Health problems of rural women


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Health problems of rural women

  1. 1. HEALTH PROBLEMS OF RURAL WOMEN A CASE STUdy OF BLOCk BRiNg iN diSTRiCT ANANTNAg (j&k) Submitted by: jAvEEd AHMAd TEELi ( Enrollment No. 120471667) Under the guidance of: Mr. Javaid Ah. Bhat (Lecturer) Govt. Degree College (Boys) Anantnag. Councellor IGNOU COURSE : POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT (PGDRD) SUBMITTED TO : INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY(IGNOU) NEW DELHI YEAR 2013
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I Sincerely entered my gratitude to Mr. Javaid Ahmad Bhat (Lecturer ) “Govt. Boys Degree College Anantnag for his credit supervision . His guidance has played a major roll in the completion of this project . I am also thankful to “DESTINY” Which favours me in every step,to my respondents and officers and persons who have provide me the required information regarding my project” Health Problems of Rural Women in Block BRENG”. Place: Anantnag Signature Date: (JAVEED AHMAD TEELI)
  4. 4. CERTiFiCATE This is to certify that the project entitled “ Health Problems of Rural Women in Block Breng “ is original project study conducted by Mr. Javeed Ahmad Teeli student of PGDRD from IGNOU has worked under my Supervision & guidance. He has attended the required session held. This report has not formed on the basis of any other degree of any university. Place: Anantnag Signature of Supervisor Date: 18-01-2013 {Mr. Javaid Ah. Bhat}
  5. 5. CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Situation in India 3. Situation in Kashmir 4. Map of Jammu & Kashmir 5. General Geography of Jammu & Kashmir 6. Literacy rate by sex for State , District (2011 census) 7. Map of District Anantnag 8. District Background 9. District Anantnag from Medical Point of view 10. Block Profile of Breng 11. Block Breng from Medical Point of View 12. Map of Block Breng 13. Objectives of the Study 14. Village Profile 15. Map of village Hiller 16. Village HILLER from Educational Point of vie 17. Village Hiller from Medical Point of View 18. Tools of Data Collection 19. Findings
  6. 6. 20. Questionnaire 21. Structures in Shape of Respondents 22. Table No. 1 23. Table No. 2 24. Table No.3 25. Table No.4 26. Table No.5 27. Table No.6 28. Table No.7 29. Table No.8 30. Table No.9 31. Table No.10 32. Table No.11 33. Table No.12 34. Table No.13 35. Table No.14 36. Table No.15 37. Table No.16 38. Table No.17 39. Table No.18
  7. 7. 40. Table No.19 41. Table No.20 42. Table No.21 43. Disease meaning and symptoms 44. An interview with BMO Larnoo 45. An interview with village Head 46. An interview with Principal Govt. HSS Hiller 47. Conclusion & Suggestions 48. Index INTRODUCTION The Population inhabiting in villages is called Rural Population. About 74% of Indian Population is inhabiting in Rural areas. These areas provide a fundamentals structure for growth and development of the nation and if these areas were taken into consideration and be provide with basic necessities and basic facilities. The whole country will progress in a right direction. The prosperity in a rural area may be health if they are educated, according to Aristotle, “A sound body has a Sound mind”.
  8. 8. Hence good health ensures good thinking and good thinking ensures a good society and the good society comprises both men and women. About half of the rural population is women folk and unfortunately these women folk are illiterate and quite unaware about personal and public hygiene. If we want a prosperous and happy nation we should lay stress on rising the health conditions of the rural women in every aspect. It is true fact that if a women is educated the whole society is educated , if the man is educated , a single individual is educated. Hence stress should be laid on the education of women. So that they can play a very important role in the development of the country in particular and the whole world in general. The women is considered the colorful creature of this universe. The hustle and bustle of the worlds is due to these fellows. The advanced nations have given a due attention towards the welfare of the women. In these countries there are equal opportunities for men and women . Hence they are advanced in every field and those nations who did not pay due attention towards the women are lacking behind in every respect and there are poverty and illness. A healthy women is the foundation stone of a healthy nation , when the mother is healthy the younger too will be healthy and happy. A healthy women and a healthy child will proceeds in a right direction. If a women is not treated properly , forced to work hard not given her a good social status . She naturally revolt and does not behave properly with her house hold with the result , there is no proper nourishment and development of herself and their ward to overcome such hurdles , a women should be given proper education that she can understand her duty towards the family and towards the welfare of the society as the mother is the first teacher of the child. The child is indirectly influenced by the environment
  9. 9. prevailing at his residence. The environment helps in the modification of behavior of the child will grow and develop in a right direction with right thinking. In the developed countries like Europe and America, there are special care centres for the welfare of the women. They are independent and think according to their wishes and ideals and can decide what is right and what is wrong. There is equal treatment of women and men and there is no differentiation between the two sexes . That is why they are well advanced in every sphere of life. They are aware of their duties and are in a better position to look off their wards within and outside of their homes. SITUATION IN INDIA In our own country India women folk is not treated as part and parsal of the society . They are looked down upon , they are not independent of their wishes and other matter. They are tied in the social restrictions , they are supposed to work like a man with him in the fields as well as in the kitchen.
  10. 10. Women’s in India are viewed as Reproductive agents and they fertility prized from an early age . They are conditioned to a subsequent role . Fed lost and least , expected to be fertile , but remain chaste, till married off . The women have a low social status. They are discharged if they produce no off spring , rejected of beaten if they produce female off springs, stigmatized if raped , and rejected some times burnt if they do not bring enough dowry. If the infant fall ill they like to be blamed or accrued of infidelity. Women who comprises 50% of world’s population and carry the burden of work 14-16 hours a day receive only 10% of world’s income and own less than 1% of the world’s property in rural areas. In our own country rural women accounts for 50% of food production. These women are among the least agriculture and least hard members of society. Differentials Treatment In our own country (India) males are preferred as they can work on the farms , look after their elders , bring their wives and children’s home. Girls in India are known as go- away child. IMPORTANCE OF WOMEN HEALTH The women is the key to the provision of health services for the family and society , yet she has been neglected and exploited by health services. The mother is the central figure who provide the child care , hygiene , nutrition and even primary health care. Without good mental and physical health for mother herself and health programmes are doomed to failure.
