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DAT Berlin March 2008 AcadWriting

DAT Berlin March 2008 AcadWriting

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Dat Pp Berlin Med Writ 08 Dat Pp Berlin Med Writ 08 Presentation Transcript

  • Schreiben in Academia Masterarbeit, Dissertation, Projektbericht, Fundraising, Publikation Masterstudiengang „Consumer Health Care“ Charité Berlin, 1 & 2 März 2008
  • Die Fragen
    • 1. Anfertigen einer Masterarbeit
    • Systematisches Vorgehen: Erst den Text schreiben oder erst die Gliederung???
    • Fußnoten und Literaturangaben einfügen??
    • 2. Anfertigen an Dissertation
    • Zeitplan erstellen??? Meilensteine festlegen??
    • Wie dokumentiere ich den kompletten Ablauf einer solchen Arbeit am sinnvollsten??
    • Benutzen von Literaturverwaltungsprogrammen?? EndNote???
    • Wie dokumentiere ich den kompletten Ablauf einer solchen Arbeit am sinnvollsten
    • Zeitplan erstellen
    • Meilensteine festlegen
    • Systematisches Vorgehen: Erst den Text schreiben oder erst die Gliederung
    • Literaturangaben einfügen
      • Fußnoten und Endnotes
      • Benutzen von Literaturverwaltungsprogrammen
  • Mentor Senior Scientist Student, MSc Conference speaker Lecturer Seminar Leader Radiology Nuclear Medicine Lipid Metabolism In-house Trainer CDD Business Development Human Pharmacology PhD facultas docenti Marketing Communication Information management View slide
    • It is not for me to interrupt your deliberations by any general observations on the state of …, or by recommending, or proposing any particular measures.
    • John Adams 1789
    View slide
  • Wer sind die Teilnehmer am Seminar
    • Bitte denken Sie insbesondere an Ihre Abschlussarbeit zu Ihrem MSc Studium in Consumer Health Care.
    • Welche Kerninformation möchten Sie uns geben, wenn Sie sich HEUTE und in DIESER Runde vorstellen?
  • science and communication are inseparable “ The universal object and ideal of a man of letters is reputation” John Adams 1789
  • Zeitablauf
    • Samstag, 1. März
    • Sonntag, 2. März
    10:00 – 16:00 10:00 – 12:30 + 13:30 – 16:00 12:30 – 13:30 Mittagspause 10:00 – 11:15 + 13:30 – 14:45 11:15 – 11:30 + 14:45 – 15:00 Pausen 11:30 – 12:30 + 15:00 – 16:00
    • “ There is no royal path to good writing
    • but through the jungles of self,
    • the world, and the craft ... “
    • Mary Jessamyn West, 1902 -1984
  • Wer sind die Teilnehmer am Seminar
    • Bitte denken Sie insbesondere an Ihre Abschlussarbeit zu Ihrem MSc Studium in Consumer Health Care.
    • Welche Kerninformation möchten Sie uns geben, wenn Sie sich HEUTE und in DIESER Runde vorstellen?
  • Die Teilnehmer
    • Silke L., Fachapothekerin für Klinische Pharmazie
    • XX
    • Xx
    • Xx
    • Xx
    • Xx
    • Xx
    • Xx
    • Xx
    • Xx
    • Xx
    • xx
  • Ecksteine eines Projekts – der Rahmen
    • CONTEXT
    • OBJECTIVES
    • AUDIENCES
    • SKILLS
  • Personal context
    • Do you have patents
    • Have you published recently
    • Do you come from a different country
    • Do you have international experience
    • Have you applied for a project
    • Are you a computer freak
    • For how long are you on your MSc / PhD / Project report /Article
    • Do you write for the Intranet
    • Do you publish on the Internet
    • Have you presented at a conference
    • Do you teach
    innovative initiative culturally aware multilingual visible / strategic / fundraising computer literate effective communicative media literate reputable responsible for knowledge transfer personal skills
  • Research context
    • Subject, products, methods
    • Guidelines, laws and regulations
    • Computer programmes
    • Language, rhetoric and presentation
    • Information sources
    • professional performance
  • The power of information
    • “ People are usually unaware of missing information.
    • It’s hard to see what isn’t there.
    • Because of this, people tend to form strong beliefs on the basis of weak evidence.”
