Even thousands of miles of journey
starts with a single step……..
lao tzu a chinese mystic
*
*
*
*
*
EBM
Research
Evidence

Patients’
Preferences
Clinical
Expertise

Clinical
Circumstances
Haynes et al. BMJ 2002;324:1350

2...
5As of EBM
Act

Ask

Apply

Acquire
Appraise
27
Doing

Research
Methodology

Research
EBM

Using
28
*
*
*
*
*
*Development of scientific attitude Evidence based medicine

*Learning research methodology
*Curricular requirement
*Acade...
RESEARCH CYCLE
*
*
*
*
PROF. Dr. V. Sathyanarayanan
Department of Pharmacology,
SRM MCH & RC

M.D
*To apply the processes involved in choosing the
appropriate research topic, problem, idea

*To formulate a good research ...
*It Is a systematic and
organised scientific
process

*To find answers to
questions
* for example, want to buy a car in a proper
way,

*we collect information
* about models and dealers,
*analyse it,
* then...
*
TYPES OF RESEARCH
Research

Quantitative

Descriptive

Case report

Case series

Analytical

Crosssectional

Observational...
*First and foremost, it must

be interesting
*You should learn something
of value to you

*It should be productive

*
*Proper planning
*Accuracy in data
collection

*Proper unbiased
interpretation.

*
*
Research Problem

Research Design

Data Collection
Data Analysis
Research Dissemination
@bajammal

Methodological, Ethical...
*
*An old
late

scientist went home for a weekend
on Friday evening

as usual

*He left his lab without cleaning and left a ...
*YEAR : 1928
*PLACE : St Mary’s Hospital Medical School
*RESEARCH SCHOLAR : Alexander Fleming
*DISCOVERY: penicillin
*SIGN...
* Key feature of success in research

*
*as you go about your daily clinical practice

* observe with curiosity and

enquire…..

* Sometimes it is the result of h...
*Simple curiosity + enquiry
*“Why are things done this way?”
*“I wonder what would happen if…..?”
*“What characteristics a...
*Etiology and

*Elucidate mechanisms

*Pathophysiology
*Diagnosis
*Treatment
*prognosis

*Diagnostic approaches
*Therapeut...
*From standard text books

*Use article databases to scan current
magazine, journal or newspaper articles on the
topic

* ...
*
*The man with a new idea is a crank until the
idea succeeds…..

*
*
*
*
*Keep it manageable.
*Be aware if a topic is
very recent

*discuss your topic with
your guide

*
*
* Look for words that best describe your
topic

*Keep a list of these words to use
you search

*

later as
*Concluding sections in the

critically examined
individual studies, systematic review

*Remaining gaps

in literature

*F...
*
* To steal from one is plagiarism.to steal from

many is research…
---Steven Right
* A Welsh hamlet was ground zero for a test
on a pill to fight angina.

*Unfortunately for the afflicted, it had little
su...
*YEAR : 1992
*INTERVENTIONAL DRUG : Viagra
*INVENTORS : Scientists at Pfizer
*The scientists switched gears and
*marketed ...
*You will often begin with a word,
*develop a more focused interest in an
aspect of something relating to that word,

* th...
* Trying to turn a statement

into a real question

*
*The uncertainty that you want to
resolve

* Defines the area of interest to be
addressed in your study

* Forms the found...
*Key preliminary step of the research
process

*Presents the idea that is to be examined in
the study

*Foundation of the ...
* Literature

*
*
*
*

Your previous research
Mentor
Conferences
Patients

*
*
*

*
*
*

Do a thorough search of medical
literature
Identify the edge of knowledge
related to that question
Identify th...
* Research is to see what everybody else has seen,

and to think what nobody else has thought……….
----Albert Szent-Gyorgyi
*Possibly the most difficult part
* is to come up with a reasonable question
*and focus it to the point
*where it can be a...
* defining the goal of your research,
* identifying objectives,
* refining and refining it some more and
* refining it eve...
*QUESTION 1 :Should women take hormones
to prevent bone loss?

* QUESTION 2 : Can a vegetarian diet
reverse cardiovascular...
*Must be narrowed to something measurable
and researchable

*

QUESTION 1 : Is taking estrogen associated with
a lower ris...
*QUESTION 1 :Should women take
hormones to prevent bone loss?

