Job satisfaction of teachers in primary schools


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Job satisfaction of teachers in primary schools

  1. 1. A STUDY OF ADJUSTMENT LEVEL AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOLTEACHERS IN ANANTNAG Submitted by: YASMINA AKHTER ( Enrollment No: 105258142 Under the Supervision of: Dr. Manzoor Ahmad Bhat (Lecturer) Govt. Degree College (Boys) Anantnag. Councellor IGNOU COURSE : POST GRADUATE IN EDUCATION (MAE) SUBMITTED TO : INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY(IGNOU)
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I Sincerely entered my gratitude to Mr. Dr. Manzoor Ahmad Bhat (Lecturer ) “Govt. Boys Degree College Anantnag for his credit supervision . His guidance has played a major roll in the completion of this project . I am also thankful to “Alllah Subhana Wa Talla” Which favours me in every step, to my respondents and officers and persons who have provide me the required information regarding my project,” A study of adjustment level among Primary School Teachers in Anantnag.” Place: Anantnag Signature Date: (Yasmina Akhter)
  4. 4. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project entitled ,” A study of adjustment level among Primary School Teachers in Anantnag.” is original project study conducted by Miss. Yasmina Akhter student of MAE from IGNOU has worked under my Supervision & guidance. She has attended the required session held. This report has not formed on the basis of any other degree of any university. Place: Anantnag Signature of Supervisor Date: {Dr. Manzoor Ahmad Bhat} CONTENTS 1. Introduction
  5. 5. 2. Review of related literature 3. Objectives of the Study 4. Tools of Data Collection 5. Findings 6. Questionnaire 7. Structures in Shape of Respondents 8. Conclusion & Suggestions
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION Education is an important indicator of social development. Education is a continuous process. It may be formal, informal or nonformal. In formal education teacher has a very important place in improvement of education. Teachers’ role in society, in general and in education has been changing with time but the importance of this position is same. The teacher is the pre-requisite of the success of educational programmes. The main quality of teacher is the positive attitude towards education. He/She must have the ability to get satisfied from their respective jobs. So educational programme should inculcate the qualities in teacher, so that he/she may be in his best position to impart education to students. The attitude of teachers towards education influences the nature and extent of their participation in the education and related educational programme. By developing teachers’ with desirable attitude or by shaping their attitudes in desired, effective and productive learning on the part of pupils can achieved. Teaching is regarding as the noblest profession. It is therefore important that those individuals who join the teaching profession should be dedicated and competent in their work. A teacher can perform to the maximum of his capacity; if he/she is satisfied with his/her job. Every
  7. 7. profession has certain aspects responsible for job satisfaction along with attitude and teaching is not an exception unless and until a teacher derives satisfaction on job performance and develops a positive attitude towards education, he cannot initiate desirable outcomes to cater to the needs of the society. Only satisfied and well-adjusted teacher can think of the well-being of the pupils. In the light of this background, the aim of this study is to analyze the job satisfaction level among the Primary School teachers in Anantnag. This paper is an endeavor towards to analyze the attitude of the male and female teachers of Primary schools towards education. Although the services of teachers are now respected every where , their adjustment with their vocation , pupil’s life and environment is still at stake.The teacher have to develop habits to meet with challenges in the desired manner and i.e what may be called an adjustment. The quality of competent teachers depends on certain factors where the degree of level of adjustment present in the school environment. A well adjusted teachers work with dedication if they works in a free mind , their sense of responsibility will increase.
