a temple in the Athenian Acropolis , Greece , dedicated to of the Greek goddess Athena , whom the people of Athens considered their protector. Its construction began in 447 BC and was completed in 438 BC, although decorations of the Parthenon continued until 431 BC. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece , generally considered to be the culmination of the development of the Doric order .
Scientists in the UK plan to release a school of autonomous robotic fish into the sea off northern Spain to help detect for hazardous pollutants in the water. When the fish return to robo-carp central for a charge, they beam water quality data to boffins via Wi-Fi. Scientists hope to use tiny chemical sensors on the fish to find sources of potentially hazardous pollutants in the water, such as underwater pipeline leaks
He rejected the views of his time that considered illness to be caused by superstitions and by possession of evil spirits and disfavor of the gods. He traveled throughout Greece practicing his medicine. He founded a medical school on the island of Cos, Greece and began teaching his ideas. He soon developed an Oath of Medical Ethics for physicians to follow. This Oath is taken by physicians today as they begin their medical practice. He died in 377 BC. Today Hippocrates is known as the &quot;Father of Medicine.”
Aristotle founded the Lyceum School, where he orchestrated many exotic gardens and allowed his students the opportunity to observe and study in these gardens. From these gardens and from the myriad samples from abroad, Aristotle created records of observations that many consider the first rigorous study of life.
2. English – 508 million Although English is hanging at the coattails of Mandarin, it is the official language of more countries compared to any other language.
He examined (dead) cork bark with a primitive microscope and saw little cubicles which he called cells ( cell = room, cubicle).
Edward Jenner, an English physician, used folk knowledge to find an alternative to variolation. Recognizing that dairymaids infected with cowpox were immune to small-pox, Jenner deliberately infected James Phipps, an eight year old boy, with cowpox in 1796. He then exposed Phipps to smallpox–which Phipps failed to contract. After repeating the experiment on other children, including his own son, Jenner concluded that vaccination provided immunity to smallpox without the risks of variolation. Jenner’s findings were published in 1798
Their beaks have evolved over time to be best suited to their function. For example, the finches who eat grubs have a thin extended beak to poke into holes in the ground and extract the grubs. Finches who eat buds and fruit would be less successful at doing this, while their claw like beaks can grind down their food and thus give them a selective advantage in circumstances where buds are the only real food source for finches
Oriental region map, The Geographical Distribution of Animals (S718: 1876), by Alfred Russel Wallace. The bright red line bounding the eastern extreme of subregion 4 is what has come to be known as &quot;Wallace's Line.&quot;
&quot;Vitruvian Man&quot; is the instantly recognizable drawing of a male placed within a circle who seems to have four arms and four legs.
It was he who discovered bacteria , free-living and parasitic microscopic protists , sperm cells, blood cells, microscopic nematodes and rotifers, and much more.
d. the purpose of the bent neck was to prevent untreated air with dust and microbes could not enter e. the contents of the flask remained sterile f. note that Pasteur was fortunate that the foods he boiled into broths did not contain bacterial spores since such spores are resistant to killing by boiling g. his experiment disproved spontaneous generation h. some of his flask are still sterile today
George invented more than 325 products from peanuts — including gasoline, shampoo, ice cream and chili sauce. Even when George was a child he was known as the &quot;Plant Doctor&quot; because he could make almost any plant grow. It was through his groundbreaking research in agriculture that George radically improved the lives of countless African American farmers in the southern United States.
When British microbiologist Alexander Fleming stumbled upon penicillin in 1928, he couldn't have imagined the impact it would have on modern medicine. Fleming noticed that Petri dishes with mould on them grew no bacteria, and in doing so discovered the first antibiotic. Before penicillin came into widespread use in the 1940s, wounds and diseases like syphilis were killers; antibiotics have since saved an estimated 200 million lives.
The book documented detrimental effects of pesticides on the environment, particularly on birds . Carson said that DDT had been found to cause thinner egg shells and result in reproductive problems and death. She also accused the chemical industry of spreading disinformation , and public officials of accepting industry claims uncritically.