  11. 11. If a nation has to develop then half of his population women and girls must develop, be educated , become healthy and develop self positive image .If the so called better half continues discriminated and exploited in the matter of nutrition , education , health and legal rights . How she can be expected to give her , best for the health and development of her child , family , society and the nation. “In India and other poor country she is “ beast of burden”. SITUATION IN KASHMIR Our state of Jammu & Kashmir is sailing in the same boat with other states of the India. The conditions of the women is not too good because the literacy percentage among the women is very less particularly among the rural women. Now here arise a question what are cause of unhygienic
  12. 12. conditions of the rural women in Kashmir? As far I am concerned the following are the major causes of unhygienic problems in our state. A. EDUCATION : The women in Rural areas are almost illiterates. There are less schooling facilities in the rural areas . Due to illiteracy the rural women still believes in old aged and unscientific and unhygienic methods , such as : a. Superstition also common in the Area , various diseases are considered to be the work of sprits. They confirm whether the child is a male or a female in the womb of mother not by scientific method but by the signs of chirping of various birds. If a owl cries they confirm that the child is male one and if the Bat cries then they think the child is a girl one. b. The traditional methods of treatment also tells upon the health of Rural women. They are not given proper medicines but are kept fast for a number of days with the result she suffers from health hazards. B. POVERTY: The poverty plays also very important role , the rural women are not provided the basic necessities of life. They are always for want of a balanced diet, with the result they fall prey of malnutrition and deficiency diseases such as anemia and other skin diseases. Due to poverty of rural women , still use the traditional methods of cooking and fuels . The smoke arising, dung cakes and dry grosses cause tuberculosis. C. GOVT.WEAKNESS : The rural women are deprived off their basic medical facilities . They have to go to the district hospitals for their treatment , but it costs them much and wastage of time. A pregnant
  13. 13. women is unable to check her health in his own village because there is not any kind of such facilities. She has to walk on foot miles together to reach to the nearly root to ride a passenger van , as a result both a child and the mother suffers. In short as far I am concerned there are three reasons responsible for the low health conditions of rural women they are : 1. Malnutrition problem 2. Poverty 3. Weak Institutional Support. MAP OF JAMMU & KASHMIR
  14. 14. GENERAL GEOGRAPHY OF JAMMU & KASHMIR Introduction :- Jammu & Kashmir came into existence on 16th of March 1846. Location :- Latitudes = 320- 17N to 370 – 6’N Longitude = 730 – 20E to 800 – 30’E Area :- 222236Sq/Kms
  15. 15. Population:- 1,25,48,926 (2011) Capital:- Srinagar (Summer) , Jammu (Winter) Languages :- Kashmiri , Dogri , Ladakhi , Urdu , Panjabi 1. Area under China = 37555 2. Area under Pakistan = 78932 3. Area under India = 105749 Three Physical Divisions of State with Area Area of Jammu = 19% Area of Kashmir = 11.59% Area of Ladakh = 69.51% Situation :- The State of Jammu & Kashmir lies in the North West of India. It is a border state and is surrounded by Pakistan , Afghanistan and China on the three sides. Indian States of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh touches its borders in the South. Physical Features :- Kashmir , the paradise on the earth is situated entirely within the Himalayan mountain system, The state includes the enchanting valley of Srinagar (Kashmir valley and the snow capped lofty ranges of Himalayas The Peer Panchal, the Nanga Parbat and the Korakoram Mountains K2 the worlds highest peek measures 8610 meters alone sea level. Kishtiwar, Ramban, Samba, Reasi, Bandipora, Shopian, Ganderbal, Kulgam are newly formed districts of Jammu and Kashmir. S.No. Districts Headquarters Population Census Population Census
  16. 16. 2001 2011 1 Anantnag Anantnag 7,34,549 10,69,749 2 Kulgam Kulgam NA 4,23,181 3 Pulwama Pulwama 4,41,275 5,70,060 4 Shopian Shopian NA 2,65,960 5 Budgam Budgam 6,29,309 7,55,331 6 Srinagar Srinagar 9,90,548 12,50,173 7 Ganderbal Ganderbal NA 2,97,003 8 Bandipora Bandipora NA 3,85,099 9 Baramulla Baramulla 8,53,344 10,15,503 10 Kupwara Kupwara 6,50,393 8,75,564 11 Kargil Kargil 1,19,307 1,43,388 12 Leh Leh 1,17,232 1,47,104 13 Kathua Kathua 5,50,084 6,15,711 14 Jammu Jammu 13,43,756 15,26,406 15 Samba Samba NA 3,18,611 16 Udhampur Udhampur 4,75,068 5,55,357 17 Reasi Reasi NA 3,14,714 18 Rajouri Rajouri 4,83,284 6,19,266 19 Poonch Poonch 3,72,613 4,76,820 20 Doda Doda 3,20,256 4,09,576 21 Ramban Ramban NA 2,83,313 22 Kishtwar Kishtwar NA 2,31,037 Total Population = 1,25,48,926 (2011) Males = 66,65,561 Females = 58,83,365
  17. 17. Male % = 53.12% Female % = 46.88% Literacy Rate by Sex for State & District 2011 S.No District Literacy Rate Male Literate Female Literate 1. J&K 68.74 78.26 58.01 2. Kupwara 66.921 77.10 54.79 3. Budgam 57.98 68.18 46.60 4. Leh 80.48 89.39 64.52 5. Kargil 74.49 86.73 58.05 6. Poonch 68.69 81.04 54.80 7. Rajouri 68.54 78.38 57.20 8. Kathua 73.50 81.40 64.56 9. Baramulla 66.93 77.35 55.01 10. Bandipora 57.82 68.41 46.24 11. Srinagar 71.21 78.01 63.47
  18. 18. 12. Ganderbal 59.99 70.74 47.62 13. Pulwama 65.00 75.41 53.81 14. Shopian 62.49 71.86 52.77 15. Anantnag 64.32 74.13 54.15 16. Kulgam 60.35 70.59 49.74 17. Doda 65.97 80.36 50.34 18. Ramban 56.90 71.97 40.04 19. Kishtwar 58.54 71.75 44.13 20. Udampur 69.90 79.93 58.22 21. Reasi 59.42 69.93 47.55 22. Jammu 83.98 89.77 77.41 23. Samba 82.48 89.76 74.39 Literacy rate is the percentage of literates to population ageing 7 years & above. The male and female literacy rate which was 66.60% and 43.40% respectively earlier had now increased to 78.26% and 58.01% respectively.
  19. 19. District Map Anantnag
  20. 20. District Background 1. District Anantnag is in the Southern part of Kashmir Valley. It is because of its rejuvenating climates the inspiring majesty of its lofty mountains the melodious flow of sweet water of its springs and streams , fertile soil , fragrant flowers and delicious fruits that the District has come to synonymous with greatness. 2. The entire Southern sector of District which is contiguous with Tehsil of Reasi, Ramban , Banihal and Kishtwar of Jammu Province and eastern sector which is contiguous with Tehsil kargil of Ladakh Division of thick forests and mountains. The Northern and western sides of the District are bounded by Pulwama, Kulgam and Shopian Districts. If all the Distrcits of the State , Anantnag claims the largest number of streams (Nallas) like Vishu , Veth-wathru , Sandran , Brangi , Arpath and Lidder. The most important amoung these streams are Vishu and Lidroo which take off from Kounsarnag and Sheeshenag lakes respectively and irrigate maximum area of District. 3. The Districts consists of 406 villages , one town area committee (TAC) and eight notified area committees (NAC). There are six Tehsils viz , Anantnag , Bijbehara , Doru , Shangus , Pahalgam , Kokernag. Which have further been sub-divided into 26 land revenue circles and 96 Patwari Halqa’s. The villages have been divided into seven CD Blocks.For law and order purpose District have been divided into 10 Police Stations and 8 Police Posts. The District is predominantly inhabited by Kashmiri who profess Islam , Hindus and Sikhs are forming the minority community. The mountain slopes and small valleys (Gorges) intervening between the mountains are inhabited by Gujar’s and Bakerwal which is a schedule tribe community.