  8. 8. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Job satisfaction is the extent to which one feels good about the job. It is in regard to one’s feelings or state of mind regarding to the nature of their work. In other words, job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well, enthusiasm and happiness with one's work. Everyone define job satisfaction as fulfillment of one’s expectation. It differs from person to person and institution to institution and even in the context of male and female. In simple term when someone is satisfied with his job that is job satisfaction. Job satisfaction as a pleasurable positive emotion state, resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences. It results from the perception that one’s job fulfils or allows the fulfillment of one’s important job values, providing and to the degree that these values are congruent with one’s needs (Locke, 1976). Therefore, job satisfaction is such phenomenon which comes not only from the job, but also from one’s personal, social, academic, administrative and economical condition. while attempting to find out the nature of relationship among teacher’s attitude teacher’s adjustment and teaching efficiency of graduate teachers of the Primary schools of Anantnag, found that teacher’s attitude and adjustment were positively related to their efficiency. In a comparative study of the self-concept of
  9. 9. teachers of different categories and the relationship of their self-concept with professional adjustment, found that: 1. The distribution of the scores of self-concept and professional adjustment based on self-concept inventory and professional adjustment inventory were more or less normal; 2. There was no significant difference among the self concept of primary and secondary ; 3. There was a significant difference between the self-ideas-discrepancies of college and secondary teachers but not of primary and college teachers; 4. There was a significant difference in the professional adjustment between college and primary teachers but not between the primary and secondary school teachers; 5. There was a significant relationship between self-concept scores and self-ideas of all the three types of teachers; and 6. There was a significant relationship between self-concept and professional adjustment scores of the three types of teachers. In a survey I conducted a study of teacher’s adjustment in relation to professional efficiency, which revealed that:
  10. 10. 1. The correlation studies of male and female teachers indicated positive relationship between all the five elements of adjustment; 2. The predictive value of the regression equation of male teachers was higher than that of the regression equation of female teachers; 3. The cross validity indices of 0.65 and 0.76 of male and female teachers respectively indicated that the regression equations with their assigned weights withstood the test of cross-validation. Correlation between teacher’s attitude, adjustment and perception of teacher behaviour, found that teachers with Bachelor’s degree, less teaching experience, positive attitude and well adjustment capacity were more indirect in their classroom behaviour than the teachers with master’s degree more teaching experience, negative attitudes and poor adjustment capacity. Singh (1976), trying to find out the relationship between some personality variables and teaching effectiveness, revealed that: 1. The interpersonal relation, as regards social behaviour and adjustment, were very low in inferior teachers; 2. Superior teachers showed more strength of imagination. 3. The teachers rated to be inferior lacked self-confidence in teaching and solving problems whereas average teachers had self-confidence but were shown to be having adjustment problem.
  11. 11. Mostly I found that success in teaching was significantly related to: Adjustment in various fields of life, including also personality characteristics like adjustment in home health, social, emotional and total adjustment. Professional attitude; and There were differences in personality characteristics, adjustment and attitude towards teaching of successfully and unsuccessful teachers. Teachers of government schools were better adjusted than teachers of private school in the areas of home, social and educational adjustment. Similar levels of adjustment were observed in emotional and health areas. In a study on a differential study of self-concept, personality adjustment and values of teachers at various levels, found that: On emotional stability, the female teachers perceived themselves as being more emotionally instable than the male teachers; Differences on occupational health, emotional and social adjustment were also significant among these groups of teachers; Similarly, value structures of the various groups of the various groups of teachers were also significantly different. The study reveals that library and information science courses must expose students and practicing library professional to various components of IT, IT applications improve communication facilities and helps in enhancing technical knowledge, providing better services, improving library status, change information handling methods and
  12. 12. reduce workload. The users are of view that all staff should have higher qualifications for the effective use of IT based services. Teachers of Jammu and Kashmir state in relation to their job satisfaction, personality and attitude towards education. He found that Punjab state physical education teachers are extremely satisfied from their jobs but Jammu and Kashmir teachers are in very satisfied category. Teachers of both the groups have the solitary personality. Further, found that the teachers of both the states have unfavorable attitude towards education. Mohamed Imran Rasheed (2010), found that the factors like job design, work environment, feedback, recognition, decision making participation are the potential factor for satisfying teachers in higher education. Bloch (2009), in his study found that there is a constructive association among promotion and job satisfaction. Academicians are more motivated and committed to perform a job and also more satisfied if promotion opportunities are available to them. Shamima Tasnim (2006), in her study found that one of the main purposes of job is to get the payment or salary and it is very natural that a handsome salary will bring job satisfaction.
  13. 13. Ting (1997), in his study shows that job characteristics such as salary, promotional opportunity, task clarity and significance, and skills utilization, as well as organizational characteristics such as commitment and relationship with supervisors and co-workers, have significant effects on job satisfaction. Ramkrishnaiah (1980) has found that 93 percent of the college teachers who were highly satisfied with their job expressed that they have cordial relationship with their colleagues. Perie & Baker (1979), in their study concluded that student achievement may be directly connected to teachers’ job satisfaction. Blum and Naylor (1968), found that job satisfaction is the result of various attitudes possessed by an employee. In a narrow sense, their attitudes are related to the job and are concerned with such specific factors as wages supervision, steadiness of employment, conditions of work, opportunities for advancement, recognition of ability, fair evaluation of work, social relations on job, prompt settlement of grievances, and fair treatment by employer and similar other items. Education Commission (1966), cautioned that dissatisfaction of individual, whatever may be the occupation in which he is engaged, results in professional stagnation and becomes harmful to the clientale. A dissatisfies teacher spells disaster to the country’s future. Dissatisfaction among the workers is undesirable and
  14. 14. dangerous in any profession. It is suicidal if it occurs in the teaching profession. Herzberg (1957) has shown that more satisfied workers will tend to add more value to an organization. Unhappy employees, who are motivated by fear of job loss, will not give 100 percent of their effort for very long. Hoppock’s (1935), seminal study of job satisfaction revealed that dissatisfaction with wages was the most important reason advanced for voluntary separation across a broad array of occupations. Ahmed, Raheem and Jamal (2003) studied the job satisfaction of 236 teachers in senior secondary schools. Female teachers enjoyed greater satisfaction than their male counterparts did. Married teachers showed more job satisfaction than unmarried teachers did. Teachers who were teaching in government schools showed greater job satisfaction than teachers teaching in private schools. There was no significant change in the job satisfaction due to change in the level of independent variables like sex, martial status and types of schools. Noll (2004) examined the job satisfaction and factors, which affect job satisfaction of teachers. It was found that school culture, teachers’ relationship with administration, working conditions and motivation were the factors, which had a significant relationship with job satisfaction among school teachers.