Anaximander <ul><li>Developed theory that human beings evolved from fish </li></ul>
Hippocrates <ul><li>“ Father of Modern Medicine.” Hippocratic Oath was named for him. Wrote Corpus Hippocraticum </li></ul><ul><li>The World Medical Association's logo features a serpent wrapped around a staff, the symbol of the ancient Greek god Asklepios. Aesculapius, worshipped by the Greeks as the god of healing, who originated in ancient Egypt as Imhotep, high-priest, sage and minister to the pharaoh, Zoser. It is significant that this symbol is reminiscent of the Staff of Moses. The World Health Organisation's logo also contains the ancient religious symbol of the serpent and staff, which is superimposed over the United Nations emblem. </li></ul>
Aristotle <ul><li>Observed and classified animals </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote Parts of Animals , On Plants , History of Animals and Generation of Animals . </li></ul><ul><li>Known as “Father of biology” and “Founder of Zoology” </li></ul>
Galen <ul><li>Father of Experimental Physiology </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote On the Natural Faculties </li></ul><ul><li>Established idea of pulmonary circulation </li></ul>
Robert Hooke <ul><li>First person to observe cells </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote Micrographia (1665), which was a milestone in the history of microscopy </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced term cells in his work </li></ul>
Edward Jenner <ul><li>Performed first vaccination against smallpox </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneer of immunology and virology </li></ul>
Charles Robert Darwin <ul><li>Noted for his theory of evolution through process of natural selection </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote “ On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection ,” or the “ Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life .” </li></ul>
Alfred Russell Wallace <ul><li>Known for independent discovery of evolutionary change at same time as Darwin. </li></ul><ul><li>His travels took him along the Amazon River and Rio Negro and to Malay Archipelego </li></ul>
Leonardo Da Vinci <ul><li>Helped formulate modern anatomical study through his notebooks </li></ul>
Giovanni Batista Morgagni <ul><li>Published on “ The Seats and Causes of Disease.” (1761) </li></ul><ul><li>This demonstrated that diseases start in specific organs of the body and are scattered throughout the body </li></ul><ul><li>Also described many diseases of the heart and blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>“ Founder of Pathological Anatomy.” </li></ul>
Anton van Leeuwenhoek (Dutch) 1623-1723 <ul><li>Discovered Bacteria with Microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Known as Father of Microbiology </li></ul>
Johann Gregor Mendel (Austrian) <ul><li>Discovered basic principles of heredity through a breeding experiment with peas in the monastery garden. </li></ul><ul><li>His work laid the foundation for new science of genetics . </li></ul>
Louis Pasteur (French) <ul><li>Killed microbes with heat and saved wine industry in 1864. </li></ul><ul><li>Later his method, pasteurization , helped preserve milk, beer and food. </li></ul><ul><li>Proved value of vaccination by vaccinating sheep against anthrax, thus founding science of immunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed cure for rabies . </li></ul><ul><li>Disproved theory of spontaneous generation </li></ul>
George Washington Carver (American) 1864-1943 <ul><li>Revolutionized Southern Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Developed numerous products from peanuts, sweet potatoes, and pecans. </li></ul><ul><li>Called “Plant Doctor” and known as “Father of Chemurgy” </li></ul>
Sir Alexander Fleming (Scottish) <ul><li>Discovered penicillin in 1928. </li></ul>
Rachel Louise Carson (American) <ul><li>Known for concern for the ecology and the environment, and especially for opposition to the indiscriminate use of pesticides. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote “Sea Around Us” (1951) and “Silent Spring” </li></ul>
James D. Watson and Francis H. Crick (American) <ul><li>Discovered Structure of DNA for which they shared Nobel Prize for physiology of medicine in 1962. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote “Double Helix” (1953). </li></ul><ul><li>The double helix is the two intertwined coils that form the crystalline structure of DNA </li></ul>