* REFINED QUESTION 1 : Does taking

estrogen after menopaus...
*QUESTION 2 : Can a vegetarian diet
reverse cardiovascular disease?

*REFINED Research question: Does an
entirely plant- b...
*What is the population I want to study?
*How do I describe it – age, sex, background?
*What is the intervention I want to...
*PICO
*P ‐ Population
*I ‐ Intervention
*C ‐ Comparison
*O – Outcome Measured

*
*You are in OP department ( medicine/ENT/Pediatrics )
*A patient with otitis media comes
*Your Asst.Prof prescribes amoxyc...
*You are sitting in

Medicine/Surgery/Orthopedics/OG OP

*A

regular patient comes with pain on his back
visits

*You feel...
*
What is the best treatment of back pain?
155
Is this a good question?
• In adult patients younger than 50 years old with
acute low back pain (< 6 weeks), does bedrest
...
*F – Feasible
*I – Interesting
*N – Novel
*E – Ethical
*R ‐ Relevant

*
*
*
*
*

Adequate number of subjects
Adequate technical expertise
Affordable in time and money
Manageable in scope

*
*To you
*To the guide
*To the peers
*Editors of the journals
*Reviewers

*
*Newer topic or idea

*Not duplicated

*Provides new findings

*Confirms or refutes previous
findings

* extends previous ...
*Should follow existing guidelines like
* ICMR code of Ethics in biomedical research
*Clinical trials should follow  ICH ...
*Addresses certain community needs
*Addresses issues that will have an impact for
policy making

*Future research directio...
knowledge

*

To scientific

*
*

To clinical and health policy
To future research directions

*
*
*Consult with mentors
* review the literature again..

*
*Consult with IRB/IEC
* revise research question

*
*Collaborate with experts
in those areas

*
*Question too broad = Reduce variables of interest
*

narrow focus

* Not enough subjects available = Expand inclusion
cri...
*
* A research scientist made 10,000

unsuccessful attempts at an invention

*One day, an assistant asked him why he
didn’t ...
*Thomas Edison held a world record of
1093 patents for inventions including
*Telegraphs,
*electric lights, electric lamps,...
Questions to ask yourself
Is the question asked in a single sentence?
Is the question simple?
P

Does the question specify...
*Can be considered as intelligent
hunches or predictions

*that help to answer a research
question

*Provide a bridge betw...
* single statement that contains

sufficient information that
it can be tested using

*statistical methodology
* are

procedures for making ration

al decisions about

*what is real and what is opinion

*
Hypothesis Testing (α & β errors)
Null Hypothesis: No association between predictor & outcome
Results in the
Study Sample
...
*This may be the answer to your research
question

*and/or a way to clearly state the purpose of
your research.

*Your the...
* stated in broad terms

* and covers the topic that
interests you

*
* more

focused
* There could be more than one

*but all would contribute to
the overall goal

*Define it

*
Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT)
Drug A

@bajammal

Outcomes

Drug B

Patients
with MI

F/U

F/U

Outcomes

RANDOM
*Designing a protocol

*
*
*CHOOSE MENTOR..
*
*ARTICULATE RESEARCH

QUESTION
*Focus on the mentor
*it is common to modify your topic
*Be aware of the depth of coverage
*and the due date.
*Your guide will provide

*
* DON’T Study something in which your
mentor does not have expertise
*DON’T MAKE ASSUMPTIONS
*MAKE SURE PROJECT
IS ACHIEVABLE
*STAY

FOCUSED
* Hulley SB, Cummings SR. “Designing Clinical Research: An
epidemiological approach.
* Centre for Health Evidence: “Users’...
* you can write the one page description required for the assi
gnment.

* should write the goal of the research,
* what th...
*
* What is the sample size you are looking for ?
* would you have access to the population you wanted?
* Would the selected...
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
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Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
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Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
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Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
Choosing the research topic to framing the  question why what how  satya pptxx
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Difficulty in choosing research topic in medical research ?!!
Difficulty in the framing the right research question ??!!

This ppt is for you!!!...

It deals with the basic questions WHY, WHAT, HOW in medical research, in choosing topic, framing right research question and
methods to test the effectiveness and validity of the question..
its an eyeopener for the beginners of medical research particularly for those involved in PG thesis..
enjoy...