    • (Hochhauser, 2003) p 17
  • Objectives - why write - to communicate
      • Permanent record of communication
      • Communication can be easily disseminated to unlimitedly wide audiences
      • Ideas can be organized and put in relation to each other
  • Audiences - Communicating Evidence Ethik / Watchdogs Behörden Verbraucher Geldgeber Medien Öffentlichkeit Auftraggeber TEXT
  • The writer - skills & competences
    • Skill
    • Comprehension
    • Application
    • Analysis
    • Synthesis
    • Evaluation
    • Competence
    • Recalling specific information (listing, describing, collecting)
    • Using abstractions in specific situations (calculating, examining, discovering)
    • Breakdown of information into components (ordering, classifying, selecting)
    • Combining elements to make a whole (formulating, integrating, preparing)
    • Judging the value of material based on criteria (deciding, concluding, ranking)
  • The purpose of your project
    • Primary Objective
    • Abschluß, MSc
    • Secondary Objectives
    • Publicise the quality of your research
    • Promote your scientific expertise and skills
    • Enhance your job opportunities
    • s cience, business and communication are inseparable
  • Schreiben für den Leser
    • The readability aims to enable the reader to
    • Locate information
    • Understand it
    • Gain knowledge - act on it
    • “ ...the information must hang together and relate to the reader’s existing knowledge. The reader must form a mental representation of the message so that, even if the actual words are forgotten, the message remains.”
    • (Newton, 1998) p 87
  • The Project designing planning conducting monitoring evaluating writing reviewing QC 1 2 3 4
  • Das Umfeld TIME QUALITY MONEY
  • Project - Principles
    • precise
    • concise, easy to read and comprehend, well formulated
    • complete with all relevant information
    • clearly structured
    • convenient for tracing particular information
    • finalised within given time
  •  
  • Der Plan
    • Einführung in den Themenbereich
    • Begründung der Themenwahl
    • Zielsetzung und Begründung
      • Rationale
    • Thesen
      • Hauptthese
      • Unterthesen
    • Erwartete Ergebnisse in Bezug auf den aktuellen wissenschaftlichen Forschungsstand – was ist neu!
    • Aktueller Forschungsstand
    • Forschungsprobleme
    • Thematische Randgebiete
      • Begründung der Abgrenzung
    • Methode und Begründung / Schwächen
    • Material: Auswahlmethoden und Kriterien
    • Methoden der Auswertung: deskriptiv, statistisch
    • Struktur des Arbeitsvorhabens / Zeitplan (evtl. Budget)
    • Zusammenfassung
  • Arbeitsplan
    • Monate
    • Wochen
    • Tage
    • Primäre Arbeitsschritte
    • Sekundäre Arbeitsschritte
    • Literaturrecherche
      • für den Plan
      • während der Durchführung
      • während der Auswertung
      • während des Berichtens
    • Beispiele:
    • Welches Kapitel wann: Strukturierung, Präzisierung der Gliederung, Schreiben
    • Besuche von Konferenzen / Messen / andere Veranstaltungen
    • Gespräche / Interviews mit Experten
    • Konsultationen mit Betreuer / Auftraggeber
    • Lesen von Literatur: wann, wie lange
    • Sichtung von z. B. Webseiten
    • Zusammenstellen der Appendices
    • Redaktionelle Überarbeitung des Textes nach Kapitel, wie oft
    • Abgabetermin der ersten Fassung an den Betreuer
  • Literatur
    • Anlegen einer Literaturliste und einer Literatursammlung (full text)
      • Kontinuierliche Aufnahme der bibliographischen Daten (nur vom Original full text hardcopy!)
      • bitte den Uni style für die Literaturliste beachten
      • Anlegen einer Struktur für die Literaturliste
        • primär
        • sekundär
        • getrennt nach background und im Text zitierte
        • unterteilt nach Bücher, Artikel in wissenschaftlichen Zeitschriften, Artikel in der allgemeinen Presse, Webseiten, interne Berichte von Firmen und Institutionen (Genehmigung zum Zitieren einholen), persönliche Mitteilungen, andere
  • Zitate
    • Anlegen einer Datei für Zitate
      • Kontinuierliche Aufnahme der Texte / Tabellen / Graphiken / Bilder
        • Prüfung der Richtigkeit des Zitats gegen den Originaltext (nur vom Original full text hardcopy!)
        • Prüfung der Richtigkeit der bibliographischen Angaben für jedes Zitat
  • Der Projektbericht
    • Der Plan
    • Die tatsächliche Durchführung, eventuelle Abweichungen - Begründung
    • Darstellung der Ergebnisse entsprechend den Methoden der Auswertung
    • Diskussion – kritische Analyse
    • Synopse
  • Die Diskussion
    • „ Beginning with the end in mind.“
  • The Imperatives of the Discussion
    • The results of the study should be summarized and discussed referring to tables, figures and sections in the text as needed.
    • The presentation should not simply repeat the description of results nor introduce new results.
    • Organize the Discussion from the specific to the general: your findings to the literature, to theory, to practice.
    • Refer to the objectives of the study.