  21. 21. 4. The District can boast of a large number of health resorts in the state , of which Larnoo , Kokernag , Pahalgam , Verinag and Sherbagh are worth seeing. These health resorts attract large number of tourists within and outside the country. Besides the District is also famous for Amarnathji Cave situated at a distance of 48 Kms , from Pahalgam at high altitude. This cave is known for Shive Linghum and attracts lacks of pilgrims every year from all over the country. 5. The District is also known for important monuments like Martand Temple , Mughal garden Larnoo , Mughal Garden Verinag , Padshahibagh. This is briefly a picture of the geophysical and socio-economic scenario of the district. Location & Physical Features : Anantnag District is situated in the south and south east by ranges of Pirpanchal mountains. Where as in the north and west , it is bounded by the Pulwama District . The eastern and southern Hills of the District are covered with thick and dense forests. Anantnag is Principal town headquarter of the District and is at a distance of 55km’s from Srinagar , the Summer Capital of State. Geology :- The District is extremely poor so far as the mineral deposits are concerned. However the deposit of lime stones which are used for manufacture of lime cement , is founding good quality . There is only one mini-cement plant in the District with a capacity of 50m tones per day. Besides there is one sulphur spring in Anantnag which is famous for healing of determination.
  22. 22. District Anantnag from Medical Point of View The Total population of District Anantnag is 10,69,749 souls and consists of 406 villages and have 7 CD Blocks. The institution which are providing the medical facilities to whole population are as given under :1. District Hospitals 1 (Anantnag) 2. M.C.H Hospitals 3. T.B Hospitals 4. Sub-District Hospital 5. Primary Health Centre’s 55(fifty five) 6. Bishop Memorial Hospitals 1( one) 7. Private Hospitals 5(five) 8. Allopathic Dispensaries 39 9. Medical Aid Centre’s 18 10. Sub-Center’s 220 11. Others 4 1 (Anantnag) 1 (Anantnag) 6 (six) Weakness Total No. of Doctors working in the District = 320 Vacancies = 430 Urgently required = 110 No. of Gynecologists in the District Hospital Anantnag = 12 No. of Children specialists = 04 No. of Children Hospitals = 01
  23. 23. No. of Lady Care centers = 02(both privately owned) No. Doctors working in A/D’s = 21 No. of Genealogists working in sub-district Hospitals = 06 Block Profile of Breng Block Breng is situated in North of the District and is 10kms away from District Headquarter Anantnag. Breng is famous for his natural beauty and is covered by forests all around. We have some beautiful Health Resorts viz Mughal Garden of Kokernag , Daksum , simthan top etc. Block Breng consists of 63 villages and one notified area committee (NAC) and 34 panchayat/Patwar halqa’s. There is also one Medical Block in Block Larnoo. The total Area of Breng if 9488 hqtrs and the total population of Block Breng is 7858 and population density is 375 people per square km. The majority of people in Breng are Muslims . In hill areas there are Gujjars and Bakerwals who are SC’s and ST’s and they are also Muslims. Literacy rate of Block Breng in Males is 68% and in females 62%
  24. 24. Block Breng From Medical Point of View The institutions which providing health facilities to the block Breng are as under: 1. Sub district Hospital 1 2. Primary Health center 7 3. Allopathic dispensaries 5 4. Sub centers 21 5. Medical aid center 4 6. Others Nil Facilities available in above institutions Institutions 1. Sub District Hospital Physician Facilities 20 Beds No Gen. One Dental Surgeon No surgeon specialist No gynecologist No ophthalmologist No children specialist 1 operation theatre
  25. 25. 1 x ray plant 1 advance laboratory No blood bank 1 ambulance 3 assistant surgeons 2. PHC’s 3 3. Allopathic dispensaries 5 No doctor available at A/D centers, only medical assistants are available at the allopathic dispensaries 4. Sub centers 21 Not trained persons available. only paracetamol tablets are given through these centers for headache and for all diseases. 5. Medical aid center 4 No doctor is available, first aid such as Betadine, wash aid; bandage is available at these centers. Highest medical authority of block is Block medical officer (BMO) of Block Breng and he is also superindent of PHC Larnoo.
  26. 26. Map of Block Breng
  27. 27. Objectives of Study I conducted my survey in the rural areas in order to know the basic problems traced by women folk in these areas and to highlight these problems before the policy makers. The present study was taken to investigate the following objectives during the course of the study. 1. Health conditions of women in rural areas. 2. Reasons behind the poor conditions of woman. 3. General attitude of the society towards the health of women. 4. The cause types of diseases emerged and what type of facilities (treatment) is available. 5. The overall health conditions of rural people.
  28. 28. Village Profile The sample area in which field work was carried out is Hiller (A & B). The village is situated in between the Anantnag and Block Larnoo. It is about 10km away from Anantnag and 15kms away from Larnoo. Village Hiller is in the Northern side of District Anantnag and is situated on the main road of Anantnag Larnoo Total area of village Hiller is 737 hqtrs of land for agriculture according to the report of revenue Department of Breng. Population: The total population of village Hiller according to the Census 2011 is 5076 persons in which No. of males are 2832 and No. of females are 2244. This shows that the male percentage is 55.79% which is higher than that of females which is 44.21%. One of the most important factor regarding the family in come sources of village Hiller is the fruit business (apples)mostly.Which at least 90% are doing and is common in the whole village of Hiller. The Hiller is linked with other villages/towns with three link roads viz Hller-Anantnag Road , Hiller-Kokernag Road , Hiller-Khalhar Road..