  15. 15. Dhingra (2006) conducted a study on randomly selected sample of 100 teachers from different government and private schools of Patiala district to study the effect of organization climate on job satisfaction of secondary school teacher. It found that there is no significant difference in job satisfaction of government and private secondary school teachers. Further difference between job satisfactions in relation to their organizational climate of secondary school teachers found to be significant. Rama (200) concluded a study of the attitude of teachers towards teachers’ centers. It concluded that teachers’ centers are useful to the teachers in solving academic problems. The teachers have a positive attitude on the functioning of teachers’ centers. Female and experienced teachers have a positive attitude in teachers’ centers. Howery (2001) conducted a study to investigate impact of technology on teacher training attitude. The result of the study revealed an increase in teacher attitude and use of computers. The results suggest that through the technology. Literacy challenge (TLC) grant, teacher have become comfortable with the use of technology and their positive attitude towards technology has increased.
  16. 16. Singh (2006) studied the impact of terrorism on physical education. Teachers of Jammu and Kashmir state in relation to their job satisfaction, personality and attitude towards education. He found that Punjab state physical education teachers are extremely satisfied from their jobs but Jammu and Kashmir teachers are in very satisfied category. Teachers of both the groups have the solitary personality. Further, found that the teachers of both the states have unfavorable attitude towards education.
  17. 17. NEED OF THE STUDY The present study was taken to investigate the following objectives during the course of the study Since the adjustment has a profound effect on the overall behavior of an individual whether male and female. The present study will focus on the social , home , rural , urban and overall dimension of adjustment of male and female primary school teachers in Anantnag district. The finding can be used as inputs for deriving intervention , strategies so that male and female primary school teachers in Anantnag district are better adjusted to their environment. The purpose of the study is to know the factors impacting job satisfaction among the Primary school teachers of district Anantnag because, it may have a direct effect on student learning in the schools. The quality of instruction received by students may be impacted by the level of job satisfaction a teacher experiences. Considering the possible correlation between teacher job satisfaction and the quality of student instruction/teaching, it is important to understand the factors that may affect job satisfaction. Most of the research of job satisfaction is related to management of industrial, banking and business organization. The study of school teachers’ job satisfaction is not many. Hence, more research is
  18. 18. needed in primary teachers’ job satisfaction, if we are interested to provide quality education to our students at the primary level. This study is hoped to contribute to that extent. What conditions keep rural teachers happy with their work? In this article, we address this question by examining the factors leading to satisfaction among teachers serving poor rural communities. We analyze a survey of rural primary school teachers, Headmasters and Village Education committee conducted at various places. We look at three measures of job satisfaction: whether teachers perceive teaching to be their ideal profession, whether teachers want to change their profession, and whether teachers are satisfied with the local education bureau. Drawing on earlier research, we test hypotheses about three kinds of factors associated with teacher satisfaction: 1. Community factors: teachers are more satisfied in communities with greater economic and social resources, and in communities that are less remote. 2. School environment factors: teachers are more satisfied in schools with better economic resources, in larger schools, in schools where there are more opportunities for professional advancement, in schools where
  19. 19. the workload is lighter, and in schools where there is an organizational climate characterized by experienced leadership that supports teacher collaboration. 3. Teacher characteristics: young teachers, male teachers, unmarried teachers, and teachers with greater human capital are less satisfied, while teachers who are more socially similar to the local community are more satisfied. We begin the article with a discussion of research on teacher satisfaction, in general, and in the context of rural Gansu, in particular. We then provide a brief overview of the data and methods used in the study, followed by bivariate and multivariate analyses of teacher satisfaction. We close by considering implications of the main results for understanding educational opportunity and inequality in rural Gansu, as well as for further research on the role of teachers as elements of educational opportunity and inequality in developing countries. Teachers are an essential link in the transmission of educational opportunity to poor children. Teacher job satisfaction has, in turn, been tied to teachers’ work performance, including teachers’ involvement, commitment, and motivation on the job. Teacher job dissatisfaction is closely associated with teacher absenteeism and a tendency toward