    • The discussion and conclusions should clearly identify any new or unexpected findings, comment on their significance and discuss any potential problems.
    • The relevance and the importance of the results should also be discussed in the light of other existing data or information.
    • Any specific benefits or special precautions and any implications for the conduct of future research should be identified.
  • The Discussion
    • A critical assessment
    • Report only issues related to the study
      • Highlight findings
      • Explain results
      • Relate findings to objective
      • Relate findings to the literature
    • Schwächen/Lücken, weitere Untersuchungen (welche), tatsächlicher Beitrag der Untersuchung: für die Forschung allgemein, für den Anwender (welcher), eventuell Konsequenzen / Empfehlungen für behördliche Handlungen
  • DO NOT!
    • Repeat the description of results
    • Refer to results not associated with the research
    • Speculate on future issues
  • The Art of Presentation – Results
    • Tables and Figures
    • “ . . . experience has shown that a good tabular presentation with a short written summary is an effective method of communication.
    • Therefore, where tabular formats suffice, it is not necessary to duplicate the message in writing.”
    • Be very careful which Tables and Figures to produce, specify them in advance – in the Project Plan and after the data has been collected, but before evaluation.
  • Results
    • Tables & Figures are stand alone documents
    • Provide
    • Title OR Caption
    • Headings of rows & columns OR axis
    • Units
    • Explain abbreviations in the legend
  • Results
    • Figures
      • Primary objective
      • Secondary objectives
  • Tables and Figures
    • 1. Decide which results to present, paying attention to whether data are best presented within the text or as tables or figures.
    • 2. Limit the number of tables and figures to those that provide essential information that could not adequately be presented in the text.
    • 3. Include results which are relevant to the questions posed, irrespective of whether or not the results support the hypothesis.
    • 4. Design each table and figure to be understandable on its own, without reference to the text.
    • 5. Number each figure and table in the order in which they are referred to in the text (figures and tables are numbered separately).
    • 6. Organize the tables and figures in such an order that they tell a story.
    • 7. Check with the targeted publisher where to place tables and figures, within text, on separate pages, at the end of a section etc.
  • Tables and Figures
    • 8. Make sure there is no page break in the middle of a table or figure, if the publisher wants the tables and figures integrated into the text. Do not wrap text around tables and figures.
    • 9. Be sure all figures and tables are referenced in the text.
    • 10. Obtain permission from the copyright holder (usually the publisher) and acknowledge the source, if you are including a table or figure that has already been published.
    • 11. Write the table titles and figure legends in the past tense.
    • 12. Provide information regarding what is presented in the table or figure in the table titles and figure legends, but not a summary or interpretation of the results.
  • Tables and Figures
    • Tables are used to make an article/report more readable by removing numeric data from the text. Tables can also be used to synthesize existing literature, to explain variables, or to present the wording of survey questions.
    • 1. Create tables with the table function in Microsoft Word. Do not use tabs.
    • 2. Use column headings and table notes accurately to simplify and clarify the table. The meaning of each column should be apparent without reference to the text.
  • Tables and Figures
    • Figures provide visual impact and therefore they are often the best way to communicate the primary finding. Figures are traditionally used to display trends and group results but can also be used effectively to communicate processes or to display detailed data simply.
    • 1. Label each axis including units of measurement and clearly identify the data you are displaying (e.g. label each line in a graph).
    • 2. Figures should be of high image quality, with minimal pixelization. Check with the publisher on which image file type they prefer.
    • 3. Figures are usually in black and white. Color is expensive to publish, and should only be used when it provides unique information.
    • 4. Do not include experimental details in the legend; these details should be included in the methods section.
    • 5. Photographs of peple should be used only if written, informed consent was obtained prior to the taking of the photograph.
    • 6. Choose the correct figure format:
    • if independent and dependent variables are numeric, line diagrams or scattergrams,
    • if only the dependent variable is numeric, bar graphs,
    • for proportions, bar graphs or pie charts
  • Quality control during the review process
    • Completeness
    • Correctness
    • Consistency
    • Presentation
    • Interpretation
    • Language
  • Completeness
    • The synopsis
    • All sections of the report
    • All appendices
    • All tables, figures
    • List of abbreviations
    • List or references
  • Correctness
    • Table of contents
    • List of tables and figures
    • List of appendices
    • Cross-referencing within the text and to appendices
  • Consistency
    • Synopsis versus Report main text
    • Title, objectives, questionnaire
    • Terminology, abbreviations
    • Spelling in text
    • Tables, figures
  • Interpretation
    • Objectives and Conclusion
    • All data in logical connection
    • The story as from one piece
  • ULTIMATELY
    • “ One can take science
    • out of rhetoric but not
    • rhetoric out of science.”
    reach a conclusion
    • Mittagspause
  • Language
    • Read to understand not to interpret
    • Levels of editing
    • Proof reading
    • “ True eloquence consists in saying all that should be said and that only.” La Rochefoucauld, Maximes morales 1665
  • Constructing Sentences
    • Balanced
    • Short
    • Simple
  • Emphasis - The First Sentence
    • “ We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA).
