Manual SC Topico_C

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Manual del PREFEMUN

Manual del PREFEMUN

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  • 1. MODELO DE LAS NACIONES UNIDAS DE LAS PREPARATORIAS FEDERALES POR COOPERACION PREFEMUN 2012 SC (SECURITY COUNCIL)Topic C):Save the Children, Plan and War Child Holland have been working inpartnership to create the “What is...” series, which consists of a number ofinformation leaflets on various issues related to children’s rights.The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the principal organs ofthe United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace andsecurity. Its powers, outlined in the United Nations Charter, include theestablishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of internationalsanctions, and the authorization of military action. Its powers are exercised throughUnited Nations Security Council resolutions.There are 15 members of the Security Council, consisting of five veto-wieldingpermanent members (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the UnitedStates) and 10 elected non-permanent members with two-year terms.Veto powerMain article: United Nations Security Council veto power
  • 2. Number of resolutions vetoed by each of the five permanent members of theSecurity Council between 1946 and 2007.[7]Under Article 27 of the UN Charter, Security Council decisions on all substantivematters require the affirmative votes of nine members. A negative vote, or veto,also known as the rule of "great power unanimity", by a permanent memberprevents adoption of a proposal, even if it has received the required number ofaffirmative votes (9). Abstention is not regarded as a veto despite the wording ofthe Charter. Since the Security Councils inception, China (ROC/PRC) has used itsveto 6 times; France 18 times; Russia/USSR 123 times; the United Kingdom 32times; and the United States 82 times. The majority of Russian/Soviet vetoes werein the first ten years of the Councils existence. Since 1984, China and France havevetoed three resolutions each; Russia/USSR four; the United Kingdom ten; and theUnited States 43.Procedural matters are not subject to a veto, so the veto cannot be used to avoiddiscussion of an issue. The same holds for certain decisions that directly regardpermanent members.Nowadays, we are facing a world even moreinterrelated, where the facts lived in one partaffects all the international system. The spread ofthe media and social networks has had animportant influence in the Middle East, and thelatest events in Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Libya, andSyria represent the best examples of how ideascould change societies (even in security issues).The Arabian Republic of Syria has started a pathto democracy; however, different forces in thedomestic level are trying to impose violenceagainst protesters, violating human rights in Syria.Since the legitimate aspirations of the Syrianpeople must be addressed through an inclusiveSyrian‐led political process that guaranteesfundamental freedoms and rights for all,1 thesituation in this country must be analyzed.Although the situation is considered for many
  • 3. countries as a domestic issue, the Security Council urgesto take into actions on the problems, since human rights violations and death ofmany civilians are taking place.The roots of the problem.Daraa, an agricultural town on the southern borders ofSyria, sowed the seeds of civil strife in Syria against the dictatorship of PresidentBashar Al‐Assad. It all started when a group of students painted a Protestantgraffiti against the Syrian president, which showed dissatisfaction with theshipment of munitions to Muammar Ghadaffi.2 The wave o 1f Arab unrest thatstarted with the Tunisian revolution of January 2011, in mid‐March, this revolutionreached Syria, when residents of a small southern city took to the streets to protestthe torture of students who had put up anti‐government graffiti.The Syrian people say they are protesting against the repressive measures ofAssad’s regime, including a tightening of Internet. Censorship expanded use oftravel bans and the arrest of political prisoners. Two hundred web sites areinaccessible in Syria and a law was put into place in 2007, which forces Internetcafes to record all the comments users post on chat forums. Assad has permittedthe existence of radio stations playing.United Nations’ actions.The United Nations chief human rights officer has recommended Syria to beconsidered for investigation at the International Criminal Court, following amonth‐long investigation.This investigation reported that the majority of the internal security forces, militarygroups and militias were principally composed by Alawis. In cities such as Daraa,Jisr al‐Shughur and Maarat an‐Numan, the regime employed tanks, helicoptersand heavy machine guns against civilians, while in al‐Rastan, Talbiseh and BabAmr, security forces used rocket propelled grenades and grenade launchersmounted on AK‐47 assault rifles.But these are not the first time that the UN investigates Bashar’s political regimesince 2005. The first UN report by Mehlis, investigating Hariris death, was releasedon October 19th, 2005, and accused the Syrian and Lebanese security services ofcooperation.The second investigation was released in December of the same year, this timeaccusing the Syrian administration of obstruction of justice, intimidatingeyewitnessesandinterfering with the investigation. The investigation and potentialprosecution of thoseinvolved in the assassination of Rafiq Hariri, former PrimeMinister of Lebanon, became acase study in the rapid development of internationalcriminal law.1 1 “Syria: Security Council condemns rights abuses and use of force against civilians,” in UN News Centre(ED,November 3rd, 2011: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=39229&Cr=Syria&Cr1).2 “Daraa: The cauldron of Syria’s conflict,” in Storyful(ED, October 25th, 2011:http://storyful.com/stories/1000002435).