  29. 29. Map of Village HILLER
  30. 30. Village Hiller From Educational Point of View In sample village Hiller , there are 11 Mohallas namely Itoo mohalla , Najar mohalla, Ard pora, pahel pora, Bungam, Harjoy , Rather pora, , Veer colony, Manzgam, Ganaie poor,Nai Basti. In above Molalla’s we have number of schools available for providing education to village population. A structure of these schools are as under:S.No Name of the School Name of Mohalla Date of Estd. 1. Govt. HS School Ard poora 2011 2. Govt.Girls High school Harjay 2010 3 Govt. pry School Harjay 1998 4. Govt. pry school Bungam 1994 6. Manti soori HS Harjay 1990 7. Al- AMEEN Pahalpoora 2003 Roll statement of Schools
  31. 31. Roll statement of Govt. Higher Sec. School Hiller session April-2013 S.No Name of the class Boys Girls Total 1. 12th 30 20 50 2. 11th 17 20 37 3. 10th 14 12 26 4. 9th 12 08 20 5. 8th 9 11 20 6. 7th 7 4 11 7. 6th 3 3 6 Total 68 68 136 Staff available in Higher secondary School HILLER There are 15 teachers available in Govt. Higher secondary School Hiller to teach 136 students. It means that one teacher has to teach 9 students in a single period. This is not a very big difference between the rules of education and situation present in Govt.High school Hiller. According to Education rules there must be one teacher available to teach 10 students, instead of 10 the teacher has to teach only nine students in Govt. High School Hiller. So still due to less interest it becomes impossible for a teacher to keep a strong eye on all the students and how can he provide a quality education to the students. Roll Statement of Govt.Primary School Boys & Girls HILLER
  32. 32. S.No Name of Class Girls Boys Total 1. 5th 4 2 6 2. 4th 1 1 2 3. 3rd 7 2 9 4. 2nd 0 2 2 5. Ist 0 1 1 Total 12 08 20 There are 2 local teachers to teach 20 students. All the students of this school belongs to very poor family. The parents of those students are unable to and their children’s to private institution because there income is less than 500 per month. This school has shown 0% result from last 10 years. The teachers belonging to Royal families of the village and they are highly approached and educational authority of zone Mattan, ZEO is unable to take any action against these teachers. Roll Statement of Montesouri Public School Hiller S.No Name of Class Boys Girls Total 1. 5th 1 5 6 2. 4th 11 06 17 3. 3rd 10 06 16 4. 2nd 5 4 9 5. Ist 12 10 22 6. U.K.G 15 11 26 7. L.K.G 14 12 26 8. Nursery 15 20 35 Total 83 74 157 In this school there are ten teachers available to teach 157 students. All the teachers are M.A, B.ed and M.S.C, B.ed. The medium of instruction of this school is English. So, the people like this school and are confident on the progress of the
  33. 33. students in this school. The number of girls is 74 and number of boys is 82.The school is privately owned and fee rates are very high, So poor people can not admit their off springs in this institution. This school has shown cent percent result from the date of establishment. Govt. Pry School Bungam In this school there are three students reading and one teacher is available to teach the students. This school is without building & furniture. The students are reading in the open fields and they have lot of problems. Govt. Pry School Harjai Mohalla This school is also meaning less because there is only one teacher available to teach 5 classes . The roll is not more than 19 students. All the 9 students belongs to the poor family. OVER ALL CONDITIONS :- The Students of Govt. Schools hardly reached to 10 th class due to their teachers poor performance . No one has passed 10 th class examination among those students who are the product of these Govt. School.The overall literacy rate in village Hiller is 59.43% , in which male %age is 70.42% and female %age is 29.58%.This shows that most of the women’s are illiterate. The reason is poverty and Govt. ignorance. Village HILLER From Medical Point of View
  34. 34. The total population of Hiller village is 5076 persons . In this huge populated village there is not any institution of health department to provide medical facility. Govt. has ignored this village from medical point of view. So the whole population of village is suffering badly .In Harjay Mohalla which is 1.5km from the centre and 2kms from Mohalla Bungam and Ardpora there is a allopathic dispensary. People of village Hiller have a travel a distance of 1.5 or 2kms to reach at the dispensary for treatment , but there is any Doctor . So all the people of the village prefer to go to the district Hospital Anantnag.At the block level primary health centre Larnoo is without the facility of lady doctors and gynecologists . Women of Block Larnoo have to travel a long distance to reach the District Hospital for treatment. During the pregnancy and at the time of delivery, women’s are facing a lot of difficulties and some times some pregnanet women’s lost their lives in the way to reach District Hospital. In short all the population of Block is suffering during the illness. In village Hiller we have seven medical shops all the medical shops are in the different Mohalla’s in order to take care and provide necessary assistance to the local people. Social & Economic Conditions of the village Dress Pattern :- So far as the dress pattern of the sample village is concerned , the old aged males wear Kameez , Shalwar , Kurta , Pajama, Where as women wear Firan , Firok , Shalwar & Scaraf . Boys wear pents , shirts , Caprey , T-Shirts etc. That is new type of dress among muslims. ECONOMY :- Agriculture is the back bone of village economy , at least 80% people of the village Hiller depends upon Agriculture. 5% are engaged with handicrafts , 5% holds other assets , 5% are govt. employee and 5% are labours .
  35. 35. Family System :- Mostly there is joint family system in the village Hiller. There are also few new nuclear families in the village. The people having Govt. Jobs have nuclear families and the people without Govt . Jobs have joint family system. The reason behind joint family system is poverty. Marriage :- In Muslims both exogamy & endogamy types of marriages are prevalent in the village Hiller. Religion :- The majority of the inhabitants of the village Hiller are Muslims and be. The Data I have collected from all sources through observations and interview have been reflected in the project under the title of “Health Problems of Rural Women in Block Larnoo”. Tools for Data Collection
  36. 36. There are several methods which often used in Data Collection by the investigation . Following methods are most relevant for the data collection in the filed or about the fields: 1. Observation 2. Interview 3. Questionnaire 4. Schedules 5. Projective technique’s The use of one or more technique in the research project depends upon the type of information required in the filed of study. The topic given by the undersigned was Health Problems of Rural Women in Block Larnoo. The area chosen for observation has demographic conditions of the area. The main method used by me for collecting the data required the topic is questionnaire , method and interview method. Findings Findings :- I have conducted a survey in village Hiller which falls in the Jurisdiction of village Anantnag Tehsil Anantnag Block (Medical) Larnoo. The aim of
  37. 37. the study was health problems of women in Block Larnoo. The survey which I have conducted was based on questionnaire , method and interview. The responses of the 200 respondents of different age group with different status in society and having different qualifications . The respondents belong to different mohallas of the same village. In order to observe the health problems of rural women in Block Larnoo , more accurately I prepared a relevant questionnaire and get responses from 200 respondents. The responses of the respondents are given in tibular form in the project. The questionnaire which I have prepared is given as under: Questionnaire Q1.:- Are you satisfy with the medical facilities available in your village and at Block level ? Q2:- When you fall ill where do you generally go for treatment.
  38. 38. Q3:- Do you want more children ? Q4:- At the time of delivery where do you go ? Q5:- During the pregnancy where do you go generally to check your health conditions ? Q6:- During the pregnancy are you taking the balanced diet ? Q7:- Are you satisfy on the school education provided by the government? Q8:- Do you think education must for both gender ? Q9:- Do you feel inferior as compared to men in your family and in your society? Q10:- Are you working in Kitchen only ? Q11:- Have you LPG gas connections for cooking ? Q12:- Have you water supply or tap water(filtered) available in your village ? Q13:- Are you drinking boiled water ? Q14:- Have you any sanitary Latrine in your home ? Q15:- Have you gone through family planning ? Q16:- Have you any drainage system in your village ? Q17:- What are common diseases in your family particularly in girls and in women? Structure & Shape of Respondents For seventeen questions I have two hundred respondents , my all respondents are only females because my topic is related with the health problems of Rural Women , so my 100% respondents are women.