    • This structure has novel features which are of considerable biological interest.”
    • Watson J.D., Crick F.H.C.
    • A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid.
    • Nature (London), No. 4356, 1953; 171:737-738
  • Deutsche Sprache
    • Gutes Deutsch ist Voraussetzung für wissenschaftliches Arbeiten.
    • Je verständlicher Aussagen sind, um so größer ist die Wahrscheinlichkeit, dass die Berechtigung des erhobenen Erkenntnisanspruchs festgestellt werden kann.
    • Größtmögliche Präzision der sprachlichen Ausdrücke liegt im Interesse einer leichten und schnellen Feststellung des Wahrheitswertes.
    • Schneider, Wolf: Deutsch für Profis, (Mosaik) München 1999, ISBN: 3-442-16175-4
  • Die Wörter
    • Töricht ist es, von steilen Felswänden zu sprechen, da die Wand zum „Hang“ wird, wenn sie aufhört, steil zu sein.
    • Genauso lassen wir uns zweimal in der Woche atlantische Tiefausläufer bieten, obwohl hier doch nicht irgendein Tief atlantisch ausläuft, sondern ein Atlantiktief seine Ausläufer schickt.
    • Besser gesagt, die Ausläufer eines atmosphärischen Tiefdruckgebietes über den Atlantischen Ozean erreichen unser Dorf.
  • Adjektive
    • restlos überzeugt
      • überzeugt
    • Die französische Anerkennung dieses Zustands
      • Anerkennung des Zustands durch Frankreich
    • gesellschaftliche Ordnung
      • Gesellschaftsordnung
    • bäuerliche Einkommensschmälerung
      • Einkommensschmälerung der Bauern
  • Steigerung des Adjektivs
    • Noch optimaler ist die Verwendung der Benchmarking-Methode.
    • Niemals Steigerungsform verwenden von:
      • alltäglich
      • eindeutig
      • rund
      • ideal
      • die meisten Wörter auf -los
    • Passive Voice
    • Indicator of attitude
    • Active Voice
    • Indicator of Action
  • Passive voice
    • High temperature was noted in some patients.
    • Examination of the thyroid revealed to be free of cold nodes.
    • The index finger of the surgeon is then inserted into the atrium. The valve is palpated.
    • Some patients had high temperature.
    • There were no cold nodes in the thyroid.
    • The thyroid had no cold nodes.
    • The surgeon then palpates the valve.
    • Vomiting was reported very often as an adverse event.
    • Seven out of 15 subjects reported vomiting. The frequency of vomiting in each subject was twice daily during the 7-day treatment period.
  • Verbe
    • Niemals zwei Infinitive hintereinander verwenden:
    • Grund genug für den DGB-Vorstand, dem Gewerkschaftsnachwuchs zu verbieten, sich dem Aufruf anzuschließen.
  • Verbe
    • Kategorie Beispiel
    • Funktionsverben Bekenntnis ablegen, Abhilfe schaffen, in Erwägung ziehen
    • Luftwörter bewirken, bewerkstelligen
    • Spreizverben vergegenwärtigen, beinhalten
    • tote Verben sich befinden, liegen, gehören
  • Das treffende Wort
    • Nicht Sondern
    • Rücksichtnahme Rücksicht
    • Aufgabenstellung Aufgabe
    • Heilungsverlauf Heilung
    • vorrangige Erfordernisse das Dringendste
    • Motivationsstrukturen Motivation, Motive, Gründe
    • wirtschaftspolitische Zielsetzungen wirtschaftspolitische Ziele, Ziele der Wirtschaftspolitik
    • Pulsrate
    • Puls
  • Das deutsche Wort
    • Das Fremdwort ist willkommen oder mindestens erlaubt, falls es:
    • verständlich und treffend ist (Sex, Ironie)
    • verständlich und auf dieser Stilebene nicht durch ein deutsches zu ersetzen ist (homosexuell)
    • Lokalkolorit vermittelt (Datscha, slums)
    • zwar nicht allgemeinverständlich, aber bisher ohne deutsche Entsprechung ist (iPod)
  • Die Sätze
    • Vorteil kurzer Sätze: sie zwingen den Schreiber, seine Gedanken zu disziplinieren.
    • Gegen Schachtelsätze:
    • Vance will in Israel und anschließend in Ägypten, Libanon, Jordanien, Saudi-Arabien und Syrien Möglichkeiten für eine Wiederaufnahme der Konferenz von Genf erkunden.
