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Orangi and gal oya

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  • 1. ORANGI vs. GAL OYA projects:Lessons in participatory involvement
  • 2. Orangi, Pakistan
    1960s: Poor, immigrant influx
    1970s: Unsanctioned = no govt. funds or harmony
    1980s: Enter OPP
    (Orangi Pilot
    Project)
  • 3. Challenges for Dr. A.H. Khan -
    CONCEPTUAL
    TECHNICAL
    ORGANIZATIONAL
  • 4. No preconceived problems/solutions
    ACTIVE LISTENING
  • 5. CONCEPTUAL: Identifying problems
    Unhurried observation:
    No govt. funds, BUT…
    Locals are
    valued
    social
    capital . . .
    Priorities:
    Sewerage
    Sanitary water supply
  • 6. ORGANIZATIONAL: Build local capacity
    Only initial impetus from OPP:
    SOCIAL MOTIVATORS talked about:
    -- Benefits of sewer lines…
    -- Govt. not solving problems…
    -- Informal, elective process at fraction of cost
  • 7. TECHNICAL: OPP plus Thallawalas (and other indigenous populations)
    Inexpensive, simple technology to:
    Minimize cost
    Simplify training/education
    Ownership, installation, maintenance
  • 8. Pre-project findings
    No formal impositions
    People free to organize efforts, elect leaders
    Very slow education process for buy-in
  • 9. Funding realities
    OPP
    Local people
    No donor funds to projects themselves
    Solely for: tech assistance, training, overhead, tools loaned to citizens
    Financial resources
    Labor
    Project scheduling
    (and whether/when to lay lines)
  • 10. Villagers sole stakeholders
    Beneficiaries involved
    Three months to first lane installation
    (Implementation learning)
  • 11. Another project: GAL OYA (Sri Lanka)
    Begun in 1951 as Gal Oya Colonization Scheme:
  • 12. Relevant lens
    (Reservoir water going throughout area to benefit ALL people in Valley;
    e.g. tail-enders for those at end of water stream and head-enders for those at beginning);
    Multiple perspectives: Prime Minister, farmers, and several affected indigenous populations
  • 13. LENS: Prime Minister/Irrigation dept.
    Mission: Increase small farmer rice production through the use of irrigation
    Result: self-managed farmer organization
    Size: 120,000 acres, 40 colonies of 150 families
  • 14. LENS: Farmers
    Old system: Govt. built systems, engineers supervise construction, farmers trained to maintain.
    (Farmers uncooperative)
    Newer system: More active role, stronger water associations
    Farmer-to-farmer approach
    (from research by “Institutional Organizers”)
    Design: Outside consultants and govt. staff
  • 15. LENS: Sinhalese community
    Head-enders on chain
    Viewed as direct beneficiaries of Gal Oya project
    Major ethnic group in Sri Lanka
    “Head-enders”
  • 16. LENS: Tamil community
    Tail-enders on chain,
    Skewed number of Sinhalese households were resettled in Tamil community, favoring Sinhalese political/ethnic balance
    Tamil protests led to widespread ethnic, religious riots (aka Gal Oya massacre)
    Now noted as case study of how one minority group can be elevated over a majority group (Sinhalese over Tamil)
  • 17. LENS: Wanniyala-Aetto community
    Dam  Eviction from hunting-and-gathering lands
    Forest home clear-cut for hydro-electricity
    Near extinction in 1983 with three new reservoirs
    Tribe split into three resettlement areas
    Forbidden to live in ecological sustainability
  • 18. Ongoing
    Civil war between Sinhalese and Tamil
    Indigenous fellow-citizens rebel at Gal Oya anniversary
  • 19. World Bank lens(local residents should have control and authority to manage, supervise, evaluate projects)
    Orangi
    Gal Oya
    “Conceptual” success
    Project defined with equal voices
    Borrowing entities developing planning capabilities
    Political repercussions
    Relocation of indigenous
    Perceived inequality with “tail-enders” and “head-enders”
  • 20. Blueprint-engineering or social learning? Whose agenda is served?
    ORANGI: BYPASS
    Ignore government
    Set up parallel structure
    May ultimately join govt. system
    GAL OYA: IN/with
    Operating with govt. framework
    But avoid costly reorganization
    Production vs. institutional strengthening
  • 21. AMA calls for eradication of bucket latrines by 2010 in Ghana, Accra
    Orangi model adopted elsewhere.
    Gal Oya: Paternalist vs. Populist fallacy
    Is guided participation best approach for empowerment, OR
    Is it too open to outside manipulation?
    Updates