  39. 39. Table No. 1 S.No Occupation No. of respondents Percentage 1. Govt.Employees 10 5% 2. House Wives 160 80% 3. Carpet makers 8 4% 4. Agricultural Labours 12 6% 5. Others 10 5% Total 200 100% Occupation wise statement given above clearly shows that out of 200 women 160 are house wives i.e 80% , 4% are carpet makers , 6% are agricultural labours , 5% are Govt.emplyees and 5% are others. The agriculture labours have seasonal work in only two seasons that is in June they have work to plant seedlings of paddy in the paddy fields and in harvesting seasons they have one month work. So in remaining time they work in the Royal families as sweepers and nourishes their children. Table No. 2 LEVEL OF EDUCATION : S.No Education No. of respondents Percentage 1. Literates 24 12% 2. Illiterates 176 88%
  40. 40. Table No. 3 INCOME WISE STATEMENT: S.No Income/Monthly No. of respondents Percentage 1. upto 2000 150 75% 2. 2000-4000 30 15% 3. 4000-8000 10 5% 4. 8000-10000 6 3% 5. 10,000-12,000 4 2% The income wise classification 75% has monthly income below Rs. 2000/- per month. 15% of the respondents belong to the income group of 2000-4000 and only 5% of the respondents belong to the income group of 4000-8000 and only 2% belong to the income group of 10,000 -12,000 per month. Table No. 4 AGE WISE STATEMENT OF RESPONDENTS : S.No Age No. of respondents Percentage 1. 20-30 60 30% 2. 30-40 70 35% 3. 40 -50 50 25% 4. 50 and above 20 10% Total 200 100%
  41. 41. I have consulted 200 respondents out of 200 , 60 respondents belong to the age group of 20-30 that is 30% , 70 belong to age group of 30-40 that is 35% , 50 belongs to 40-50 age group i.e 25% and 50 and above are 20 that is 10%. Table-5 Response of Q.No.1 of questionnaire : Response Number Percentage Yes 3 1.5% No 195 97.5% No Response 2 1% Total 200 100%
  42. 42. Out of 200 respondents 97.5% said that the faculties available in terms of medicine , doctors and hospitals are unsatisfied. We have no benefit and we are suffering during the illness . We have to travel long distances to reach District Hospital Anantnag. 1.5% respondents said we are satisfied about the facilities available. This percentage belong to the Royal families who have their own transport facilities and they go to private clinics mostly during the illness. There are some famous genealogists and general physicians who have their own clinics but their fee rates are as high as Rs 200-400 for one consultation. It is poverty which prevent middle class women go to private clinics . 1% has shown no response. Table-6 Response of Q.No.2 of questionnaire : Response Number Percentage Medical shops 120 60% Sub-District Hospitals 30 15% Private Doctors 6 3% Priests 39 19.5%
  43. 43. No response 5 Total 2.5% 200 100% The above table shows that 60% women go to medical shops and get the medicines from any person when they fall ill, 15% women goes to Sub-District Hospitals and 3% go to private Doctors and a significant number of respondents go to Priests whose percentage is 19.5% and 2.5% have shown no response. This table shows that all the women are illiterate and they get medicines from untrained persons at medical shops and only 15% go to Sub-District Hospitals but in Sub-District Hospitals there are no any lady Doctor available.3% go to private Doctors this group belongs to rich families.19.5% believes that these diseases are work up spirits. Table-7 Response of Q.No.3 of questionnaire : Response Number Percentage Yes 115 57.5% No 85 42.5% No response x x 200 100% Total
  44. 44. In response to the question that they wish or want more children , 57.5% replied yes because some of them are waiting for male issue and some of them are waiting for female issue.42.5% replied in negative , because they have male and female issues already. This response shows unawareness of women. They do not know more children effects their health very badly. Table-8 Response of Q.No.4 of questionnaire : Response Number Percentage At home 170 85% At medical shops 15 7.5% At Hospitals 15 7.5%
  45. 45. Total 200 100% In response to the question No. 5 , 85% women replied that their delivery takes place at their homes and 7.5% at Medical Shops and same percentage at Govt. / Private Hospitals. 85% women due to poverty and illiteracy do not go to Hospitals they prefer to stay at homes at the time of delivery. Due to poverty and after delivery they do not take any antibiotics to avoid infection . This condition affects the health of women as well as the health of new born. 7.5% go to hospitals their income is high and most of them are govt. servants or govt. job holders. 7.5% go to medical ; shops they also belong to poor families. Hence poverty is major cause of this situation. Table-9 Response of Q.No.5 of questionnaire : Response Number Percentage Hospitals (lady health care centers 30 15% Medical Shops 60 30%
  46. 46. No where 110 55% Total 200 100% In response to the question No. asked to 200 respondents. Out of them 110 i.e 55% women do not consult any expert and they do not take necessary medicine during the pregnancy such as Tetnus toxide injections and they do not check their blood pressure which is most important during pregnancy. This situation is responsible for more death rates in women as well in new born as compared to Urban women and Childs. 30% woman go to medical shops and get some medicine their without consulting a doctor. Only 15% women go to Hospitals and private nursing homes regularly to check up their health as well as health of her baby in her womb. 55% people do not go to any where due to poverty and illiteracy they think that is in the hands of God , so Doctors can not do anything. Table-10 Response of Q.No.6 of questionnaire : Response Number Percentage Yes 17 8.5%
  47. 47. No 183 91.5% Total 200 100% In response to the question No.6, 8.5% replied in affirmative and 91.5% replied in negative , only 8.5 % women have suitable income and are able to take well balanced diet. If Vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals and folic acids etc. But 91.5% women are unable to take balanced diet their family income do not allow them to spend money on their health and automatically their health conditions are not too good. They have low resistance and have always more chances of un certain deaths because due to Anemia(Lack of blood) at the time of delivery, they can not save their lives during pregnancy due to imbalanced diet they produce LBW’s Childs, blind Childs due to deficiency of vitamin “A” and also produce abnormal Childs. Only poverty is responsible for this serious situation. Table-11 Response of Q.No.7 of questionnaire : Response Number Percentage Yes 5 2.5% No 195 97.5%
  48. 48. No Response x x Total 200 100% In response to question number 7 weather the government schools are suitable for good education or not . 97.5 % replied in negative because the teachers in the govt. schools are not interested to teach students they know the students of their schools belong to very poor families. They can not go higher authority and if any one complaint against them, they can tolerate it by bribing the higher authorities only 2.5% replied affirmative. This situation shows govt. weakness, so govt. is responsible for the illiteracy of rural people and govt. can not achieve 100% target to literate the rural population until the fallow the rules and regulations of the constitution. Table-12 Response of Q.No.8 of questionnaire : Response Number Percentage Yes 85 42.5% No 115 57.5% No Response x x
  49. 49. Total 200 100% In response to question number 8, 42.5 % respondents replied “yes” and 57.5% replied in negative in the rural areas there are joint family system do not ready to send girls to schools they think they can work in fields only if their girls look after the male child in the family. More than this some strict minded religious men do not allow female Childs to go schools . They beeline that women is for kitchen and men for field. Poverty is also responsible for this conditions because poor families girls are working as labours in Agricultural field they earn livelyhood for their parents. These causes are responsible for low enrolments in schools and low literacy rate in the rural areas. Table No.13 Response of Q.No.9 of questionnaire: Response Number Percentage Yes 167 83.5% No 33 16.5%