    • Vance will die Möglichkeiten für eine Wiederaufnahme der Friedenskonferenz von Genf erkunden. Er reist zunächst nach Israel, anschießend nach Ägypten, Libanon, Jordanien, Saudi-Arabien und Syrien.
    • Erst die Aussage, dann die Erklärung.
  • Gegen den Schachtelsatz
    • Wir wollen lineare, konsekutive Sätze - Sätze, in denen eines aus dem andern folgt, ohne Vorgriffe, Rückbezüge und logische Knoten; Sätze, in denen sich die Wörter nach romanischenglischem Modell aufreihen wie Perlen auf der Schnur. Sätze wie Pfeile: Jedes Wort und jedes Satzglied sollen nicht nur räumlich auf das vorige folgen, sondern auch logisch, hierarchisch, chronologisch oder psychologisch.
  • Füll- und Flickwörter vermeiden
    • aber, abermals, allein, allem Anschein nach, allemal, allenfalls, allenthalben, äußerst, bei weitem, Beinahe, bekanntlich, bereits, besonders, dadurch, dafür, dagegen, daher, damals, eben, einfach, einige, Einigermaßen, einmal, folglich, förmlich, fortwährend, fraglos, ganz, ganz und gar, gänzlich, gar, gelegentlich, größtenteils, halt, häufig, hie und da, hingegen, hinlänglich, indessen, infolgedessen, insbesondere, inzwischen, irgend, jedenfalls, jedoch, jemals, keineswegs, längst, lediglich, meines Erachtens, meinetwegen, meist, meistens, meistenteils, nämlich, naturgemäß, natürlich, neuerdings, neuerlich, nie, niemals, offenbar, offenkundig, offensichtlich, oft, ohne weiteres, plötzlich, praktisch, quasi, recht, reichlich, sattsam, schlicht, schlichtweg, schließen, schon, sehr, selbst, selten, seltsamerweise, sicher, sicherlich, sonst, sowieso, sowohl als auch, sozusagen, überdies, überhaupt, übrigens, umständehalber, unbedingt, unerhört, vergleichsweise, vermutlich, vielfach, vielleicht, voll, voll und ganz, vollends, völlig, vollkommen
  • Substantive
    • Art Beispiel
    • bildhaft, konkret, “echt“
    • Blitz, Baum, Wolke
    • bildnah, gleichsam personifiziert
    • Treue, Neid
    • bildleer, abstrakt, gebläht, „unecht“
    • Verantwortung, Selbstbeherrschung, alle Wörter auf -ung, -heit, -keit
    • lebende Leichname
    • Zurschaustellung, Ingangsetzung, Inaugenscheinnahme
  • Abbreviations
    • FDA - Food and Drug Administration
    • EMEA - European Medicines Evaluation Agency
    • ERB - Ethical Review Board
    • IRB - Independent Review Board
    • IEC - Independent Ethics Committee
    • EC - Ethics Committee or
    • European Community
  • Abbreviations
    • SAP
            • systolic arterial pressure / statistical analysis plan
    • HR
            • heart rate / human resources
    • SV
            • stroke volume / Sozialversicherung
  • Abbreviations - NEVER USE
    • e.g. exempli gratia
    • etc. et cetera
    • i.e. id est
    • p.r.n. pro re nata as required
    • u.o.s ut opus sit as required
    • p.o. per os orally
    • b.i.d. bis in die twice daily
    • t.i.d. ter in die three times daily
    • p.a. post applicationem after drug application or intake
  • Abbreviations and Definitions of Terms
    • Provide complete alphabetic list
    • Define all abbreviations in text at first use
    • Do not put abbreviation in List of Abbreviations if used only once
    • Explain each abbreviation in a table or figure
    • Avoid abbreviations altogether
    • Comply with abbreviations rules of your university, company, journal
  • Tenses
    • Present
    • Established knowledge
    • Description of tables and figures
    • Past
    • Methods and materials
    • Results
  • Tenses
    • Summary
    • Introduction
    • Methods
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • Past
    • Past and present
    • Past
    • Past
    • Present and past
  • Numbers
    • Concord
    • between noun and verb
    • is ultimate
  • Plural and Singular
    • The data ___ entered in the database.
    • The data ___ evaluated.
    • The analysis of the data ___ finished.
  • The FDA - Washington
    • That...