  20. 20. attrition from the teaching profession.8 Teacher commitment may also be an important factor determining the successful implementation of educational reforms in schools.In China, the current era of educational reforms aims to bring about a shift toward more student-centered teaching and learning, a greater emphasis on critical thinking and the application of skills, and the establishment of a more democratic classroom environment. The implementation of these reforms will likely require greater levels of teacher initiative and innovation, making teacher commitment and motivation increasingly important. Disengaged teachers are unlikely to inspire student engagement or, consequently, student achievement. Furthermore, job dissatisfaction leading to attrition from the teaching profession may exacerbate the already acute teacher shortages in rural communities. A report by the Gansu Institute of Education Research notes that between 1995 and 2001, the number of primary school students in Gansu increased by 16.5 percent. Despite this increase, the number of primary school teachers actually decreased by 6.2 percent.12 According to the report, the impact of provincial teacher shortages is much greater in rural communities. Consequences include the inability to offer classes in English, computers, and the arts.13 Perhaps most important, teacher shortages may lower teacher quality in poor and remote areas. In areas of rural China, where certified teachers
  21. 21. are difficult to recruit and retain, principals hire substitute or temporary (daike) teachers, who generally have lower levels of education and little or no formal teacher training.14 Teacher quality has been linked empirically to various student outcomes. In research conducted in developing countries, factors such as teachers’ knowledge of subject matter, verbal and math proficiency scores, and qualifications have all tended to be associated with higher student achievement.15 In addition to having an important impact on student achievement, teachers may also play a crucial role in educational attainment. Eric Hanushek argues that higher school quality results in lower dropout rates and that teacher quality is the most important factor contributing to overall school quality.1 Despite the fact that high-quality teachers are more difficult to recruit and retain in rural communities, there has been little investigation of the association between teacher satisfaction and such community characteristics as poverty, remoteness, and social resources. To date, researchers have focused on the relationships between teacher job satisfaction and individual and job characteristics. This research has taken two main approaches: a focus on facet-specific job satisfaction and an emphasis on understanding teachers’ overall sense of satisfaction with their job.
  22. 22. The first approach has sought to measure the extent to which teachers are satisfied with specific aspects of their job. These include remuneration, physical working conditions, quality of relationships with supervisors and colleagues, quality of supervision, workload, teachers’ social status, opportunities for personal growth and promotion, teachers’ skills and professional accomplishments to date, degree of decisionmaking autonomy, and characteristics of the educational system.17 In contrast, the second approach has sought to link characteristics of schools and teachers to overall job satisfaction. 18 This approach uses a global measure of teacher satisfaction against which a variety of school and teacher explanatory variables are tested via multivariate analyses. In this article we adopt this latter approach, but we also include measures of community factors among our explanatory variables. Community factors.—Around the world, community poverty and remoteness present significant challenges to teachers in under resourced schools. Teachers serving in rural communities in developing nations experience particular challenges.19 Physical conditions brought about by poverty often make even daily necessities scarce. In addition, teachers in rural villages may face a lack of access to transportation, cultural resources, or educational facilities. Recreation and opportunities for
  23. 23. enrichment and personal advancement are often limited, compared to those available in towns and cities. Linda Ankrah-Dove writes, “Remote rural areas are in a very real sense on the periphery, far from the centers of political, economic and cultural life.”20 Teachers may also feel isolated from the local community, especially if they are from outside the village or if there is a wide educational gap between themselves and the local community. Further, with global trends toward educational decentralization, teachers and schools in many developing countries are increasingly dependent on the degree of financial and other support for education in the local community. In China in the 1980s, fiscal decentralization of the educational system shifted the responsibility for rural elementary education to individual villages.21 Under these reforms, the village government would generally allocate money for its schools from the village budget.22 In many villages, local governments have controlled the development of collectively owned enterprises to ensure that the village would get a portion of the revenues. These revenues could be directed to education.23 After decollectivization of agricultural production in the late 1970s and early 1980s, villages that were unable to establish industries and enterprises were left without revenue.24 The poorest villages could get some minimal support in the
  24. 24. form of various kinds of categorical grants from higher levels of government.25 But, even with this assistance, collecting enough money to fund village schools has been a challenge. Local governments have frequently been unable to raise adequate funds for personnel expenses, which are the main cost of education. Many teachers have been paid with IOUs, and some have had to wait for months to get their salary.26 The store of social capital available in a village community may also harness economic resources for village schools.27 Further, social capital facilitates access to information and social connections that may be important for school development.28 Nan Lin defines social capital as “resources embedded in a social structure which are accessed and/or mobilized in purposive actions.”29 In the year 2000, one of the most important social relationships affecting a village school was that between the principal and the village leaders. In small rural communities in northwest China, until very recently, primary school principals generally relied on the village government for the financing of school buildings, maintenance, construction, as well as the recruitment and appointment of teachers.30 Village governments also provided assistance in promoting school enrollment and connections with organizations above the village level. Through the relationship between the village leader and the