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Choosing the research topic to framing the question why what how satya pptxx

  1. 1. Even thousands of miles of journey starts with a single step…….. lao tzu a chinese mystic
  2. 2. *
  3. 3. *
  4. 4. *
  5. 5. *
  6. 6. *
  7. 7. EBM Research Evidence Patients’ Preferences Clinical Expertise Clinical Circumstances Haynes et al. BMJ 2002;324:1350 24
  8. 8. 5As of EBM Act Ask Apply Acquire Appraise 27
  9. 9. Doing Research Methodology Research EBM Using 28
  10. 10. *
  11. 11. *
  12. 12. *
  13. 13. *
  14. 14. *
  15. 15. *Development of scientific attitude Evidence based medicine *Learning research methodology *Curricular requirement *Academic requirement ( publication ) *
  16. 16. RESEARCH CYCLE
  17. 17. *
  18. 18. *
  19. 19. *
  20. 20. * PROF. Dr. V. Sathyanarayanan Department of Pharmacology, SRM MCH & RC M.D
  21. 21. *To apply the processes involved in choosing the appropriate research topic, problem, idea *To formulate a good research question *To assess *To develop the research question effectively a hypothesis, aims, objectives for testing the research question *To be inspired to participate actively in planning and doing good research projects *SPECIFIC LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  22. 22. *It Is a systematic and organised scientific process *To find answers to questions
  23. 23. * for example, want to buy a car in a proper way, *we collect information * about models and dealers, *analyse it, * then try to reach a “scientific” conclusion on which car to buy *
  24. 24. *
  25. 25. TYPES OF RESEARCH Research Quantitative Descriptive Case report Case series Analytical Crosssectional Observational Case-Control @bajammal MixedMethods Qualitative Experimental Cohort Study
  26. 26. *First and foremost, it must be interesting *You should learn something of value to you *It should be productive *
  27. 27. *Proper planning *Accuracy in data collection *Proper unbiased interpretation. *
  28. 28. *
  29. 29. Research Problem Research Design Data Collection Data Analysis Research Dissemination @bajammal Methodological, Ethical & Statistical Considerations at Each Stage Research Question
  30. 30. *
  31. 31. *An old late scientist went home for a weekend on Friday evening as usual *He left his lab without cleaning and left a window open *He arrived after vacation before his lab attender *He saw some culture plates were infected with mold *He developed a curiosity *He didn’t clean it immediately * He found bacteria had grown all over the plate, except in an area where mold had formed. *
  32. 32. *YEAR : 1928 *PLACE : St Mary’s Hospital Medical School *RESEARCH SCHOLAR : Alexander Fleming *DISCOVERY: penicillin *SIGNIFICANCE : world's first antibiotic, leading to revolutionize all medicine *AS A RESULT: Mrs. Fleming hiring a maid. *
  33. 33. * Key feature of success in research *
  34. 34. *as you go about your daily clinical practice * observe with curiosity and enquire….. * Sometimes it is the result of having a disagreem ent with a colleague *Define the problem well *
  35. 35. *Simple curiosity + enquiry *“Why are things done this way?” *“I wonder what would happen if…..?” *“What characteristics are associated with….?” *“What is the effect of…….on patient outcomes?” *
  36. 36. *Etiology and *Elucidate mechanisms *Pathophysiology *Diagnosis *Treatment *prognosis *Diagnostic approaches *Therapeutic interventions *Research into the prognostic pathogenesis * factors
  37. 37. *From standard text books *Use article databases to scan current magazine, journal or newspaper articles on the topic * Use Web search engines to find Web sites on the topic *
  38. 38. *
  39. 39. *The man with a new idea is a crank until the idea succeeds….. *
  40. 40. *
  41. 41. *
  42. 42. *
  43. 43. *Keep it manageable. *Be aware if a topic is very recent *discuss your topic with your guide *
  44. 44. *
  45. 45. * Look for words that best describe your topic *Keep a list of these words to use you search * later as
  46. 46. *Concluding sections in the critically examined individual studies, systematic review *Remaining gaps in literature *Further define the research question *MEDLINE, PUBMED, SCIENCEDIRECT, * MEDSCAPE *
  47. 47. *
  48. 48. * To steal from one is plagiarism.to steal from many is research… ---Steven Right
  49. 49. * A Welsh hamlet was ground zero for a test on a pill to fight angina. *Unfortunately for the afflicted, it had little success against the disease. *Though it didn't work, *the men taking part in the study refused to give up their medicine. *