  • 4. The cause of Hariri’s dead was a huge explosion in Beirut destroyed themotorcade of Rafiq Hariri, former Prime Minister of Lebanon, killing him and ascore of other people including innocent bystanders. During the same week theSecurity Council received the report prepared by the Mission sent to Lebanon bythe Secretary‐General to inquire into the terrorist act of February 14, 2005. TheMission headed by Peter FitzGerald, concludedin its report that the Government ofSyria bears primary responsibility for the political tension that preceded theassassination of the former Prime Minister […]22,On October 4th, the members of the Security Council voted for this resolution; nineof the fifteen members voted in favor, two vetoes and four abstentions. Thecountries voting in favor of the resolution were Bosnia and Herzegovina, Colombia,France, Gabon, Germany, Nigeria, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the UnitedStates. The countries abstaining were Brazil, India, Lebanon and South Africa. Thetwo vetoes were made by China and the Russian Federation.The U.N. Security Council has not agreed yet on what to do about Syrias brutalcrackdown on anti‐government protesters. A resolution would have demanded thatSyrian authorities immediately stop using force against civilians and allow theexercise of freedom of expression, peaceful assembly and other fundamentalrights. It would have called for the release of all political prisoners and peacefuldemonstrators.The civilian victims of NATO bombing to Libya and a possible resolution to Syria,where clashes continue between anti-government protesters and security forces,are two topics that the members of the Security Council of the UN can not reachagree.Statements about the UN ambassadors of the United States, France and Russiahave shown the differences and tensions in the security organ.In the case of Libya, Russia struggles to an investigation ordered by the Council todetermine the responsibility of NATO in civilian deaths, a position that the UnitedStates and France have qualified as a "trick" to distract public attention from whatis happening in Syria."Ah! The pompous and false claims. Welcome to December. Is everybody2 “Hariri Assassination,” in Library of Congress (ED, October 30th, 2011:http://www.loc.gov/law/help/hariri/index.php).
  • 5. sufficiently distracted from Syria and the killing is happening before our eyes? "Hetold reporters Susan Rice, U.S. ambassador.In response, the Russian representative, VitalyChurkin, who chairs this month theSecurity Council, convened a press conference today in which he reported that hiscountry circulated a proposed presidential statement to Syria to replace a draftresolution that consensus has been reached.The proposed text calling on all parties to the conflict to exercise restraint andcooperate with the mission of the League of Arab States will arrive on Monday toSyria in order to find a way to end the violence, said Churkin, however The draftwas questioned by several members of the Council and did not achieve thenecessary support.With regard to Libya, the Russian diplomat recalled that his country, like otherCouncil members, said at various meetings of that body that the massive bombingof NATO exceeded the provisions of the resolution of March 17 this yearauthorizing this force to act to defend civilians in the North African country."The response from our colleagues in OTAN countries was that they were taking allmeasures to avoid civilian casualties, but refused to discuss specific details .... Henever spoke of an investigation, or details, the subject always left out, "Churkinsaid to underline the importance of the investigation that his government request.Russia submitted to the Security Council a draft UN resolution calling for thecessation of violence on both sides of the conflict in Syria.The draft was announced by the Russian permanent representative and currentCouncil President, VitalyChurkin, who said the proposal also urges the Syrianauthorities to move towards political reforms to end the crisis.The text also calls on the Arab League continue its efforts and work with the Syriangovernment to achieve the displacement of an observer mission agreed by theregional mechanism.The Russian diplomat said the project also expressed concern about thesmuggling of weapons by armed groups operating in Syria and using peacefuldemonstrations in pursuit of their own anti objectives.The initiative was announced Thursday at a time which reported the death of 27
  • 6. members of the Syrian security forces at the hands of army deserters in thesouthern province of Deraa.Timeline.12Feb 4th, 2011: the protests started in Tunis.Feb 5th,2011: “ANGER DAY.”Mar 15th, 2011: The Tunisian protest, reaches Syria.Mar 16th, 2011: 25 Protestants were arrested, during a demonstration in theSyrian Interior Ministry.Mar 18th, 2011: First deaths; clashes between Protestants and police.Mar 19th, 2011: Clashes during the funerals of two protesters.Mar 20th, 2011: Third day of demonstrations.Mar 21st, 2011: The Syrian army clears the entriesMar 21st, 2011: The Syrian army clears the entries of Daraa; five more deaths.Protests continue in Syria for a fifth day.Mar 23rd, 2011: Six more deaths by the security force’s shots; before the attackthe authorities cut off the electricity, the phone lines were cut off and blocked thecell phones.Mar 24th, 2011: about 20.000 people protested in Daraa; the governmentpromised further reforms, such as the eradication of the emergency law.Mar 25th, 2011: Demonstrations in other Syrian Cities.Mar 26th, 2011: hundreds of people had burned the local headquarters of theBa’ath party.Mar 28th, 2011: the security force had fired against hundreds of Protestants inDaraa.Mar 29th, 2011: Bashar al Assad announced to his citizens new reforms and anew cabinet, in an attempt to calm the conflict.Mar 30th, 2011: Bashar al Assad appears before the Syrian Parliament.Oct 2nd, 2011: Creation of the Syrian National Council.Oct 9th, 2011: Syria warned foreign countries not to recognize the newly formedopposition group, the Syrian National Council, and threatened to take “strictmeasures” against any country that does. Meanwhile, the government’s crackdownon protesters continued.