  25. 25. principal, information is shared, influence is exerted, the status of the school principal is ensured, and emotional support may be obtained. This relationship is an important but delicate one. If it is strained, it is likely that the affairs of the school, and thus the teachers, will be affected. With community economic and social factors in mind, we hypothesized there would be lower job satisfaction among teachers in (1) villages with fewer economic resources, (2) remote villages where connections to the outside are limited and the population is small, and (3) villages where social resources are constrained, including where the population is poorly educated and where community-school linkages are weak. However, we acknowledge an alternative possibility: teachers in villages where there are more economic opportunities, and teachers in more connected, better-educated, or higher income villages may have greater access to information about the outside world and alternative opportunities, leading them to feel more dissatisfied with teaching as a career than those teachers in the most remote poor areas. School environment.—Drawing on previous research, we hypothesized that several factors associated with the school environment would affect teacher satisfaction. These factors are salary, school economic resources and working conditions, workload, opportunities for personal and professional advancement,
  26. 26. collaboration with and support from other teachers, and quality of supervision. Remuneration: Concerns with remuneration may be paramount. In the United States, poor salary is one of the most important reasons given for leaving teaching due to dissatisfaction in urban, high-poverty public schools and for the attrition of teachers in small private schools. In other case low salaries and truncated salary scales are among the main reasons that the most academically able leave teaching. In China, the level of teachers’ salaries compared to other state employees is cited as one of the major reasons for the high rate of teacher turnover experienced in the 1990s.33 One teacher in rural Gansu, interviewed in 2002,offered the following comment on the connection between low salaries and social status: “Actually, in people’s minds, teachers are losers (mei chuxi), they don’t make much money, isn’t that right?”34 However, in China, reliability of salary payment may be even more important than the amount of the salary itself. Teaching is generally perceived to be a stable career. Because of the trends described in the previous section that have led to the late payment and underpayment of teachers’ salaries, this expectation of stability may have been compromised. Late payment of teachers’ salaries could have a greater
  27. 27. impact on teacher satisfaction than the actual amount of teacher salary received. School economic resources and working conditions: There are different types of schools found in rural areas in China, including central primary schools, complete primary schools, and incomplete primary schools. These very different school environments may have an impact on teacher satisfaction. The central primary schools (zhongxin xiaoxue) are run by the township, represent scale economies, and have access to more resources. Village schools may be complete (wanquan, from grades 1–5 or grades 1–6) or incomplete (bu wan- quan, covering only the first few early grades [usually grades 1–3]).35 In the late 1980s and early 1990s, China restructured its education system. Schools were consolidated using the theory of “economies of scale” in a move to improve the quality of schooling. Many village primary and junior middle schools were closed down, and the students had to walk to neighboring villages to go to school. Only complete primary schools were officially recognized, but in remote villages—where it is too far for young children to travel to the nearest complete primary school—the incomplete primary schools were permitted as teaching point schools.36 Other important indicators of working conditions include the condition of the school buildings; the amount of economic resources that are available to
  28. 28. pay for teachers’ bonuses and benefits; heating, water, and electricity; and supplies such as physical education equipment, library books, and teaching aids. In the most resource-poor schools, there may not be enough desks and chairs for all the students, and the school buildings may have fallen into disrepair. Every year, principals must report the number of dilapidated rooms (weifang) in the school. There are government projects specifically aimed at providing money for poor areas to rebuild their main school buildings. Workload: Researchers in China have suggested that heavy workloads diminish teachers’ job satisfaction.37 In 2002, a primary school teacher interviewed in Gansu characterized the heavy workload shouldered by teachers as follows: “This job has both its hardships and its pleasures. The hardship is that every day is very tiring, much more tiring than other jobs. In another job, when you get off work you get off work and you can rest. But in teaching, there is no rest. Sometimes you have to stay at school to supervise evening study hall . . . and then on the weekends, you still need to go and do a home visit. As a teacher, you are always busy with students’ affairs and so you never have time for your own affairs.”38 Opportunities for personal and professional advancement: Research suggests that teachers are more satisfied if their job provides opportunities for personal and professional advancement.39 China has an enormous system of
