009), believes more women in the many [women] like me who haveworkplace is “absolutely critical” to two kids, quit their last company,Japan’s future. A tireless advocate of and then went back to a Japanesewomen’s rights, she founded the firstwomen’s gender-specific health sys- company again.tem that became a model for Japan Ikuko Tanakaand was recently honoured by Prime Benesse Holdings, IncorporatedMinister Noda for her decades-longefforts and studies relating to genderissues in Japan.Engaging female talent means muchmore than providing access to childcare for those who are raising fami-lies. There are a range of issues toaddress, such as the underutilisationof women who do return to workand the unconscious bias of bothmen and women in the workforce.A recent study found more women(49%) leave the workforce becausethey feel stymied at work than leavefor reasons related to child care(32%). (See Exhibit 15.) As MarikoHasegawa, Dean of the School ofExhibit 15: Japanese women represent a ready source of highly skilled talentHighly skilled women are underrepresented in the Japanese workforce... 65% of college-educated 8% of businesses have women 74% of female college graduates women are employed in senior management off-ramp from their jobs US: 31%, Germany: 35%...but it’s not just because of child care issues 77% 43% 66% of Japanese women who are of women succeed in would not have off-ramped out of the workforce would rejoining the workforce if there had been flexible like to rejoin US: 73%, Germany: 68% work arrangementsSource: Government survey, 2009; Catalyst; Sylvia Ann Hewlett et al., Off-ramps and On-ramps Japan, 2011Note: Off-ramp is a leave from employment of six months or more Revitalising corporate Japan 57
  • 60. Reality 4 Japanese companies are looking at global resources. They want to hire them. The problem is that they are not set up in a way that is actually attracting the right people to them. They will tend to go for a male who has graduated from Waseda or Tokyo University. David Swan Robert Walters Advanced Science at Sokendai, the reentering the workforce after child- for skilled foreigners is a policy issue Graduate University for Advanced birth, and it shuts out global talent. for government, but businesses Studies, noted: “The whole system should recognise that if the heart is based on men working full-time, In a global business, this inability and soul of its global corporations supported by women who cover to admit new midcareer blood has are to remain at home, global talent the home. If you are a man and you obvious disadvantages. To grow in must come here. Otherwise, key become a father and you want to markets around the world, business business functions will inevitably take parental leave, it is very diffi- needs to attract the best and brightest migrate closer to rich talent pools cult. Among civil servants, only 1.7% local talent with an unlimited career and growing markets. of fathers take that leave. In private path. But for gaijin in Japan’s global companies, it is much less.” companies, the ladder usually hits a With its exceptional infrastructure, ceiling. Those who are not Japanese, skilled and diligent workforce, Experienced (i.e., midcareer) hires and don’t speak Japanese, have had clean and vibrant cities and demo- are another underutilised resource. limited long-term career potential in cratic rule of law, Japan has every Where once thought to promote a Japanese firm. In a global war for opportunity to selectively attract the cohesion and loyalty, the remain- talent, this handicaps Japanese com- world’s best and brightest. Given ing vestiges of lifetime employment panies against competitors able to a talent-management system that may now be sapping the vitality of take full advantage of a much larger encourages diversity and welcom- Japanese firms. The general lack English-speaking talent pool. ing immigration and tax regimes, of midcareer mobility opportunity Japan’s leading cities could chal- leads unmotivated lifers to stay Immigrants represent less than 2% lenge Singapore and Hong Kong put; it presents a barrier to women of Japan’s population. Easing access as Asian hubs for global business.58 PwC
  • 61. Even men who quit or jump around will have more challenges than people who have been with a company for a long time. The continuity part, regardless of children, is the key to how Japanese companies think. Kahori Miyake Claire’s Nippon Company, LimitedRaise capital efficiency despite low oil, water, iron or capital — if access return on capital when that cost ofcosts of capital. To many people is cheap, corporations and societ- capital is free?”we’ve interviewed for this report, two ies tend not to use it efficiently. As adecades of slow growth — and weak result, Japan uses natural resources Companies that think differentlyreturns — have made it harder for very efficiently, but it is a spendthrift have opportunities at hand. As con-Japanese corporations to take risks. on capital. sumers age, the domestic economyInstead, among many of those reliant will need to evolve to provide dif-on business lines in