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How the World Thinks - Jeffrey Foster
 

How the World Thinks - Jeffrey Foster

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Jeffrey Foster's session at MarketMix 2014

Jeffrey Foster's session at MarketMix 2014

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    How the World Thinks - Jeffrey Foster How the World Thinks - Jeffrey Foster Presentation Transcript

    • The 95% THINKING ABOUT HOW THE REST OF THE WORLD THINKS
    • How many of you expect to continue to work with people from other countries in your lifetime?
    • How many hope that goes well?
    • Culture Matters
    • Outline • The roots of culture • How culture drives behavior • Ways to measure the differences between cultures • Thoughts about applying the ideas
    • In-group versus Out-group is biology At the very basic level, those in an In-group can eat and reproduce. It is a zero-sum game where outsiders threaten the survival of the In-group and so are treated with hostility.
    • The role of culture for Human In-Groups In-groups provide protection in exchange for loyalty and in humans, a sense of identity.
    • Culture is learned not inherited
    • Foundations of Culture
    • America has the world’s best known culture
    • Not to be confused with dominant There are more people living inside this circle than outside of it.
    • How to think about it
    • Experiences/Objects are Universal
    • Culture is our filter for understanding
    • Latin cultures: Black = Fear, Anger & Grief Chinese culture: Black = Powerful & Expensive
    • Latin cultures: Black = Fear, Anger Grief Chinese culture: Black = Powerful & Expensive Anglo culture: White = Purity & Happiness Korean culture: White = Death & Mourning
    • In the US, a person standing alone is likely seen an independent free thinker, on his own path. This is positive. In Japan, the same image likely conveys being without support and lonely. This is negative.
    • Measuring the differences between cultures
    • About measuring differences There are a variety of tools We will talk about an influential one: Geert Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture There are more
    • Hofstede and the IBM Survey Geert Hofstede analyzed surveys from 40,000 IBM employees in 70 countries and started to see patterns in the answers that were country based. Creating what he calls Dimensions of Culture
    • Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture (100 point scale) 0 100 more egalitarian embraces hierarchy collectivist individualistic nurture more important power more important comfortable with ambiguity ambiguity creates anxiety put short-term goals first put long-term goals first happiness can be bad happiness is always good
    • Hierarchy is contextual: members are comfortable with questioning authority. Power Distance Hierarchy is positive: authority is rarely questioned and the powerful are responsible for the good of all.
    • Collectivism/Individualism Individualism: my needs and interests as an individual are usually my first concern. Collectivism: the needs and interests of my group are very often my first concern.
    • Feminine/Masculine Nurturing, and concern with the needs of others is highly valued. Power is shared. Having power in relationships is most valued. Gender roles are defined and women are more likely to nurturing.
    • Uncertainty Avoidance Comfortable with uncertainty Uncertainty creates behavior altering anxiety
    • Long-term Orientation Short-term orientation: daily revenue from a fast food franchise Long-term orientation: lifetime revenue from a walnut grove
    • Indulgence There are good reasons to be pessimistic and restrained. There are good reasons for optimism and extraversion.
    • Example: Plotting Individualism versus Uncertainty Avoidance Less Comfortable with Uncertainty Collectivist More Comfortable with Uncertainty Collectivist More Comfortable with Uncertainty Individualist Less Comfortable with Uncertainty Individualist
    • Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture (100 point scale) 0 100 more egalitarian Embraces hierarchy collectivist individualistic Nurture more important power more important comfortable with ambiguity ambiguity creates anxiety Put short-term goals first Put long-term goals first happiness can be bad happiness is always good
    • Now an example
    • USA by the numbers
    • Dimensions that make Americans AmericanIndividualism Masc/Femi Long-term Orientation Indulgence
    • High Individualism: A culture steeped in the narrative of the individual
    • Masculine: America is a culture driven by achievement, progress and winning.
    • Short-Term Orientation: A culture of the stock market and 15 minutes of fame
    • High Indulgence: Happiness is key to the American experience.
    • The American Story in Advertising
    • The American Story in Advertising
    • How the stories can differ Wait. Predict. Regain confidence.
    • A Simple Comparison
    • US versus China
    • In the spider chart, we can compare the US and China, and see interesting and telling differences and similarities. US China US: High Individualism/Short- Term Orientation China: Collectivist/Long-Term Orientation Nearly identical Feminine versus Masculine
    • China Bar Chart Power Distance Individualism Long Term Orientation Indulgence
    • Man who defeats oppressors: American version
    • Man who defeats oppressors: Chinese version
    • A Complex Comparison
    • US versus UK
    • US UK US and UK have very similar cultural dimensions. Yet we know there are significant cultural differences. Why?
    • For UK/US differences the World Value Survey is a place to look. US score on expressing competitiveness is much higher.
    • Classic US Compete Campaign
    • Deliver the right content UK Compete
    • Applying the ideas to your work
    • How do Cultural Dimensions affect Global Advertising Campaigns? Story: Collectivist Or Individualistic? What level of Uncertainty Avoidance? Voice: Feminine to Masculine scale Long or Short Term Orientation Tone: Indulgence versus Restraint Power Distance
    • Management and Chan
    • Summary
    • Understanding the power of the differences among cultures creates advantages for you as a thinker and increases effectiveness of your work.
    • Resources Hofstede Websites: http://www.geerthofstede.eu/ http://geert-hofstede.com/national-culture.html World Value Survey Website: http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/index_html Our email and social Jeffrey.Foster@Wunderman.com Twitter: @Eljeffrai