  50. 50. No Response x x Total 200 100% In response to question no 9, 83.5% said yes 16.5% said No 83.5% of women are considered are subordinate and in the society men are considered superior. Women in the society are least herd members and their wishes and wants are remaining less. They are not enjoying freedom and have no decision power. No women can demand divorce, if any one will demand she knows society will reject her demand. This shows the attitude of the society towards movement. Religion has an important role in this regard because in Islam every decision power lies in the hands of men only. Table No. 14 Response of Q.No.10 of questionnaire : Response Number Percentage Yes 10 5% No 190 95%
  51. 51. No Response x x Total 200 100% In response to question No.10 , asked weather you are working in kitchen only 5% replied yes and 95% replied negative % is very high because in rural areas agriculture is the back bone of rural economy women works in agricultural fields with men and after the work in fields women cook food for the family and looks after their children. This shows women in rural areas work 18 hours a day and eat least and last this effects the health of women mainly due to poverty. Table No. 15 Response of Q.No.11 of questionnaire : Response Number Percentage Yes 60 30 No 140 70
  52. 52. No Response x x Total 200 100% In rural areas only 30% families have L.P.G gas connections and 70% huge population uses cake dung’s to cook food, and get infected by their smoke of cake dung. Here again is the question poverty and the govt. weakness is hurdle in the way of L.P.G gas connections. Illiteracy also plays dominant role because significant number in the percentage of 70% are unable to use L.P.G gas they said we do not know how to use gas Chula it would be dangerous for them. Poverty, govt. weakness and illiteracy are the measure causes. If govt. will provide gas confections to rural people o0n subsidy rates this condition can be avoided. Table No. 16 Response of Q. No. 12 of questionnaire : Response Number Percentage Yes x x No 200 100%
  53. 53. No Response x x Total 200 100% In the sample village govt. has not provided the facility to population of water supply through P.H.E department. People in this village use stream water for drinking, bathing and washing. They use polluted water and get infected and fall ill. Due to polluted water the intestinal infections, stomach pain, urine infections, Joints and other skin diseases, which the village population face. Govt. weakness or ignorance is measure cause. Table No. 17 Response of Q.No. 13 of questionnaire : Response Number Percentage Yes 94 47% No 106 53%
  54. 54. No Response x x Total 200 100% In the advanced times 53% in village still drink un boiled water this is due to illiteracy women in villages think boiled water is not necessary and they are of knew that water is God given gift as it should be used as will be available and by boiling water loses its taste. For this condition illiteracy is also a major cause. Table No. 18 Response of Q.No.14 of questionnaire : Response Number Percentage Yes 15 7.5% No 185 92.5%
  55. 55. No Response x x Total 200 100% In response to question number 14 asked the respondents percentage whose answer I have received in affirmative 7.5% i.e. Only 7.5% have sanitary Latrines in their homes some people use public sanitary Latrines. But serious thing is that 92.5% people defecate on the bank of streams and open fields. Often women prefer to near the running water. This system defecation pollutes the water and causes different infectious diseases such as type worms, Joints live appitier, intestinal infections etc. illiteracy is responsible for this condition. Table No. 19 Response of Q.No.15 of questionnaire : Response Number Yes 81 Percentage 40.5%
  56. 56. No 119 No Response x Total 200 59.5% x 100% In response to Q.No.15 , 40.5% respondents replied in affirmative and 59.5% replied in negative. Cause : I. Some women want male child and are waiting for male and some are waiting for female child. II. In Govt. Hospital Block Larnoo for family planning Doctors and experts and machineries not available .In private clinics it costs them 5000-7000. This is impossible for poor people to afford such huge money , so 59.5% are still without family planning. Major cause is Govt. weakness /ignorance. Table No. 20 Response of Q.No.16 of questionnaire : Response Number Yes x Percentage x
  57. 57. No 200 No Response x Total 100% 200 x 100% In response to Q.No.16 , 100% respondents replied in negative. This shows in sample village . There is not any drainage system people use running water streams as drainage system. They defecates on the bank of streams , the waste water of their bathrooms goes into the streams , people drink the water of those streams and get in fueled .According to the report of District Hospital Anantnag , 75% diseases are water born diseases . People in rural areas drink stream water and fall sick. Table No. 21 Response of Q.No.17 of questionnaire : S.No Disease Number Percentage 1. Anemia 30 15% 2. Arthritis 20 10% 3. Asthma 12 6% 4. Osteo Arthritis 14 7%
  58. 58. 5. Juvenile Rheumatoid 16 8% 6. Diabetes (Mellitus) 13 6.5% 7. Deficiency Diseases 40 20% 8. Vaginitis 10 5% 9. Common Cold 7 3.5% 10. Diarrhea 5 2.5% 11. Dysentery 6 3% 12. Warm Infection 7 3.5% 13. Fever 8 4% 14. T.B 11 5.5 Total 200 100% The above table shows that Anemia and deficiency diseases are more common as compared to other diseases. The percentage of Anemia is 15% and deficiency disease 20%. This shows that Anemia(lack of blood) in women’ is due to disorders of mensis and due to imbalanced diet. Due to illiteracy women do not use medicines and do not take rest. Deficiency diseases are due to low diet , poverty , illiteracy and lack of Govt. facilities are responsible for this situation. Diseases Meaning and symptoms etc. Table showing meaning of diseases mode symptoms causes etc. Disease Meaning Symptoms , Treatment cause 1. Anemia Anemia is not a disease. It is symptoms of various diseases Anemia is classified on the basis of means corpuscular volume (MVC) as microcyctic (80-90) and
  59. 59. puscular hemoglobin (M.C.H) as hypochromic (<27) normochnomic (27-32) and hyperchromic (>32) and by ethiogical factors. Causes : Anemia may result from excessive blood loss, Excessive blood cell distraction or decreased blood cell formation.Anemia due to excessive blood loss result from acute or chronic hemorrhage Anemia due to excessive blood cell destruction occurs in hemolytic diseases. In women due to disorder of mensis (monthly bleeding) is responsible for Anemia. Symptoms:- Pallor of skin , fingernail beds and mucous membrane , weakness vexigo , headache , gastro intestinal disturbances , palpitation fever etc. 2. Arthritis : It is inflammation of a joint usually accompanied by pain swelling and frequently changes in structure. Causes :- Arthritis may result from or be associated with a number of conditions including infection (gonococal tubercloces ,pneumocdcal) , fever , alcersted colitis , trauma , nuerogenic disturbances such as tabes dorsalis such as osteoarthrid metabolic disturbances.such as goud , neoplasma , such as synoviona , hydrathrosis para –or periartuclar condition such as acro megaly psoriasis ray-nauds disease. Treatment :- Penicillin , parenterally , in an appropriate dose for 10-14 days. 3. Asthama :- Paroxysmal dysphnea accompanied by whesbing caused by the spasm of the bronchinaltubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane. No age is exempt , but esthma occurs most frequently in childhood or early adulthood. The patient may assume a “huncked, forward position in an, attempt to get more air. Treatment : Auity attacks may believed by a number of drugs such as epinephrions ephodrane cromolyn sodium etc. Osteo arthritis , “ A chronic disease involving the joints especially those bearing weight by degeneration of articulator cartilage over growth of bone with lapping spur formation and impaired function.