  • 7. Oct 12th, 2011: Tens of thousands of Syrians rallied in central Damascus to showsupport for President Bashar al‐Assad. The turnout in SabaaBahrat Square inDamascus underlined the degree of backing that Mr. Assad and his leadership stillenjoy among many Syrians.That support is especially pronounced among religious minorities who fear chaosand reprisals if he falls.Oct 14th, 2011: Syrian security forces clashed with army defectors in southernSyria and killed at least 14 people elsewhere including an 18‐month‐old boy. TheLocal Coordination Committees, a group of activists in Syria who organize anddocument demonstrations, said that most of the confirmed killings were in Binnish,in the northern province of Idlib, when troops stormed the town in search ofdissidents.Oct 19th, 2011: Large crowds rallied in the northern city of Aleppo in support of thegovernment of President Assad, while Syrian troops kept up an offensive in centralSyriaand battled army defectors in the east. The government‐organized rally, withturnout estimated in the tens of thousands, along with one held a week earlier inDamascus showed that Mr. Assad and his government still command support froma substantial part of the population.Oct 21st, 2011: The death of Col. Muammar el‐Qaddafi reverberated across Syria,reviving protests that had begun to stall and focusing attention on the SyrianNational Council, which began closing ranks and courting international support inthe most concerted attempt yet to forge an alternative to President Assad.Oct 24th, 2011: Robert S. Ford, the American ambassador to Damascus who hadplayed a high‐profile role in Syria since the uprising began there, left the countryafter receiving “credible threats against his personal safety,” embassy officials said.Since the uprisingerupted in March, he had been vocal in his criticism of thegovernment crackdown, evenposting statements on his Facebook page. Theembassy’s charge d’affaires said no datehad been set for Mr. Ford’s return, andcautioned that his departure did not mean theUnited States had formally withdrawnMr. Ford.Oct 25th, 2011: The Syrian National Council, an opposition group, called forinternational protection from the government’s military crackdown on protesters, aday before a delegation of Arab ministers, headed by the prime minister of Qatar,was expected to meet with President Bashar al‐Assad in Damascus.Oct 28th, 2011: Syrian security forces killed at least 40 people duringantigovernment demonstrations. Most of the deaths occurred in central Syria, themost demonstrations. Most of the deaths occurred in central Syria, the most restiveregion in the country, with 21 people killed in Homs and 14 in Hama. Over all, theUnited Nations estimates that 3,000 people have been killed since demonstrationsbegan.Nov 1st, 2011: The Lebanese police have accused Syria of orchestrating thekidnapping of Syrian dissidents in Lebanon, a country that has served as a havenfor them since the uprising against the government of President Assad begannearly eight months ago.Nov 2nd, 2011: The violent crackdown against protesters continued within Syria,and two cases of what appeared to be mass sectarian killings added to the sensethat the Syrian uprising and the crackdown by President Assad has ignited
  • 8. simmering tensions among a brutalized people. If confirmed, the wave of 20 deathscould be the most serious sectarian bloodshed since demonstrations broke out inMarch in the southern town of Daraa.Questions that a resolution must answer.• What measures, under the Security Council’s functions, could be proposed inthe international level to solve the problem?• What measures in the national level could Syria implement to promote thecorrect transition to democracy?• What sanctions could be formulated against Syria because of the events wehave faced lately?• What are the best strategies to encourage communications with otherinternational organizations to pressure the Syria’s government?• What kind of repair of damages to society could be implemented?