Orangi and gal oya


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Orangi and gal oya

  1. 1. ORANGI vs. GAL OYA projects:Lessons in participatory involvement<br />
  2. 2. Orangi, Pakistan<br />1960s: Poor, immigrant influx<br />1970s: Unsanctioned = no govt. funds or harmony<br />1980s: Enter OPP <br /> (Orangi Pilot <br /> Project)<br />
  3. 3. Challenges for Dr. A.H. Khan -<br />CONCEPTUAL<br />TECHNICAL<br />ORGANIZATIONAL<br />
  4. 4. No preconceived problems/solutions<br />ACTIVE LISTENING<br />
  5. 5. CONCEPTUAL: Identifying problems<br />Unhurried observation:<br />No govt. funds, BUT…<br />Locals are <br />valued<br />social <br />capital . . .<br />Priorities:<br />Sewerage<br />Sanitary water supply<br />
  6. 6. ORGANIZATIONAL: Build local capacity<br />Only initial impetus from OPP: <br />SOCIAL MOTIVATORS talked about:<br /> -- Benefits of sewer lines…<br /> -- Govt. not solving problems…<br /> -- Informal, elective process at fraction of cost<br />
  7. 7. TECHNICAL: OPP plus Thallawalas (and other indigenous populations)<br />Inexpensive, simple technology to:<br />Minimize cost<br />Simplify training/education<br />Ownership, installation, maintenance<br />
  8. 8. Pre-project findings<br />No formal impositions<br />People free to organize efforts, elect leaders<br />Very slow education process for buy-in<br />
  9. 9. Funding realities<br />OPP<br />Local people<br />No donor funds to projects themselves<br />Solely for: tech assistance, training, overhead, tools loaned to citizens<br />Financial resources<br />Labor<br />Project scheduling<br />(and whether/when to lay lines)<br />
  10. 10. Villagers sole stakeholders<br />Beneficiaries involved<br />Three months to first lane installation<br />(Implementation learning)<br />
  11. 11. Another project: GAL OYA (Sri Lanka)<br />Begun in 1951 as Gal Oya Colonization Scheme:<br />
  12. 12. Relevant lens<br />(Reservoir water going throughout area to benefit ALL people in Valley; <br />e.g. tail-enders for those at end of water stream and head-enders for those at beginning);<br />Multiple perspectives: Prime Minister, farmers, and several affected indigenous populations<br />
  13. 13. LENS: Prime Minister/Irrigation dept. <br />Mission: Increase small farmer rice production through the use of irrigation<br />Result: self-managed farmer organization<br />Size: 120,000 acres, 40 colonies of 150 families<br />
  14. 14. LENS: Farmers<br />Old system: Govt. built systems, engineers supervise construction, farmers trained to maintain.<br /> (Farmers uncooperative)<br />Newer system: More active role, stronger water associations<br />Farmer-to-farmer approach <br />(from research by “Institutional Organizers”)<br />Design: Outside consultants and govt. staff<br />
  15. 15. LENS: Sinhalese community<br />Head-enders on chain<br />Viewed as direct beneficiaries of Gal Oya project<br />Major ethnic group in Sri Lanka<br />“Head-enders”<br />
  16. 16. LENS: Tamil community<br />Tail-enders on chain, <br />Skewed number of Sinhalese households were resettled in Tamil community, favoring Sinhalese political/ethnic balance<br />Tamil protests led to widespread ethnic, religious riots (aka Gal Oya massacre)<br />Now noted as case study of how one minority group can be elevated over a majority group (Sinhalese over Tamil)<br />
  17. 17. LENS: Wanniyala-Aetto community<br />Dam  Eviction from hunting-and-gathering lands<br />Forest home clear-cut for hydro-electricity<br />Near extinction in 1983 with three new reservoirs<br />Tribe split into three resettlement areas<br />Forbidden to live in ecological sustainability<br />
  18. 18. Ongoing<br />Civil war between Sinhalese and Tamil<br />Indigenous fellow-citizens rebel at Gal Oya anniversary<br />
  19. 19. World Bank lens(local residents should have control and authority to manage, supervise, evaluate projects)<br />Orangi<br />Gal Oya<br />“Conceptual” success<br />Project defined with equal voices<br />Borrowing entities developing planning capabilities<br />Political repercussions<br />Relocation of indigenous<br />Perceived inequality with “tail-enders” and “head-enders”<br />
  20. 20. Blueprint-engineering or social learning? Whose agenda is served?<br />ORANGI: BYPASS<br />Ignore government<br />Set up parallel structure<br />May ultimately join govt. system<br />GAL OYA: IN/with <br />Operating with govt. framework<br />But avoid costly reorganization<br />Production vs. institutional strengthening<br />
  21. 21. AMA calls for eradication of bucket latrines by 2010 in Ghana, Accra<br />Orangi model adopted elsewhere.<br />Gal Oya: Paternalist vs. Populist fallacy<br />Is guided participation best approach for empowerment, OR<br />Is it too open to outside manipulation?<br />Updates<br />