Japan, there Low capital costs reduce incentives ferent services and even products.remains an intense price competi- to make portfolio-wide changes to Think banking ... or retail ... or realtion to capture more market share. generate more growth — or curb estate. Companies in many sectors“Japanese companies in many cases losses. To Goldman Sachs’ Kathy will need to change their productare getting very poor at taking risk, Matsui, this limits “the sense of portfolios. Yet, by one measure,and therefore are building up a lot urgency” in many companies in domestic MA, not much changeof cash, and not efficiently maximis- sectors that have yet to face tough has already occurred — despiteing the use of capital,” said Nicholas competition and the reality of a ready access to capital. DomesticBenes, Representative Director of shrinking population until recently. MA is lower than most peer coun-The Board Director Training Institute “If you have a cost of capital or tries, even as overseas acquisitionsof Japan. A key contributor to the hurdle which is zero, which it is, have picked up pace. Meanwhile,ageing economic metabolism is a and which it has been for many acquisitions by foreign investors inpersistently low interest rate. As years, if you are a manager, would Japan — a second important sourcewith any resource — whether it is you try very hard to aim for a high of consolidation as well as new ideas, managerial know-how and technologies — also remains low. Japanese corporations need to inject an increased sense of urgency into their activities. They also need toAlthough gender is not widely recognised as a top drive productivity improvements and innovations in their domesticpriority issue, it is absolutely critical to Japan’s future. activities, particularly in sectorsWithout women’s full and equal participation in the such as healthcare that will con- sume more of society’s resources.workforce our economy will decline steeply from now. Most of all, Japan needs to moveAnd unless women get the support they need to be faster than ever so that productivityboth mothers and workers, our population will also increases outweigh the demographic headwinds and living standards aredecline steeply. maintained and improved.Akiko DomotoChiba Prefecture (2001–2009) Revitalising corporate Japan 59
  • 62. Reality 4 Business implications Does your strategy recognise the Your strategy and your product mix capital markets. Think banking ... changing domestic environment will need to match the realities of an or retail ... or real estate. Companies in Japan? ageing population and its dramatic in many sectors will need to change effects on consumer needs and their product portfolios. Are you taking enough risks Many companies accept a different growth — and weak returns — have in Japan? rate of return on business lines in made it harder for Japanese business Japan than they do for international managers in general to take the operations. There are many valid kind of risks that can raise returns. reasons why there may be a gap, yet Instead, many are focused in an it’s clear that two decades of slow intense battle for market share. Is your organisation using If, as we project, the cost of capital capital efficiently? starts to rise as Japan competes for foreign investment to buy its debt, operating conditions could change markedly in Japan. Moreover, if the company’s cost of capital reflected an emerging markets base, you might think differently. And emerg- ing markets are increasingly where you’ll be operating.60 PwC
  • 63. Are you creating an environment The opportunities for the best and or flexibility — to key segmentswhere high-value people will the brightest to work where they of the workforce. Diversity is anwant to stay and contribute? want is growing, making com- important component of a world- petition for global talent fierce. class talent base. Bringing together Companies need to know what employees from different back- makes an employer attractive — be grounds helps promote creativity it compensation, risk-taking cultures and risk awareness. What policies are effective in keeping highly qualified women in your workforce? Women represent a great under- utilised source of talent in Japan. But companies may need to change policies and cultures in order to hire, retain and motivate them. For example, greater flexibility in the workplace — ranging from hours worked to greater autonomy over tasks — are important to women, and increasingly, they are important to men too. Do you have a clear view of pivotal roles within your business? Understanding which roles that create (or destroy) disproportion- ate business value is a component of strategic workforce planning. Businesses can use engagement studies, for example, to identify barriers to high performance within specific groups of employees. Revitalising corporate Japan 61
