Villagers sole stakeholders<br />Beneficiaries involved<br />Three months to first lane installation<br />(Implementation learning)<br />
Another project: GAL OYA (Sri Lanka)<br />Begun in 1951 as Gal Oya Colonization Scheme:<br />
Relevant lens<br />(Reservoir water going throughout area to benefit ALL people in Valley; <br />e.g. tail-enders for those at end of water stream and head-enders for those at beginning);<br />Multiple perspectives: Prime Minister, farmers, and several affected indigenous populations<br />
LENS: Prime Minister/Irrigation dept. <br />Mission: Increase small farmer rice production through the use of irrigation<br />Result: self-managed farmer organization<br />Size: 120,000 acres, 40 colonies of 150 families<br />
LENS: Farmers<br />Old system: Govt. built systems, engineers supervise construction, farmers trained to maintain.<br /> (Farmers uncooperative)<br />Newer system: More active role, stronger water associations<br />Farmer-to-farmer approach <br />(from research by “Institutional Organizers”)<br />Design: Outside consultants and govt. staff<br />
LENS: Sinhalese community<br />Head-enders on chain<br />Viewed as direct beneficiaries of Gal Oya project<br />Major ethnic group in Sri Lanka<br />“Head-enders”<br />
LENS: Tamil community<br />Tail-enders on chain, <br />Skewed number of Sinhalese households were resettled in Tamil community, favoring Sinhalese political/ethnic balance<br />Tamil protests led to widespread ethnic, religious riots (aka Gal Oya massacre)<br />Now noted as case study of how one minority group can be elevated over a majority group (Sinhalese over Tamil)<br />
LENS: Wanniyala-Aetto community<br />Dam Eviction from hunting-and-gathering lands<br />Forest home clear-cut for hydro-electricity<br />Near extinction in 1983 with three new reservoirs<br />Tribe split into three resettlement areas<br />Forbidden to live in ecological sustainability<br />
Ongoing<br />Civil war between Sinhalese and Tamil<br />Indigenous fellow-citizens rebel at Gal Oya anniversary<br />
World Bank lens(local residents should have control and authority to manage, supervise, evaluate projects)<br />Orangi<br />Gal Oya<br />“Conceptual” success<br />Project defined with equal voices<br />Borrowing entities developing planning capabilities<br />Political repercussions<br />Relocation of indigenous<br />Perceived inequality with “tail-enders” and “head-enders”<br />
Blueprint-engineering or social learning? Whose agenda is served?<br />ORANGI: BYPASS<br />Ignore government<br />Set up parallel structure<br />May ultimately join govt. system<br />GAL OYA: IN/with <br />Operating with govt. framework<br />But avoid costly reorganization<br />Production vs. institutional strengthening<br />
AMA calls for eradication of bucket latrines by 2010 in Ghana, Accra<br />Orangi model adopted elsewhere.<br />Gal Oya: Paternalist vs. Populist fallacy<br />Is guided participation best approach for empowerment, OR<br />Is it too open to outside manipulation?<br />Updates<br />
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