  29. 29. teacher in-service training, and there are many opportunities for teachers to continue their education. These opportunities are provided by independent teachers’ continuing education institutions, educational colleges and institutes, China TV teachers’ colleges, regular higher education institutions, secondary specialized schools, and other channels such as correspondence courses and self-study programs.40 However, schools in the remote poor areas may not be able to afford for their teachers to participate in these programs.41 Without such opportunities, teaching can be an isolating profession and can leave teachers with the sense of falling behind the rest of society. One of the teachers we spoke to in Gansu in 2002 expressed such a sentiment: “When we go out into society we don’t know how to do anything, especially how to interact with others. Social interaction is the basic structure of society, but as a teacher, every day you only see children whose minds are like a blank sheet of paper and so we know nothing of the outside world.” Collegial relationships and collaboration: Another important factor related to teacher isolation is the extent to which teachers receive support from other members of the school community and engage in collegial collaboration and interaction. Research on teacher satisfaction and teacher retention has noted the importance of collegial relationships and administrative support for teaching. This support is in the form of
  30. 30. mechanisms of teacher induction and organizational socialization, such as internships and mentoring programs. A unique feature of Chinese schools is the teaching and research section, or jiaoyanzu. Through the activities of the jiaoyanzu, teachers engage in joint lesson planning and professional discussion, in activities of peer evaluation and feedback, and actively share in making decisions regarding the instructional program. It is through this structure that new teachers are inducted into teaching and into the norms and values of the school. Also, more experienced teachers support and mentor younger teachers. Quality of supervision: Leadership styles are related to teacher satisfaction.46 The quality of leadership and supervision affects a range of factors in the school environment, including the overall organizational climate of the school. Zhou Junhong describes the characteristics of a successful school leader capable of establishing an organizational climate conducive to teacher satisfaction.According to Zhou, a successful principal believes in teachers and works hard to foster teacher motivation and autonomy, harnessing the collective force of all of the teachers to carry out the work of the school. Such principals love, protect, support, understand, trust, and care for teachers. They give reasonable work
  31. 31. assignments, encourage teachers to participate in management, listen to suggestions, and ensure that teachers can spend most of their time and energy on instruction and research. A successful principal provides a well-maintained, pleasant working environment, establishes a happy atmosphere, gives teachers opportunities for professional advancement, places great importance on making ample teaching resources available, and gives teachers encouragement and feedback using both emotional and material rewards. Presumably skills such as these increase with principal experience, which we are able directly to measure. Based on the foregoing, we adopt a working hypothesis that teachers are less satisfied in schools with fewer economic resources and where they carry a heavy workload. We hypothesize that teachers are more satisfied in larger schools with an organizational climate characterized by experienced leadership, collegial collaboration, and ample opportunities for professional advancement. Teacher characteristics.—Of all of the 5.8million full-time teachers in China, 15 percent teach in cities, 19 percent teach in counties and towns, and 65 percent teach in rural areas. Official statistics indicate that among full-time primary school teachers in China, 52 percent are female.48 China’s teaching force is relatively young, with 60 percent of primary
  32. 32. school teachers under 40 years of age.49 With regard to educational attainment, less than 2 percent of primary school teachers in China have a 4-year college degree or higher, 26 percent have a 3-year college degree, 69 percent have a secondary school level of attainment, and 3 percent have less than a secondary school level of attainment.50 In the literature in both the United States and in China, a number of background attributes of teachers have been linked to levels of satisfaction. Younger teachers have been shown to be less satisfied and more likely to leave than older teachers.In addition, women have been found to be more satisfied than men of greater concern is the finding that better-qualified teachers tend to feel more dissatisfied than do less qualified teachers, and thus they are more likely to leave teaching.This finding may be in part attributable to the fact that teachers with better qualifications perceive more alternative opportunities. Marital status may also be a factor related to teacher satisfaction. Dan Lortie found marriage to be positively correlated with teacher job satisfaction; married women over 40 years of age were the most satisfied teachers in his sample.Training and certification may also matter for teacher satisfaction. In rural areas, many uncertified teachers are hired directly by the village government or principals to make up for the shortage of official, certified gongban teachers available to rural schools. These uncertified teachers are