  • 64. A final word Japan’s core challenge is This is not to suggest that Japan’s • Boldness and risk-taking – to intelligently evolve how public and private sectors become Japanese companies and execu- more like those of another country tives can no longer assume they to work or that cherished values and tradi- will be successful without risk. Corporate Japan has reached a tions be forgotten. Rather, Japanese Companies need to take risks, and pivotal moment. Business oppor- society, and indeed the world, is in a the individuals who take risks tunities in Asian markets are state of rapid flux and change. The cannot have their career ended if expanding, while growth is slow- efforts that win the day will address an initiative ends in failure. ing in European and US markets. the challenges many countries • Velocity – Many Japanese cor- Challenges at home mount as the face today, though in a uniquely porations have moved too slowly population ages and energy supply Japanese way. in reaction to a rapidly changing uncertainty grows. To survive in the world. Domestic markets have fast-moving global currents, busi- PwC believes companies are going not rationalised, conglomerates ness leaders must be prepared to to require new attitudes if they are have continued to be in too many embrace change, as well as the risks going to successfully navigate these businesses and, at a cost of capital that inevitably come with it. Realities. Success has bred caution. close to zero, Japanese corpora- Corporations become more focused tions need to make a concerted We have described in this report on defending what they have and effort to move more quickly. four key Realities shaping the busi- forget the fundamental drivers of ness environment and the set of their original success. • Flexibility and adaptability – responses corporations should con- Decision-making should be done sider. Yet, to successfully navigate As we discussed above, Japanese with a view that direction is likely these Realities, Japanese companies corporations are going to have to to change, and Japanese corpora- need to adjust accordingly. Some take stock of their own approaches tions need to do a much better have already begun to take action, to a changing world. In many job up front of building this flex- but a more robust private sector cases, the new attitudes will need ibility into their strategies. effort is needed. to embrace:62 PwC
  • 65. Of course, changes in attitude are all groups that bring a • Grow your leadership pipeline –can only come from the top — huge amount of energy and a Understand the full range ofone of the most urgent tasks for multitude of ideas. Japanese capabilities required to suc-corporate leaders is to spearhead corporations that embrace these cessfully lead in today’s world.changes in attitude throughout groups will find they are better Corporations need to makethe organisation. able to win against both domestic changes to promotions, training, and foreign competitors. rotation and compensation thatAs discussed above, each of the will produce more leaders who • Adapt innovation – Open upRealities gives rise to a series of are in tune with the four Realities. the organisation to acceleratebusiness implications. How must Companies should open them- innovation. Put yourself in theJapanese corporations adapt to selves up to more merit-based place of an outsider — perhapsthese business implications? Armed promotion and external senior- an entrepreneur, small businesswith a change in attitude, PwC level recruitment in order to foster owner or foreign multinationalbelieves there are four key themes the type of leaders who are not corporation — with a good idea,for the decisive change Japanese risk averse and have the skills to technology or even a networkcorporations require: confidently guide their organisa- that will advance the aims of your tions in new directions.• Transform the organisation – business: How easy is it for these Leaders need to champion major potential partners to work with • Focus your growth strategy – organisational change to enable your organisation and find the Many Japanese corporations can their companies to succeed in right people? For most Japanese become more aggressive, with today’s world. Japanese corpora- corporations, the answer is, not options including MA activity, tions need the talents and fresh easy at all. Japanese corpora- direct investment and partner- perspectives of a wider group of tions are going to have to use new ships. As of yet, domestic markets people, throughout the organ- approaches like intrapreneurship have not rationalised, conglomer- isation and in the governance and co-creation with outside ates continue to be in too many structures are needed. Japanese organisations to re-energise the businesses and corporations women, foreigners, midcareer innovation processes required to continue to be wasteful of capi- hires and the young generation be global leaders. tal. The objective is to focus more effort on opportunities that will deliver the type of value-added activities Japan needs in markets that are growing. Revitalising corporate Japan 63