  50. 50. *YEAR : 1992 *INTERVENTIONAL DRUG : Viagra *INVENTORS : Scientists at Pfizer *The scientists switched gears and *marketed the drug, Viagra, *for a very different purpose *
  51. 51. *You will often begin with a word, *develop a more focused interest in an aspect of something relating to that word, * then begin to have questions about the topic. *Significance of the research question must be identified *
  52. 52. * Trying to turn a statement into a real question *
  53. 53. *The uncertainty that you want to resolve * Defines the area of interest to be addressed in your study * Forms the foundation of your study * Must be specified before you begin your Analysis *
  54. 54. *Key preliminary step of the research process *Presents the idea that is to be examined in the study *Foundation of the research study *IS THE MOST DIFFICULT *AND CRITICAL PART of the study *
  55. 55. * Literature * * * * Your previous research Mentor Conferences Patients *
  56. 56. * * * * * Do a thorough search of medical literature Identify the edge of knowledge related to that question Identify the gaps in knowledge Be certain that your question has not already been answered AND that filling the gaps is important *
  57. 57. * Research is to see what everybody else has seen, and to think what nobody else has thought………. ----Albert Szent-Gyorgyi
  58. 58. *Possibly the most difficult part * is to come up with a reasonable question *and focus it to the point *where it can be answered *
  59. 59. * defining the goal of your research, * identifying objectives, * refining and refining it some more and * refining it even more until * you have a neat and simple question * that is feasible to answer. *
  60. 60. *QUESTION 1 :Should women take hormones to prevent bone loss? * QUESTION 2 : Can a vegetarian diet reverse cardiovascular disease? *Often begins with a general concern…. *
  61. 61. *Must be narrowed to something measurable and researchable * QUESTION 1 : Is taking estrogen associated with a lower risk of osteoporosis in women 60+? * QUESTION 2 : Does a plant-based diet reduce serum cholesterol levels in patients with cardiovascular disease? *
  62. 62. *QUESTION 1 :Should women take hormones to prevent bone loss? * REFINED QUESTION 1 : Does taking estrogen after menopause reduce the likelihood of bone density loss in women over 60 years of age, compared to women not taking estrogen? *
  63. 63. *QUESTION 2 : Can a vegetarian diet reverse cardiovascular disease? *REFINED Research question: Does an entirely plant- based vegan diet reduce blood serum cholesterol levels in men over 50 years old with lipid levels compared to a meat- based diet? *
  64. 64. *What is the population I want to study? *How do I describe it – age, sex, background? *What is the intervention I want to study? *Do I have all the details of the intervention? *What is the outcome I want to achieve? *How am I going to measure the outcome? *
  65. 65. *PICO *P ‐ Population *I ‐ Intervention *C ‐ Comparison *O – Outcome Measured *
  66. 66. *You are in OP department ( medicine/ENT/Pediatrics ) *A patient with otitis media comes *Your Asst.Prof prescribes amoxycillin *A scientific curiosity comes to your mind *A research question IS AMOXYCILLIN EFFECTIVE FOR OTITIS MEDIA ? knocks your mind.. *You want to proceed….. HOW ? *
  67. 67. *You are sitting in Medicine/Surgery/Orthopedics/OG OP *A regular patient comes with pain on his back visits *You feel pity on his pain *you want to find out “What is the best treatment of back pain?” *How to proceed…..?!! *
  68. 68. * What is the best treatment of back pain? 155
  69. 69. Is this a good question? • In adult patients younger than 50 years old with acute low back pain (< 6 weeks), does bedrest reduce the risk of recurrence of pain within one year compared with physiotherapy? • • • • P: Adult patients <50yr with acute LBP I: Bed rest C: Physiotherapy O: Recurrence of pain within one year 157
  70. 70. *F – Feasible *I – Interesting *N – Novel *E – Ethical *R ‐ Relevant *
  71. 71. * * * * Adequate number of subjects Adequate technical expertise Affordable in time and money Manageable in scope *
  72. 72. *To you *To the guide *To the peers *Editors of the journals *Reviewers *
  73. 73. *Newer topic or idea *Not duplicated *Provides new findings *Confirms or refutes previous findings * extends previous findings *
  74. 74. *Should follow existing guidelines like * ICMR code of Ethics in biomedical research *Clinical trials should follow  ICH –GCP guidelines *Get the IEC approval *
  75. 75. *Addresses certain community needs *Addresses issues that will have an impact for policy making *Future research directions *