  33. 33. sometimes referred to as daike, or substitute, teachers.The salaries of these daike teachers are substantially lower than those of the gongban teachers. The daike teachers come from a variety of different backgrounds. Many are from the same village or nearby villages and are likely also to work as farmers. Some have only a junior middle school or high school level of education and little or no formal teacher training. According to official statistics, only 88 percent of teachers in rural areas in China are gongban teachers, and 12 percent are daike teachers. This is in contrast to the urban areas (cities, counties, towns), where 97 percent of teachers are gongban teachers, and only 3 percent are daike teachers.In the rural areas of Gansu, however, it is estimated that 28 percent of teachers are daike teachers, and in the most remote areas, these percentages may be even higher. Another characteristic that may be expected to contribute to teacher satisfaction is teacher rank. Certified teachers in China are evaluated every year, and, based on these evaluations, they are able to advance through a ranking system. Teachers are evaluated by students, colleagues, and administrators based on moral standing, instructional capability, and professional achievements, including research and publications.58 Thus, the ranking system offers teachers recognition for their skills and competence in the teaching profession. Xin Ma and Robert MacMillan’s results show that
  34. 34. teachers with greater teaching competence tend to have higher levels of satisfaction. Based on this research, we might expect teachers of higher rank to be more satisfied, net of other factors. Also potentially important in rural China is the extent to which the teacher has ties to the local population. Teachers who come from the same village or who also engage in farm work are likely to be more familiar with the surrounding community and feel less isolated. It is also possible that a teacher from a farming family would feel more satisfied, since teaching is generally perceived to be a higher status profession than farming. One teacher we spoke to in Gansu, who was also a farmer, explained the difficulty of being a teacher and trying at the same time to take care of farm and family, saying, “Still, teaching, this profession, is good. It is in the intellectual realm; it allows you to continuously improve yourself.” In this article, we test whether younger and better-educated teachers have lower levels of satisfaction. In addition, we hypothesize that female teachers, married teachers, teachers who are more highly ranked, and those who are more socially similar to their surrounding communities are more satisfied. To test these hypotheses, we consider teacher age, gender, marital status, level of education, rank, place of origin, and whether or not the teacher is also a farmer. For the change outcome, the
  35. 35. only community factor that significantly differentiates satisfied and dissatisfied teachers is village income. Consistent with the ideal measure, teachers who wish to change their career are living in significantly wealthier villages than teachers who do not wish to do so. For the local education bureau outcome, levels of satisfaction do not differ by conventional tests of significance. There are smaller associations between teacher satisfaction and living in a community where the workforce is more literate as well as living in communities where principals have more meetings with village leaders. Overall, these findings suggest that better-off villages do not necessarily have more satisfied teachers. In fact, teachers may be less satisfied in these villages. School environment.—Results from the multivariate analyses of social and economic resources of schools are, by and large, consistent with the findings of the bivariate analyses. School expenditure per student has a significantly positive effect on both ideal and change. Similarly, payment of salary on time shows strongly significant positive links to both ideal and local education bureau. In the multivariate model, salary levels, school type, proportion of dilapidated classrooms, and school size are all unrelated to levels of teacher satisfaction. Likewise, opportunities for professional development
  36. 36. also have no significant effects on any of our satisfaction outcomes. Teachers who work more hours per week giving lessons, preparing materials, and grading homework appear to be more satisfied by our measures. They are significantly more likely to feel that teaching is their ideal career and significantly less likely to wish to change their career. Time spent in jiaoyanzu activities has a significant positive relationship with ideal. Teachers in schools with more experienced principals are more likely to feel that teaching is their ideal career, although this result is only marginally significant. Together, these findings suggest that the most consistent schoollevel factors predicting satisfaction are on-time payment of salary and amount of school expenditures per student. Furthermore, there is some evidence to suggest that organizational structures that enhance collaboration may be positively associated with teacher satisfaction. Teacher characteristics.—The relationships of teacher characteristics to teacher satisfaction show certain results that are consistent with findings elsewhere.Net of other factors, younger teachers are less satisfied than older teachers. Further, women are more likely to identify teaching as their ideal profession. Teachers with higher levels of education are
  37. 37. significantly less satisfied with the teaching profession and significantly more likely to state that they wish to change their career. Teachers with a college-level education are 65 percent less likely to feel that teaching is their ideal profession than those teachers with middle school or below as their highest level of educational attainment.76 Teachers with a college education are 128 percent more likely to wish to change their profession than those with a middle school education or less. This finding is consistent with a view that more qualified teachers are less satisfied. Using teachers ranked at level 2 as our reference point, there is some evidence to suggest that teachers with higher ranks may be less satisfied. Relative to level 2 teachers, level 1 teachers are significantly more likely to desire a change in their career. Relative to level 2 teachers, higher-level teachers are significantly less likely to feel satisfied with the local education bureau. Controlling for other factors, whether or not a teacher is married, comes from the same village, or also works as a farmer, are not significant.