  60. 60. Juvenile rbeumotoled : chronic inflammatory systemic disease which may cause joint or connective tissue damaged and vis ceral lesions thought out the body , affects juveniles with onset priox to age 16 complete remission occurs in 75% of patients. Diabetes (Mellitus): An inability to secrete sufficient insulin cause the well known diseases diabetes mellitus. The immediate effect of low insulin is an abnormally high level of glucose in the blood a condition called hyperglycemia. Once the blood glucose exceeds a level beyond which the Kidney fails to reabsorb it completely. Its excess goes out in the urine. This condition is also referred to a glucose uria. Deficiency Diseases : Deficiency Diseases Causes /Symptoms A.Protein Kwashiorkar Children upto age of five years who are mainly on instead of mother milk , suffer children become irritable cease to grow lose weight skin pigmented, patbolic due to retention of water by the cells coedemas mental retardation. Minerals Anemia Hemoglobin in R.B.Cs persons lack pale lose appetite and fatigue easily. B. Potassium K Hypokalomia Loss of Na dehydration low blood pressure , loss of blood weight. C. Sodium Hyponatremia Loss of Na dehydration low blood pressure , loss of blood weight. D.Iodine Simple Goitre enragement of thyroid due to how iodine contet in drinking warter. E.Calcium Rickets & osteomalacia Occurs in children softness and deformities of bones bow legs and pigeon chest due to loss of bone Ca. F.Vitamins X-crophthalmia Lachrimal glands stop.
  61. 61. Vitamin A order eye producing tears leading to dry Dermatosis Night Blindness and scaly skin. Inability to see in the dark or in dim light. Vitamin B Complex Extreme weakness swelling and pain B!(Thamois) Beri Beri in the legs , loss of appetite , headache , enlarge heart and shorten of breath. Vitamin C Pain in joints , loss of weight , anemia Scurvy Ascorbic Acid Vitamin D ,gums become spongy , syrollen and bleed easily teeth loose and fragile. osteomalicia’s Occurs adults softness and pain in bones which fracture easily bending of vertebral column. An interview with Doctor Mohd.Shafi Darzi (BMO Larnoo) Q1:- Doctor you are most experienced and highest authority in Medical Block Larnoo and you are presently working in P.H.C as superintendent. I have visited all A/Ds and sub centers, in your block I found that at least whole population of block Larnoo is unsatisfied with the medical facilities provide by your institution. What are the causes and reason behind this? Ans:- Yes, you are right and I agree with you, because in the state particularly in Kashmir valley disturbance have damaged our each and every thing. During the turmoil in the state
  62. 62. our infrastructure has been damaged. If we compare present situation with 1988. Then I can say that it will take next thirty years to reach at the position of 1988. Our doctors of Hindu community have migrated other corners of country and some famous doctors have been killed and member of Muslim doctors have gone to Saudi Arabia only to enjoy peaceful life’s. To meet all the requirements of population we need at least ten doctors P.H.C Larnoo but it is impossible due to financial conditions it is impossible for us to provide required facilities with out experts and professionals. More than this the lady doctors are not ready to work in rural areas and Govt. administration is too weak that any govt. action against these doctors is impossible. Q.2:- Doctor my next question why rural women fall ill more as compared to urban women? Ans:- Dear student you know almost of women in rural areas are illiterate. They do not know any thing about their health. Besides this is our rural areas 100% people are directly or indirectly involved in agriculture activities so women in rural areas have more work. They work in agriculture fields, in kitchen and watches their wards and family and take imbalanced diet. In those rural areas women fall ill due to deficiency of different vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates etc. Q.3:-How can we tackle this situation? Ans:- Recently our district hospital Anantnag has launched a scheme namely family awareness program we are conducting seminars by which we providing information to the whole population about heir health. But as for I am concerned I think school education is the alone way to tackle such situations. Q.No4:- Doctor women at the time of delivery have lot of problems, are you providing required treatment to women at the time?
  63. 63. Ans:- No in block Larnoo there is not any lady doctor in Govt. hospital if such cases come to us we refer these cases to MCH hospital Anantnag. But at district level we have one blood Bank in District hospital. But still Doctors of District hospital refer such cases to Srinagar. This is a grief and hurt stricken Situation that most of the woman at the delivery last their precious lives during the way to the Srinagar. Q5:- Dr. Who is responsible for this situation? Ans: it is our Govt. who has refused every time our demand to raise funds for healthy department in order to meet the requirements of Hospitals as well as requirements of population. Q6: Dr. Are the People taking medicines according to your Prescription? Ans:- No, due to poverty most of the patients can not buy medicines from the market so poverty is another problem with our people that they are not taking required medicines. We are supplying free medicines through A/D but we have only few medicines. Q.7: Dr. How can you say that unawareness of illiteracy is responsible for low health status of woman? Ans:- As you know in rural areas we have no water supply tapes so people drink stream water (un boiled) due to use of polluted water infections and epidemics are common in our village joints, diarrhea, dysentery are the water born diseases. Our illiterate women folk is not ready to use boiled water. They are not aware why boiled water is necessary. According to our survey report of district hospital at least 80 % of woman drink un boiled stream water only 20% woman drink boiled water. The 20% which drink boiled water in rural areas are Govt. holder and educated as you know that mother a foundation stone for a family, society and for whole country. If mother herself drinks un boiled water and eat unhygienic food how can she prevent her Childs, her family, her society. This is due to illiteracy a rural women do not know what to eat and how to eat.
  64. 64. Q.8: Sir what type of conditions are suitable for the development of health department? Ans: Normally the first thing for the development of every department as well as for development our country. Take our own example of disturbed state we have lost number of doctors, number of our hospitals, buildings have been burnt by security forces and unknown persons. Secondly well governance and tight and strong administration with corporation in locals is must for 100% development. An interview with village Headman Q1:- In your village , Is there any Anganwari centre , if yes then what kind of facilities are provided to your village residents ?
