WHAT TO STUDY IN PHARMACOLOGY ?∗ General pharmacology - Definitions - Routes of drug administration - Pharmacokinetics - Pharmacodynamics - Adverse drug reactions∗ Systemic pharmacology - ANS, CVS, blood, autacoids related drugs, RS, CNS, GIT, Hormones, Chemotherapy
PHARMACOKINETICS∗ What the body does to the drug.
PharmacokineticsIs what the body does to the drug.∗ Absorption∗ Distribution∗ Metabolism∗ Elimination
PHARMACODYNAMICS∗ What the drug does to the body.∗
PharmacodynamicsIs what the drug does to the body. Interaction of drugs with cellular proteins, such as receptors or enzymes, to control changes in physiological function of particular organs.∗ Drug-Receptor Interactions ∗ Binding∗ Dose-Response ∗ Effect∗ Signal Transduction ∗ Mechanism of action, Pathways
Endogenous compounds act on their Receptors Neurotransmitter Neuropeptides Hormones Ionshttp://www.morphonix.com/software/education/science/brain/game/specimens/neurotrans
Drug-Receptor Interactions∗Drug-receptor interactions signals to trigger a cascade ofevents. collection of many cellular responses serve to amplifythe signal produce a final effect.∗Effectors are thus the molecules that translate the drug-receptor interaction into changes in cellular activity.• •+ EFFECTDRUG UG + RECEPTOR DRUG + RECEPTOR EFFECTOR EFFECTOR INTERACTION COMPLEX SYSTEMSTIMULUS BINDING ACTIVATION TRANSDUCTIONAMPLIFICATION RESPONSE SIGNALLING PATHWAY
HOW TO STUDY PHARMACOLOGY ?∗ Classification∗ Pharmacological actions∗ Mechanism of action∗ Pharmacokinetics∗ Adverse drug reactions∗ Drug interactions∗ Precautions∗ Contraindications∗ Indications (Therapeutic uses)
DO”S∗ Keep correct time∗ Be attentive∗ Hear and listen∗ Take notes∗ Be relaxed∗ Maintain silence
DON”Ts∗ Talk with others during lecture∗ Use cellphones∗ Call the names of your friends
Even thousands of miles of journeystarts with a single step…….. lao tzu a chinese mystic
A JOKE TO END∗ A chief doctor was on a practical demonstration of the two top most qualities of a skilful doctor to newly arrived young medical students with a patient∗ He said, “listen my dear students…∗ you must have keen observation and tolerance for becoming skilful and efficient”
∗ Then He did a PerRectal examination in the patient and sucked his middle finger∗ The students were amazed and stunned..!∗ He asked “Now can any of you demonstrate this..?”∗ There was a murmuring among the youngsters and slowly One student came forward with bravery
∗ He did the P.R examination through his middle finger and sucked his middle finger with a disgusting face∗ The senior doctor smiled to the student and said , good.. You have tolerance, but no observation and added I did P.R with my index finger and I sucked my middle finger……..