  38. 38. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: 1. To analyze the job satisfaction level among the male and female teachers of primary schools. 2. To analyze the attitude of the male and female teachers of Primary teachers towards education. 3 To find out the impact of job satisfaction and attitude of Teachers on Education. HYPOTHESIS There is no significant differences between adjustments of male and female primary school teachers. There is no significant between adjustment of rural and urban primary school teachers in Anantnag district. There is no significant difference between adjustment of male and female primary school teachers on overall adjustment.
  39. 39. METHODOLOGY The present study shall be descriptive cum survey type, in which adjustment of primary school teachers shall be studied with respect to Urban Rural and male/female dimensions. Sampling : The sample for the present study shall be constitution of 100 primary school teachers out of which 50 teachers will be from Urban areas and 50 from rural areas. Out of these Teachers necessary came will betaken to select 50 present female teachers from each group. Statistics to be used: Appropriate statistical shall to the data in order to aware at conclusion. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: Hypothesis: (1) H0: There is significant difference in job satisfaction of Male and Female teachers of Degree College. (2) H0: There is significant difference in attitude towards education among male and female teachers of Degree Colleges. Scope of the study: The scope of the study restricted to the teachers of the degree colleges of Punjab and
  40. 40. Haryana state. For the collection of the primary data, the study will be confined to selected cities of Punjab and Haryana only. Research Design: The study being undertaken is Descriptive in nature. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs, as it exists at present, while studying the research problem, scientific method is followed. Sampling Unit: In this study, the sampling unit was teachers of the degree colleges. Sampling Size: The sample size was so selected that it could be adequate enough to represent the whole population, and also give the true picture. The total sample size was restricted to 200. Sampling Design: Keeping in Mind the nature of data required for the study, Quota sampling technique has been used. The respondent for the survey has been selected from the degree colleges of Punjab and Haryana; like Patiala, Ludhiana, Kurukshetra and Ambala. Data Collection: Questionnaire Method: The primary data was collected by administering structured questionnaire to the teachers of the degree colleges. Nature of the Study: The “Descriptive Research Study” has been used. The basic aim is to gain familiarity and to achieve new insights along with describing the existing facts.
  41. 41. Technical Terms Used: Job Satisfaction: Job satisfaction is a favorableness with which workers view their job. It results when there is a fit between job requirement and the wants and expectations of employees. In other words, it expresses the extent of match between worker’s expectations (also aspiration) the rewards, the job provides, the values it creates and get cherished. Attitude towards Education: Attitude towards education of teachers is the sum total of teachers’ inclinations and feelings, prejudice or bias, preconcerned notions, ideals, fears, threats and convictions about specific situations. This attitude has great bearing on the ultimate quality of the achievement. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: 1. The present study based on the data collected from sample-selected from Anantnag district and in some parts of the Kashmir valley and the result may vary from other places of India or the national average. 2. In this present study only those teachers were considered, who were presently working in the colleges. 3. Keeping in view the less existence of degree colleges in rural and semi-urban areas, the respondents selected from the degree colleges located at urban areas.
  42. 42. CONCLUSION: The study reveals that teachers are very satisfied with their jobs. The male groups of teachers has the mean value 74.35, thus it corresponds to the extremely satisfied category as per the manual. Similarly, the female teachers also fall in the extremely satisfied category with the mean value of 74.55. The computed t-value is 0.664, which is non-significant. Thus, it is inferred that male and female teachers are not different from each other on job satisfaction variable. The further conclusion is that both the male and female teachers teaching in degree colleges have unfavorable attitude towards education. The male teachers have the mean value 85.1 and female teaches have the mean attitude score of female degree colleges’ teachers is higher than that of male teachers. Therefore, it is evident that female degree colleges’ teachers have more favorable attitude towards education as compared to their male counterparts. The difference between the mean is non-significant with t-value 0.104. It is inferred that both male and female teachers do not differ significantly regarding the attitude towards education.
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  44. 44. courage teachers towards profession”, The progress of Education, Vol lxx11, 3, PP 69-72. 10. Singh, Hartez, “Impact on terrorism on physical education teachers of Jammu and Kashmir state in relation to their Job satisfaction, Personality and attitude towards education”, P.hd. Thesis, Punjabi University Patiala. 11. Tewari, A.k., “Attitude towards teaching profession of students”, The educational Review, Vol 106 PP 152-153. 12. Zirang, “The correlation between a principles leadership style and teachers personality as perceived by the teacher and its effect on teacher job satisfaction”, Dissertation Abstract International, 6(5), November.
  45. 45. BIBLIOGRAPHY Anastasiadou, S.D. (2009) Job Commitment is Highly Influenced by Job Motives and Job Satisfaction: The Case of Greek Teachers in Higher Education, The International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management, 7(7), 69-80.