    • “ Which has not been written ... has not been done“
  •  
  • Scientific Papers - Purpose
            • Invent
            • Create
            • Discover
            • Communicate
            • Publish
            • Accumulate evidence
            • Apply knowledge
  • Scientific Papers - Criteria
            • Systematic
            • Predictive
            • Objective
            • Reproducible
            • Cumulative
            • Public
  • Scientific Papers - History
    • 1658 Journal des Scavans
    • 1812 New England Journal of Medicine
    • 1870s Pasteur (1822-1895)
    • 1970 The American National Standards Institute
    • 1978 Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals
  • Scientific Papers - History
          • 1966 Medline archive
          • 1996 Medline free and accessible for the public
          • 1987 Structured abstracts for reporting clinical trials
          • 1997 Structured reporting of clinical trials
  • A Scientific Rhetoric
    • Communicating Science –
    • The Scientific Article from the
    • 17th Century to the Present
    • by Alan J. Gross, Joseph E. Harmon,
    • and Michael Reidy
    • Oxford University Press
    • New York 2002
    • ISBN 0-19-513454-0
    • 279 pp., $60.
  • The Title
    • Purpose
    • To Introduce the Article into the Scientific Literature
    • Content
    • It must stand alone – it must be self explanative
  • The title
      • 1.  Write the title early in the writing process and critique it the same as any other section of the manuscript.
      • 2.  A title should be the fewest possible words that accurately describe the content of the paper (the recommended length is 10 - 12 words).
      • 3.  The golden rule is: Express only one idea or subject in your title.
      • 4.  Put an important word first in the title.
      • 5.  Use key words which highlight the main content of your manuscript and can be understood, indexed, and retrieved by a database search.
      • 6.  Be concise.  Omit all waste words such as "A study of ...", "Investigations of ...", "Observations on ...".
      • 7.  Eliminate redundant words such as verbs and articles so the title functions as a label rather than a sentence.
      • 8.  Use simple word orders and common word combinations.
      • 9.  Write scientific names in full, for instance Escherichia coli rather than E. coli.
      • 10.  Avoid using abbreviations and acronyms; they could have different meanings.
  • Healthywords
    • Towards a betterment in medical communication across the drug industry
  • The title – an exercise
  • The Abstract
    • Purpose
    • for the reader to decide whether to read the full article
    • Types
      • descriptive
      • informative
      • for presentation (congresses & conferences)
  • The Informative Abstract
    • Follows the IMRD
    • Word limit
    • Must stand alone
    • Key words
    • Corresponding author
  • Abstract
    • Identify the major objectives and conclusions.
    • Identify phrases with keywords in the methods section.
    • Identify the major results from the results section.
    • Identify the major statement in the discussion.
    • Assemble the above information into a single paragraph.
    • State your hypothesis or method used in the first sentence.
    • Omit background information, literature review, and detailed description of methods.
    • Remove extra words and phrases.
    • Revise the text so that the abstract conveys only the essential information.
    • Check to see if it meets the guidelines of the targeted journal / rules of the uni.
    • Give the abstract to a colleague (preferably one who is not familiar with your work) and ask him/her whether it makes sense.
  • Nicht vergessen
    • The conclusions in an abstract
    • 1. Write down the central message of your research. Use 20 to 25 words.
    • 2. Summarize your paper in one sentence.
    • 3. Describe your work to a colleague in one minute.
  • Check List before Submission
    • Necessary number of copies of complete manuscript and clearly labeled figures
    • Cover letter
    • Title page, Abstract, References
    • Address and e-mail of author in cover letter and on title page
    • Permission to reproduce copyright material
    • Signed informed consent if applicable
    • Acknowledgments for grants and technical support
    • Materials packed in extra-strength envelopes
    • Authorship responsibility, financial disclosure, copyright transfer form signed by the author
    • Disc and high-quality print electronic art
    • Disk with final version of manuscript as accepted by responsible professor/boss
  • Publishing
    • Find a publisher for your book.
  • Voluntary homework
    • Exercise
    • Learning styles
    • Day 2
  • Knowledge pyramid ACTION datadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadata datadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadata informationinformationinformationinformat knowledgeknowledgeknowled wisdomwisdom
    • “ Der Morgen ist weiser als der Abend”
    • Russisches Sprichwort
    • “ Only dull people are brilliant at breakfast.”
    • Oscar Wilde
  • Voluntary homework
    • Exercise
    • Learning styles
  • Learning Styles
    • Reflector
    • collect data, analyse before conclusion
    • thoughtful, observing others at action
    • listen to others, adopt a low profile
    • distant, tolerant, unruffled air
  • Learning Styles
    • Theorist
    • adopt and integrate observations to logical theories
    • think logically, analyse, synthesise
    • assimilate disparate facts into coherent theories
    • perfectionists within a rational scheme
    • detached, analytical, dedicated to rational objectivity
  • Learning Styles
    • Activist
    • fully involved, without bias, open-minded, enthusiastic
    • act first and consider consequences afterwards
    • are bored with implementation and longer term consolidation
    • seek to center all activities around themselves
  • Learning Styles
    • Pragmatist
    • keen to try out ideas, theories and techniques
    • take the first opportunity to experiment with applications
    • after training courses they brimm with new ideas that they want to try out in practice
    • tend to be impatient with open-end discussions
    • „ if it works, it‘s good“
  • Der Bericht methods materials procedures statistical methods results statistical analysis discussion conclusions
  • Mein Titel
  • Die Einleitung
    • 1. Begin the Introduction by providing a concise background account of the problem studied.