  • 66. A final word Exhibit 16: What young professionals think Of Japanese under 30 years old... 14 % described their position as a “dead-end job” 6 % felt business leaders were looking for “creativity and innovation” Global average: 3% f rom their new graduate recruits Global average: 26% Source: PwC, Millennials at Work: Reshaping the Workplace, 2011 Of course, different corporations The heart of the matter is “You have to compete on intellect, are at different starting points and embracing change on how you leverage and scale that in different industries, so the exact in an efficient way,” said entrepre- required mix of action will vary. Japan’s postwar economic miracle neur William H. Saito. “Japan is Companies will have to make prog- was a triumph of human energy, going to learn this first. I have faith ress simultaneously on a variety entrepreneurial initiative and — in that. And I want to be there and of issues, including globalisation, above all — public education. learn that with them because many governance, innovation, strategic Within three decades, Japan other countries, starting with South thinking, capital planning, MA, educated tens of millions of dili- Korea, the United States, Europe, pay and performance management. gent, highly skilled workers and and China, will follow within 5 to harnessed them in a phenomenally 10 years. Japan is going to finally be And we do not underestimate the successful system that delivered first at something that every other challenge of change. It is not easy widespread prosperity and security. country will start experiencing, and at any level, be it in the workplace they will have a solution for this.” or the wider society. As Toshiba Yet, there is now a widespread reali- America CEO Yoshihide Fuji noted: sation that the tightly controlled Fostering opportunities “Japanese people have difficulty system by which Japan cultivates and employs talent does not fit with drives innovation and with moving and changing. It is not so easy for Japanese people the twenty-first century — and ambition [or Asian countries] to change time alone will not fix it. Japan Some have concluded that because dramatically, but in order for people now needs new organisational Japanese citizens of all ages enjoy to survive, they have to change.” approaches to unleash its citizens’ a satisfying lifestyle, ambition, tremendous intellect and energy. particularly among younger popula- tions, has been degraded. But we do not believe this.64 PwC
  • 67. In a PwC survey of young pro- Innovative ideas are often the Addressing the need for greaterfessionals from more than 25 catalyst for new businesses and divi- opportunities and innovation willcountries, 14% of Japanese under sions, which themselves create jobs not only help Japan’s younger30 years old described their position and opportunities and make the generation but also reinvigorate theas a “dead-end job.” Moreover, only business environment more attrac- country’s growth, prosperity and6% said they felt business leaders tive to people at home and abroad. competitiveness. Corporate leaderswere looking for “creativity and Countries throughout the world hold an important responsibility,innovation” from their new gradu- recognise this and are taking steps impacting and guiding a nation’sate recruits.18 (See Exhibit 16.) to foster entrepreneurship. Japan human, physical and intellectual can be no different. Embracing new capital. The decisions they make,As Gen Miyazawa, General Manager ideas and businesses will propel and the direction they set, matter.for Yahoo! Japan, noted the trouble Japan ahead of the competition, Implementing change in Japan’sfor Japan is that many budding in part because of the country’s corporations requires leadership andentrepreneurs can follow opportu- long and rich history of turning a readiness to have important (albeitnities elsewhere. “When I started good ideas into great products and sometimes difficult) own company in 2004, everyone services. Creating an attractive envi-I knew started their business in ronment for entrepreneurs is in part Japan faces steep challenges, butJapan,” said Miyazawa. “Now, my dependent on government policy in every challenge lies opportu-Japanese peers and younger people and approach to private sector nity. PwC, like others, believes theare starting their businesses in needs, but Japan’s businesses can country’s horizon is bright, with theSingapore, or the United States or support this important entrepre- sun rising on a new era in globaleven Hong Kong.” neurial force by creating room for leadership. With a focused effort to new ideas to grow and succeed. put the country back on a prosper-18 PwC, Millennials at Work: Reshaping the Workplace, ous path, corporate leaders are in2011. an excellent position to transform Japan’s economy, its private sector, and indeed, its future. Revitalising corporate Japan 65
