Asia online learning global snapshot july12

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  • The size of China in geographical terms is about 3.7 million square miles.The gross enrollment rate of 21 percent in higher education indicates that China has entered the stage of popular education. The UNESCO world higher education report of June 2003 pointed out that the student population of China's schools of higher learning had doubled in a very short period, and was the world's largest. Between 1999 and 2003, enrollment in higher education increased from 1.6 million to 3.82 million. The schools of higher learning and research institutes enrolled 370,000 postgraduate students, which was 44,000 more than the previous year.
  • China did initiate a print-based correspondence system in the 1950’s its primary distance education delivery process has been for several decades, radio and television. Television-based courses were delivered to the masses. Black and white, television grew rapidly as a skills training device.
  • It offers, on a nationwide basis, multi-media courses through radio, TV, print, audio-visual materials and computer networks. 2 million teachers and 1 million principles of primary and secondary schools have been trained.At present, China Education Television (CETV) has three channels mainly to transmit CCRTVU's courses via satellite.Beijing Open University - BJOU was honored by the Ministry of Education and CCRTVU as “model for CCRTVU system" and in the year of 2005, BJOU was nominated as one of the best performer in the "Talent-Training Reform and Open Education Experiment" project.
  • As a part of this project, to deliver academic courses via advanced high tech systems for distance education, The Chinese Educational and Research Network was established (CERNET). CERNET is the high-speed backbone of the Chinese government’s Remote Learning Program. It is China's first and largest national academic Internet backbone.CERNET is supported by the Chinese government and directly managed by the Ministry of Education. Its network infrastructure mainly serves the universities, institutes, colleges and schools all over the China. The end users are professors, researchers and students.
  • Virtual reality - virtual laboratory and the real-time long-distance information transfer with high reliability and security,
  • 3.29 million sq. km. (1.27 million sq. mi.); about one-third the size of the U.S.11 Institutes of National importance established through Central Legislation.For instance, enrolment in distance education during 1975-76 accounted for 0.06 millions and 1.58 million in 1999-2000.
  • Gyan Darshan was launched in January, 2000, with three completely digital and round-the-clock TV channels dedicated to education. In November 2001, an FM radio channel, Gyan Vani was launched through different FM stations in the country. (GOI Ministry of HRD Press Release, October 21, 2003).
  • Gyan Darshan was launched in January, 2000, with three completely digital and round-the-clock TV channels dedicated to education. In November 2001, an FM radio channel, Gyan Vani was launched through different FM stations in the country. (GOI Ministry of HRD Press Release, October 21, 2003).
  • Edusat makes it possible for receive Direct to Home quality broadcasts of educational programs using any television set. Vidya Vahini - over three years as part of a Rs 6,000 crore (USD 1.2 billion) project.
  • How to over come these challenges:This broad definition of ICT includes such technologies as radio, television, video, DVD, telephone (both fixed line and mobile phones), satellite systems, computer and network hardware and software; as well as the equipment and services associated with these technologies, such as videoconferencing, e-mail and blogs. It is intended to help educators; policy makers, planners, curriculum developers and others find their way through the often confusing maze of ICT tools, terms and systems.In higher education and adult training, there is some evidence that educational opportunities are being opened to individuals and groups who are constrained from attending traditional universities. Each of the 11 so-called mega-universities, the biggest and most well-established open and distance institutions in the world (which include the Open University of the United Kingdom,the Indira Gandhi National Open University of India, the China TV University System, the Universitas Terbuka of Indonesia, and the University of South Africa, among others) has an annual enrollment of more than 100,000, and together they serve approximately 2.8 million.The country’s Eleventh Plan (2007-12) is termed as India’s Educational Plan, with emphasis on use of ICT in achieving educational goals. Emphasis is laid on spread of open & distance learning for mass education. Distance education coupled with innovative ICT solutions can provide excellent education to people living in rural areas