  65. 65. Ans:- Our Govt. is corrupted , weak and dull , we have claimed at least ten times against out Anganwardi centre authorities. But no one is ready to listen our demands. We have 15 Anganardi centers in our village , these centre’s are the property of Govt. employees and property of helpers. Why because to some extent children’s get benefits from these Anganwardi centers. Q2:- Do you ever seen what thinking of items are given to Anganwardi centers from District Authority? Ans:- Yes, they have OR’s powder , paracetomal tablets , eggs , ghee , butter , rice , anti-diarrhea tablets and variety of good daals (beans , pears , rojolab)etc but we poor people are not receiving such thing. Q3:- Why authority or officers are not ready to lesson your complaints ? Ans:- Because , they are corrupted persons . Anganwardi centers worked or bribing them by giving them money , so that don’t think about mean less centers. Q4:- What remarks have you about administration in our state there not any administration? Ans;- Every administration demands money , money and money out weak in every respect and in every field. An interview with Principal Montesouri public school Mohd Iqbal Recorded on 15/02/2013 Q.No.1:- Madam your institute has shown excellent results from the date of establishment people like the school and your administration what are the main
  66. 66. causes behind this position. Which your institute has made in the mind of the parents? Ans: My institute is a private institute and is Gov. recognized up to 10 th class. In private institution there is a competition between teachers as well as between students. If any teacher shows 85% above result in his subject according to our roles he will be promoted and will be given an increment of Rs 300/=. If any teacher shows below 50% result he will be terminated and never can not be appointed in my institute. So every teacher works hard and use their every technique and experience to teach students. In students all parents want their children should get excellent position in their class so they guide their children’s or a good competitions . This is the cause the people like my institution very much. Q.No.2:-Madam in village Hiller (Sample Village) There are four Govt. pry Schools. All the children of poor parents /children of labors are reading their, but the parents are upset with teachers of those schools, why it is so? Ans:- Our Govt. is weak, our officers are corrupted and they have nothing to do with carrier of children’s. There aim is only to earn money by wrong and right means. The teachers of these Govt. Pry schools are local and belongs to politically approached families, so no one can take action against those teachers. Educational authorities know that these schools are meaningless. The results are 0% but the corrupted authority can not do any thing. Q.No3:-Madam we are economically weak, children’s of economically weak families are unable to take admission in your institute due to high rates of fee. Why are these fee rates high? Ans:- In my institute I have 10 highly qualified and trained teachers and six nonteaching staff members. We depend wholly & solely on the tuition fee of students . Our pay , building , furniture and other activities depend on fee of students because monthly fee and other fee are our only source of income.
  67. 67. not ready to grant funds to private institutes so it is the reason that our fee rates are very high as high as unbearable for poor people. Q.No.4:-Madam , do you think Govt. should open schools in every village for the facilities of rural population ? Ans:- Yes , schools are most important to reach 100% literacy rate which is too low in rural areas but every primary school should have its own building with at least 6 classrooms and staff should be efficient , interested and perfect in every respect. Otherwise it is better to close the schools which are already functioning with 0% performance. Q.No.5:- Madam , I have visited at least 20 primary schools in block Larnoo private in Govt.I got Roll statements their by which I came to know that number of girls are too low as compared to boys, why parents do not send their girls to school for education? Ans:- In our society males are preferred in every field . Parents are off view that girls are go away child. So I is necessary to send them into school for education . Besides these girls are carrying male children after mothers and then help their parents in Kitchen and agricultural fields. It is the cause behind the low enrollment of girls . Q.No.6:- Madam , my research topic is health problems of rural women in Block Larnoo. Do you know why health status of Rural women is low ? Ans:- Dear scholar , there are number of problems regarding to the health of rural women such as at least all women in rural areas are illiterates , they are un aware about their health and they have no decision power. There wishes and aims are meaningless in our society. Secondly rural people are poor , their family income is very low and is impossible to survive in this time inflation. With low income it is difficult to maintain health condition of all families. Particularly during the pregnancy of a women requires more proteins , vitamins , iron and weekly Doctor checkup. Due to poverty these things are beyond the reach.
  68. 68. Third problem is lack of Govt. facilities, there is not any Lady Doctor or special care centre for women. All women suffer during the pregnancy and this situation goes to serious at the time of delivery. These are the problems which women are facing in this advanced time. CONCLUSION & SUGGESTIONS : Keeping the response of questionnaire and interviews of two highest qualified persons and data collected from District Hospital Anantnag and also the data of PHC Larnoo, it is clear that illiteracy , poverty and lack of Govt. Facilities are the problems responsible for low rural health status of rural women . To improve this situation I am to suggest the following measures. SUGGESTIONS :- Following measures can be suggested to raise the health status of rural women:1. More schools be opened in rural areas so that more and more girl students can be enrolled , incentives should be given to girl child during schooling such as free books , free uniform , mid-day meals and other benefits. There should be co-curricular arrangements in schools. It is only through education that we can overcome the unhygienic conditions of the rural women. 2. Community centers should be opened in villages , where the women folk be taught the principles of personal and public hygiene. 3. Maternity homes should be set up in bigger villages so that proper care of the young one and the mother be ensured. 4. Smokeless chulas , heaters and gas connections may be provided to rural women so that they can rid of Asthma and T.B. 5. The villages should be electrified in order to replace the traditional methods of lighting such as burning of oil lamps and wood. 6. Craft oriented courses be started in rural areas so that a girl child can learn as well as earn their livelihood.
  69. 69. 7. Proper drinking water be supplied to villages so that they can refrain from drinking impure water of the streams and ponds. In short illiteracy is the root cause of all disease and education can help in bringing a revolution in rural areas and with the help of education a woman may understand her duties towards her home , children and the welfare of the society. Normalcy is must we can establish new assets to remove poverty only in peaceful environment. Bibliography PERSONALITIES CONSULTED REGARDING THIS PROJECT : Name Qualification Designation Dr. Mohd.Shafi Darzi M.B.B.S , M.D B.M.O LARNOO Mr.Bashir Ahmad Wani B.Sc,B.Ed Jr.Assistant Education Department Mr.Gh Nabi Itoo B.A Village Headman
  70. 70. Mr.Mohd.Syed Khan M.A,L.L.B Political Leader AASIA CHADOO M.A , Geography Student Shahnawaz Hassan Mir M.A Govt.Employee in Fire Service Department MOHD IQBAL B.Sc,B.ed Principal Montesouri pub School Hiller Zareefa Banoo B.A , B.ed Headmistress Govt.High School Hiller. REFERENCES 1. GUPTA , S., SHARMA, M.L and DARSHAN ,S.(1981 ) Health problems and promotive programmes in rural community-A case study in Haryana.HAU Journal of Research,11:1,p. 93-99. 2. SINGH, I.J. (1979) A study of morbidity pattern in rural community. Health and Population-Perspectives and Issues.2:3, p. 193-206. 3. NAIR,G.R. (1982) The problem villages. Social Welfare. 14:1. p.26-28.
  71. 71. 4. MAEGRAITH, B. (1974) Disease due to infection and infestation. In: Price’s textbook of the practice of Medicine (ed: R.B.Scott).The English Language Book Society and Oxford University Press, Ely House, London, p. 149-150. 5. GOPALAN, C. (1974) Nutritional problemsin India .Social Welfare. 21:1.p.6. 6. Alen, Tim and Alan,Thomas,1992. Poverty and Development in the 1990s,Oxford University Press: London. 7. World Bank, 1993. World Development Report-Investing in Health, OUP : Oxford. 8.Ghosh, Pradip K.(ed), 1984. Third World Development-A Basic Needs Approach, GreenWood Press : Connecticut. 9.