  • 68. List of interviews Tamotsu Adachi Carlos Ghosn Managing Director, Co-Representative in Japan Chairman Chief Executive Officer The Carlyle Group Renault-Nissan Alliance Akira Arima Genri Goto President Chief Executive Officer President Chief Executive Officer NTT Communications Corporation Nicholas Benes Kenneth Grossberg Representative Director Director The Board Director Training Institute of Japan Waseda Marketing Forum L. W. K. Booth Dr Kazuyuki Hamada Former Executive Vice President Parliamentary Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs Chief Financial Officer Member of the House of Councillors Ford Motor Company National Diet of Japan Ian Bremmer Professor Mariko Hasegawa President Dean of the School of Advanced Science Eurasia Group Sokendai, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies Stephen Church Ray Hatoyama Research Partner Director General Manager Japan Invest KK Sanrio Company, Limited Kanai Doi Fumiko Hayashi Japan Director Mayor Human Rights Watch City Of Yokohama Akiko Domoto Yosuke Jay O. Honjo Governor President Chief Executive Officer Chiba Prefecture (2001–2009) ITO EN (North America) Incorporated Takashi Enomoto Yumiko Iida Corporate Advisor, former Senior Executive Editor Vice President, Executive Board Member Kyodo News NTT Data Corporation Yuuko Iizuka Yoshihide Fujii Manager, Corporate Communications Department Chief Executive Officer Sumitomo Forestry Company, Limited Toshiba America Incorporated66 PwC
  • 69. Tsuguhiko Kadokawa Kathy Matsui Chairman Managing Director, Chief Japan Strategist,Kadokawa Group Holdings Co-head of Asia Economics, Commodities and Strategy Research Akira Kamiya Goldman Sachs Japan Company, LimitedDeputy President Mitsubishi UFJ Securities Holdings Kahori Miyake President Seita Kanai Claire’s Nippon Company, LimitedRepresentative Director Executive Vice PresidentMazda Motor Corporation Gen Miyazawa General Manager Yoriko Kawaguchi Yahoo! JapanMinister for Foreign Affairs (2002–2004), Member of the House of Councillors Ambassador Seiji Morimoto National Diet of Japan Executive Director Agriculture and Livestock Industries CorporationMitsuhiko Kawai President Chief Executive Officer Yoshihiko Nakagaki Senior Executive Managing Director Senior Board Advisor Chief Operation Officer Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. (J-Power)Americas Business UnitMitsui Co (USA) Incorporated Takeshi Niinami President Chief Executive OfficerProfessor David Kennedy Lawson Inc.Director of the Institute for Global Law and Policy Harvard Law School Professor Kosuke Ogawa Hosei Business School of Innovation ManagementTakahide Kiuchi Chief Economist Shoichi Oka Nomura Securities Chief Executive Officer Japan Industrial Solutions (JIS)Eizo Kobayashi Chairman Atsushi Saito Itochu Corporation President Chief Executive Officer Tokyo Stock Exchange, IncorporatedJames Kondo Country Manager William H. Saito Twitter Japan President Chief Executive Officer Intecur, KK Revitalising corporate Japan 67
  • 70. Interviews Eisuke Sakakibara Nobutaka Suzuki Professor, Aoyama Gakuin University Executive Vice President, Former Vice Minister of Finance for Sales Department Group International Affairs, Aniplex Incorporated Ministry of Finance, Japan (1997–1999) David Swan Naoya Sakama Managing Director Japan and Korea Urban Renaissance Agency Robert Walters Ambassador Motoatsu Sakurai Yo Takeuchi President, Japan Society Chief Financial Officer Former CEO, Development Bank of Japan Mitsubishi International Corporation U.S. Ikuko Tanaka Professor Atsushi Seike Deputy Director General of Association for President the Promotion of Electric Vehicles (APEV) Keio University Special Assignment, Chairman’s Office Benesse Holdings, Incorporated Masayuki Shibata Former Vice President, Kanagawa Branch Yukio Toyoshima Urban Renaissance Agency General Manager, International Strategy Division General Manager, Risk Management Office Toshiyuki Shiga Hitachi, Limited Chief Operating Officer Nissan Motor Company, Limited Akira Tsuchiya Director Noriyuki Shikata World Economic Forum, Tokyo Director of Global Communications and Deputy Cabinet Secretary for Public Affairs Kunio Yoda Office of the Prime Minister of Japan President Morito Company, Limited Simon Sproule Corporate Vice President, Yukio Yokoyama Global Marketing Communications Chief Financial Officer Nissan Motor Company, Limited Nissin Food Holdings Company, Limited68 PwC
  • 71. ContributorsChristopher Albani Masahiro Ozaki Editorial team Marketing teamHirofumi Gomi Yasuhiro Ozawa Cristina Ampil Sarah BreenKoji Hara Malcolm Preston Emily Church Ryoko ManabeHisaaki Hata Juan Pujadas Megumi Goto Jacqui RivettYasuhiro Hirabayashi Michael Rendell David Jansen Shannon SchreibmanTakashi Idesawa Keith Robinson Christopher Johnstone Special thanks to:Masahiko Itoi Katsunori Sasayama Masaru Koga Larry GreenbergTaizo Iwashima Jeremy Scott William MacMillan Kohei HamazakiKen Kawamura Robert Shelton Andrew S. Nevin, PhD John R. HarrisKoichiro Kimura Takeshi Shimizu Shigeru Shiina Adiba KhanWei Ku Hwee Hong H. Sim Design and layout: Andrew PothecaryIan McDade Hiroyuki Suzuki Odgis + Company:Masataka Mitsuhashi John Sviokla Banu BerkerKazuya Miyakawa Shiro UchidaAkihiko Nakamura Scott S. Williams Janet OdgisYumiko Noda Matthew Wyborn US Studio:Naoki Ohgo Akira Yamate Margaret FresenburgKeigo Omi Hajime Yasui Samantha PattersonDavid van Oss Kenji Yoshida Tatiana PechenikNobuki Otsude Revitalising corporate Japan 69
  • 72. 70photo: Torin Boyd PwC
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