    • 2. State the objective of the investigation. Your research objective is the most important part of the introduction.
    • 3. Establish the significance of your work: Why was there a need to conduct the study? Give a rationale.
    • 4. Introduce the reader to the pertinent literature . Do not give a full history of the topic. Only quote previous work having direct bearing on the present problem.
    • 5. Clearly state your hypothesis , the variables investigated, and concisely summarize the methods used.
    • 6. Provide a concise discussion of the results and findings of other studies so the reader understands the big picture.
  • Thesen - Exercise
    • Write down the main objective of your research
    • Write down three points, which need to be researched, to support your main objective.
    • Describe your main hypothesis to a colleague in one minute.
  • Noch mehr Tipps
    • Other points to consider when writing your Introduction:
    • 1. Be aware of who will be reading your manuscript and make sure the Introduction is directed to that audience.
    • 2. Move from general to specific: from the problem in the real world, to the literature, to your research.
    • 3. Write in the present tense except for what you did or found, which should be in the past tense.
    • 4. Be concise.
  • Table of Contents
    • Machen Sie sich ein Template
    • Automate compilation and update – page number
    • Levels and sublevels of headings
    • Appendices paginated as required
    • Liste mit Abkürzungen nicht vergessen
  • Statistics - when writing up results
    • Throw all data together
    • Do not adjust for baseline differences
    • Do not test data for normal distribution
    • Use only the ones that “fit”
    • Treat outliers individually according to usefulness
    • Stop the research as soon as you get a significant result
    • When no interesting results emerge, ask the computer to search for subgroups with significant differences
    • If the planned statistical methods do not yield the results you need, run the data through a selection of other tests
  • Statistics
    • Respect it
    • Do not fear it
    • Do not cheat on it
    • Question it
    • Use it
  • Communicate
    • A stenotypist at a conference – in the old days – asked the Nobel prize winner Richard Feymann:
    • - “Are you a professor?”
    • - “Yes – of physics – science.”
    • - “You see, when the other people at the conference talk, I just write down but I do not understand what they say.
    • When you talk, I understand exactly what you mean – what the question is and what you are saying – so I thought you can’t be a professor.”
  • Scientific Papers
    • Materials and Methods
      • Quality and Reproducibility
      • Main Questions:
        • How were the data acquired, integrity of data
        • Can another scientist follow the words in this section and conduct the same study to get the same results
  • Materials and Methods
    • Questions to be answered
    • Design
    • Selection of subjects / questions
    • Statistical considerations
    • Techniques and methods
    • Materials used
    • Cite the author of the method (bibliographic data)
    • Materials (Trade name, Company, City, Country)
  • Materials and methods
    • Order your procedures chronologically or by type of procedure and then chronologically within type of procedure using sub-headings, where appropriate, to clarify what you did. It is up to you to decide what order of presentation will make the most sense to your reader.
    • Describe your experimental design clearly, including the hypotheses you tested, variables measured, how many replicates you had, controls etc.
    • Explain why each procedure was done. Reference may be made to a published paper as an alternative to describing a lengthy procedure.
    • Identify the source of any specific type of equipment, a specific enzyme, organism, questionnaire or a method from a particular supplier, which is critical to the success of the experiment.
    • Describe in detail any modifications to equipment or equipment constructed specifically for the study or a questionnaire modified or designed, and, if pertinent, provide illustrations of the modifications.
  • Materials and methods
    • Precisely quantify measurements and include errors of measurement.
    • Describe the dates and the site where your field study was conducted including any characteristics of the site, if pertinent to the study’s objectives.
    • Identify tests using the variable or test name, rather than an ambiguous, general name or number (e.g., use „housewives" rather than "group 1").
    • Mention the approval for the study by the relevant authoroties and any guidelines applicable, and the informed consent of the subjects if applicable.
    • Describe statistical tests and the comparisons made; ordinary statistical methods should be used without comment; advanced or unusual methods may require a literature citation.
    • Show your Materials and Methods section to a colleague and ask whether they would have difficulty in repeating your study.
  • Materials and Methods
    • Do not mix results with methods and procedures.
    • Omit all explanatory information and background - save it for the discussion.