  76. 76. knowledge * To scientific * * To clinical and health policy To future research directions *
  77. 77. *
  78. 78. *Consult with mentors * review the literature again.. *
  79. 79. *Consult with IRB/IEC * revise research question *
  80. 80. *Collaborate with experts in those areas *
  81. 81. *Question too broad = Reduce variables of interest * narrow focus * Not enough subjects available = Expand inclusion criteria; lengthen time frame; modify exclusion criteria * Too expensive = Consider less costly study designs; fewer subjects; shorter duration; fewer follow-ups *
  82. 82. *
  83. 83. * A research scientist made 10,000 unsuccessful attempts at an invention *One day, an assistant asked him why he didn’t give up…. * After all, he failed over 10 times…. thousand * the researcher replied that he had not failed once… *
  84. 84. *Thomas Edison held a world record of 1093 patents for inventions including *Telegraphs, *electric lights, electric lamps, light bulbs, *telephones, vacuum pumps, storage batteries, *phonographs, transmitters …..etc *
  85. 85. Questions to ask yourself Is the question asked in a single sentence? Is the question simple? P Does the question specify the population? I Does the question state the intervention? C Is there a comparison group? O Is there a clear outcome in the question? O Has the measure for the outcome been specified? F Is the question FEASIBLE? I Is it INTERESTING ? to you? to others? N Is it NOVEL? ‐‐ new? Innovative? E ETHICAL? ‐‐ is there a state of equipoise between comp eting therapies? Will your investigations  harm? R RELEVANT? To policy makers? To patients? Yes No Vague
  86. 86. *Can be considered as intelligent hunches or predictions *that help to answer a research question *Provide a bridge between theory and real world *
  87. 87. * single statement that contains sufficient information that it can be tested using *statistical methodology
  88. 88. * are procedures for making ration al decisions about *what is real and what is opinion *
  89. 89. Hypothesis Testing (α & β errors) Null Hypothesis: No association between predictor & outcome Results in the Study Sample Reject null hypothesis Fail to reject null hypothesis @bajammal Truth in the Population Association Between Predictor & Outcome No Association Between Predictor & Outcome Correct Type I error (α) Type II error (β) Correct
  90. 90. *This may be the answer to your research question *and/or a way to clearly state the purpose of your research. *Your thesis statement will usually be one or two sentences *that states precisely what is to be answered, proven *
  91. 91. * stated in broad terms * and covers the topic that interests you *
  92. 92. * more focused * There could be more than one *but all would contribute to the overall goal *Define it *
  93. 93. Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) Drug A @bajammal Outcomes Drug B Patients with MI F/U F/U Outcomes RANDOM
  94. 94. *Designing a protocol *
  95. 95. *
  96. 96. *CHOOSE MENTOR..
  97. 97. *
  98. 98. *ARTICULATE RESEARCH QUESTION
  99. 99. *Focus on the mentor
  100. 100. *it is common to modify your topic *Be aware of the depth of coverage *and the due date. *Your guide will provide *
  101. 101. * DON’T Study something in which your mentor does not have expertise
  102. 102. *DON’T MAKE ASSUMPTIONS
  103. 103. *MAKE SURE PROJECT IS ACHIEVABLE
  104. 104. *STAY FOCUSED
  105. 105. * Hulley SB, Cummings SR. “Designing Clinical Research: An epidemiological approach. * Centre for Health Evidence: “Users’ Guides to Evidence Based Practice” * http://www.cche.net/usersguides/start.asp#Questions * Guidelines for graduate students: “Choosing and refining a research topic” http://www.fiu.edu/~kowert/topic.html * How to write Specific Aims: http://www.theresearchassistant.com/tutorial/4‐4.asp *
  106. 106. * you can write the one page description required for the assi gnment. * should write the goal of the research, * what the general objective of the research is, * try to formulate specific aims which can be your refined que stion(s) and then, * if you have a hypothesis that can be tested, write that down. * summarize your thinking on the feasibility * and general plans you have for conducting the research. *
  107. 107. *
  108. 108. * What is the sample size you are looking for ? * would you have access to the population you wanted? * Would the selected population agree to participate? * Would you be able to obtain the drug samples? * Think through what budget you might need? * Will the ethics committee approve of your project? * How novel are the questions? ( not repeated ) *

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