Transcript

  • 1. Online Learning Global Snapshot
    Asia Research Team
    RashmiGokulnathprabhu – UHCL
    ShantaGoswami - UHCL
  • 2. Countries Reviewed
    CHINA
    INDIA
  • 3. Background – China
    • China is the world’s most populous country, providing shelter for 1.3 billion people (July 2009 report). (US Department of State, 2010)
    • 4. By the end of 2005, China had 2,273 institutions of higher learning with over 21 million students. (Expo 2010 Shangai China)
    • 5. In 2005, the total enrollment in ordinary schools of higher learning and vocational schools was 4.75 million, 280,000 more than the previous year.
    • 6. The chief mode of instruction to educate and train China’s adult learners is distance education due to the limited resources in China.
  • China- Distance Education Scene
    • Modes of Distance Learning in China
    • 7. Correspondence-based education
    • 8. Broadcast/TV-based education since 1980's
    • 9. Advanced Distance Learning based on information and Internet technologies evolved since 1990's
  • China- Distance Education Scene
    • Broadcast/TV-based Education
    • 10. China Central Radio and TV University (CCRTVU)is a dedicated open and distance education institution, under the direct supervision of the Ministry of Education.
    • 11. In February 1978, the preparation of its establishment commenced, and in February 1979, its opening ceremony was held.
    • 12. Up to 1999, Radio and TV Universities of China (RTVUs) have seen over 2.60 million college graduates and more than 1 million secondary vocational school graduates. (China Central Radio and TV University, 2001)
  • China- Distance Education Scene
    http://rekursive.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2008/08/china-vs-usa-age.jpg
  • 13. China- Distance Education Scene
    • Advanced Distance Learning
    • 14. The Chinese Educational and Research Network (CERNET).
    • 15. CERNET was established in 1994.
    • 16. In China, currently there are about 2,000 universities. There are about 1,500 universities and institutions connected and about 20 million end users.
    • 17. Technologies –
    • 18. Voice over IP system based on Internet technology and the video conferencing system based on multicast technology.
    • 19. HDTV( High-Definition Television) transmission system
    • 20. WebCT. (About CERNET and CERNET applications, 2006)
  • China- Distance Education Scene
    CERNET Topology, 2006
  • 21. China- Distance Education Scene
    • Advanced Distance Learning (CERNET2)
    • 22. CERNET2 is the largest next-generation Internet backbone which is the core network of the China next generation Internet demonstration.
    • 23. In December 2004, CERNET2 backbone opened and are distributed in 20 cities.
    • 24. Technologies
    • 25. Large-scale video communications from point to point,
    • 26. Wireless or mobile application,
    • 27. Large-scale video meeting,
    • 28. High definition TV,
    • 29. Virtual reality
    • 30. Digital library and
    • 31. eHealth (Brief Introduction CERNET2, 2006)
  • Challenges
    • China lacks good infrastructure, adequate bandwidth and computer access at the moment.
    • 32. Internet access is expensive and not all can afford it.
    • 33. Web-based study is not readily available to all.
    • 34. Online centers does not offer all the benefits.
    • 35. Distance Educators lack training.
    • 36. The study options in China are limited unlike the Western Education.
    • 37. The admission process to any university is complex and not many venture out to do it.
  • Background – India
    • India – home to1.17 billion people (July 2009 report). (US Department of State, 2010)
    • 38. According to National Center on Education and Economy (2006), in 2002-03, 196 Universities, and 76 Deemed Universities.
    • 39. By 2005, 11 million students in 17,000 colleges affiliated with 230 universities. Another 10 million students were enrolled in 6,500 vocational institutions. (Center for Strategic and International Research, 2010)
    • 40. 1 national open university, and 14 state open universities and more than 64 institutes of distance education attached to the regular universities in the country, at the moment.
  • India – Distance Education Scene
    • Modes of Distance Education- India
    • 41. Distance education has come a long way, four to five generations of technology.
    • 42. Print,
    • 43. Audio/video broadcasting,
    • 44. Audio/video teleconferencing,
    • 45. Computer aided instruction,
    • 46. E- learning/ online learning
    • 47. The radio remains a very practical form, because of its reach. Gyan Darshan was launched in January, 2000, and in November 2001, an FM radio channel, Gyan Vani was launched. (GOI Ministry of HRD Press Release, 2003).
  • India – Distance Education Scene
    http://www.watblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/06/internetusers.png
  • 48. India – Distance Education Scene
    • Modes of Distance Education- India
    • 49. Distance education has come a long way, four to five generations of technology.
    • 50. Print,
    • 51. Audio/video broadcasting,
    • 52. Audio/video teleconferencing,
    • 53. Computer aided instruction,
    • 54. E- learning/ online learning
    • 55. The radio remains a very practical form, because of its reach. Gyan Darshan was launched in January, 2000, and in November 2001, an FM radio channel, Gyan Vani was launched. (GOI Ministry of HRD Press Release, 2003).
  • India – Distance Education Scene
    • Edusat is India’s first dedicated education satellite was launched in September 2004.
    • 56. E-books, You-Tube archives, digital repositories, virtual classrooms, Web casts, Wiki, FM Radio, and M-learning limited to SMS is extensively used.
  • Challenges
    • Needs centralized regulatory system .
    • 57. Institutional autonomy lacks standard.
    • 58. Unplanned expansion.
    • 59. Quality of education is not uniform throughout.
    • 60. Limited access and regional disparity.
    • 61. Limited funding.
  • References
    • US Department of State (2010). Retrieved on June 29, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/18902.htm
    • 62. Expo 2010 Shangai China. Retrieved on June 29, http://formychina.info/main/education/online.php
    • 63. Geoff Potter (2003). A comparison of Chinese and Western Distance Education initiatives: Educational goals and instructional practices.
    • 64. China Central Radio and TV University (2001). Retrieved on June 29, http://www.edu.cn/ccrtv_1459/20060323/t20060323_3923.shtml
    • 65. About CERNET and CERNET applications (2006). Retrieved on June 29, http://www.edu.cn/introduction_1378/20060323/t20060323_158626.shtml
    • 66. CERNET Topology (2006). Retrieved on June 29,
    http://www.edu.cn/introduction_1378/20060323/t20060323_158657.shtml
    • CERNET2 Brief Introduction (2006). Retrieved on June 29,
    http://www.edu.cn/20060111/3170212.shtml
    • Momentous Applications (2006). Retrieved on June 29,
    http://www.edu.cn/20060111/3170216.shtml
  • 67. References
    • US Department of State (2010). Retrieved on July 06, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3454.htm
    • 68. Center for strategic & international research (2010). Retrieved on July 06, http://csis.org/files/publication/sam_141.pdf
    • 69. Status of distance education in India (2009). Retrieved on July 06,
    www.cluteinstitute.com/Programs/Las_Vegas.../Article%20268.pdf
    • Ministry of HRD Press Release (2003). Electronic Media in the service of distance education. Retrieved on July 06, http://pib.nic.in/archieve/lreleng/lyr2003/roct2003/21102003/r211020039.html
    • 70. A report on education in India (2006). Retrieved on July 06,
    http://www.slideshare.net/sanketvd/educationreport
    • India Development Gateway (2009). Retrieved on July 06,
    http://www.indg.in/primary-education/teacherscorner/technologies-2013-for-improvement-in-teaching-and-learning-process