    • Do not include information that is irrelevant to the reader, such as what colour ice bucket you used, or which individual logged in the data.
  • Scientific Papers
    • Results
    • What happened during the experiment
    • What did we measure
    • What did we find out in the experiment
  • Results
    • Determine which results to present by deciding which are relevant to the question(s) presented in the Introduction/Objectives irrespective of whether or not the results support the hypothesis / objective. The Results section does not need to include every result you obtained or observed.
    • Organize the data in the Results section in either chronological order according to the Methods or in order of most to least important. Within each paragraph, the order of most to least important results should be followed.
    • Determine whether the data are best presented in the form of text, figures, graphs, or tables.
    • Summarize your findings and point the reader to the relevant data in the text, figures or tables. The text should complement the figures or tables, not repeat the same information.
  • Results
    • 5. Describe the results and data of the controls and include observations not presented in a formal figure or table, if appropriate.
    • 6. Provide a clear description of the magnitude of a response or difference. If appropriate, use percentage of change rather than exact data.
    • 7. Make sure that the data are accurate and consistent throughout the manuscript.
    • 8. Summarize the statistical analysis and report actual P values for all primary variables, including confidence intervals.
  • Was erwarten Sie von Ihrer Arbeit
  • Conclusions - exercise
  • Information and Information Sources
    • Markets
    • Companies
    • People – biographies
    • Laws and guidelines – white paper
    • Technologies
    • Products
    • Associations - EPHA
  • Databases - external
  • The Internet
    • Medline
    • FDA incl. Marketing since 1994 authorization application needed
    • WHO publications
    • Authorities information
    • Full text articles from NEJM, BMJ
    • Subscription to newsletters (EPHA)
    • Wikipedia
  • Face to Face – Small World
    • Conferences & Congresses
    • Seminars & Workshops
    • Informal Meetings – the grape
    • Personal Network
  • Government Information & Consumer Organisations
    • Watchdog agencies
    • G10 Medicine
    • Patient interest groups
  • First draft
    • Consolidate all the information
    • Start writing
    • Write quickly
    • Write in your own voice
    • Write without editing
    • Keep to the plan of your outline
    • Write the parts you can
    • Put the first draft aside
    • Revise for critique of content
    • Revise for clarity
  • Reminder: Discussion
  • Discussion
    • 1. Organize the Discussion from the specific to the general: your findings to the literature, to theory, to practice.
    • 2. Use the same key terms, the same verb tense (present tense), and the same point of view that you used when posing the questions in the Introduction.
    • 3. Begin by re-stating the hypothesis you were testing and answering the questions posed in the introduction.
    • 4. Support the answers with the results. Explain how your results relate to expectations and to the literature, clearly stating why they are acceptable and how they are consistent or fit in with previously published knowledge on the topic.
    • 5. Address all the results relating to the questions, regardless of whether or not the findings were statistically significant.
  • Discussion
    • 6. Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major finding/result and put them in perspective. The sequencing of providing this information is important; first state the answer, then the relevant results, then cite the work of others. If necessary, point the reader to a figure or table to enhance the “story”.
    • 7. Defend your answers, if necessary, by explaining both why your answer is satisfactory and why others are not. Only by giving both sides to the argument can you make your explanation convincing.
    • 8. Discuss and evaluate conflicting explanations of the results. This is the sign of a good discussion.
    • 9. Discuss any unexpected findings. When discussing an unexpected finding, begin the paragraph with the finding and then describe it.
  • Discussion
    • 10. Identify potential limitations and weaknesses and comment on the relative importance of these to your interpretation of the results and how they may affect the validity of the findings. When identifying limitations and weaknesses, avoid using an apologetic tone.
    • 11. Summarize concisely the principal implications of the findings, regardless of statistical significance.
    • 12. Provide recommendations (no more than two) for further research. Do not offer suggestions which could have been easily addressed within the study, as this shows there has been inadequate examination and interpretation of the data.
    • 13. Explain how the results and conclusions of this study are important and how they influence our knowledge or understanding of the problem being examined.
    • 14. In your writing of the Discussion, discuss everything, but be concise, brief, and specific.
  • Reminder: Skills communication skills computer literacy language skills methodical & logical skills problem solving laws & regulations writer teambuilding & teamwork scientific knowledge critical thinking social & cultural skills management & leadership product knowledge
  • Sunday afternoon
    • how are you ? ...
  • Questions
  • Feedback
    • Welche message nehmen Sie mit?
    • Worüber möchten Sie mehr wissen?
    • Was hat Ihnen am meisten Freude bereitet?
    • Geben Sie ein Beispiel einer nützlichen Information
    • Kommentare
  • Thanks Prof. Dr. Marion Schäfer Dr. Matthias Kruse