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Manual SC Topico_B

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Manual del PREFEMUN

Manual del PREFEMUN

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  • 1. MODELO DE LAS NACIONES UNIDAS DE LAS PREPARATORIAS FEDERALES POR COOPERACION PREFEMUN 2012 SC (SECURITY COUNCIL) Topic B): The consolidation of peace and foundation for longer term-state building, conflict prevention and economic development in South Sudan"The lesswe have, the more we give.Seems impossible, butit is not.That is thelogic of love¨ Mother Teresa of Calcutta
  • 2. The commission for the consolidation of peace was created in2006 as an intergovernmental advisory body to support the efforts forpeace in countries emerging from conflicts and serve as a keycomplement to the ability to promote global peace internationalcommunity. Together all relevant actors to marshal resources, such asdonors and international financial institutions, national governmentsand the troop-contributing countries; channeling the resources to solvea problem Propose integrated strategies for peace building and post conflictrecovery and where appropriate, highlight any deficiencies thatthreaten to undermine peace.High commissioner for refugees (UNHCR) work directly in the phase ofpost conflict recovery in the economic as social as well as somehumanitarian activities.South Sudan is acknowledged to have some of the worst healthindicators in the world. The under-five infant mortality rate is 135.3 per1,000, whilst maternal mortality is the highest in the world at 2,053.9per 100,000 live births. In 2004, there were only three surgeonsserving southern Sudan, with three proper hospitals, and in someareas there was just one doctor for every 500,000 people.The epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the South Sudan is poorlydocumented but the prevalence is thought to be around 3.1%.At the time of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005,humanitarian needs in Southern Sudan were massive. However,humanitarian organizations under the leadership of the UN Office forthe Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) managed to ensure
  • 3. sufficient funding to bring relief to the local populations. Along withrecovery and development aid, humanitarian projects were included inthe 2007 Work Plan of the United Nations and partners. More than90% of the population of South Sudan lives on less than $1 a day,despite the GDP per capita of the entirety of Sudan being $1200($3.29/day).In 2007, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of HumanitarianAffairs (under the leadership of Elaine Duthoit) decreased itsinvolvement in Southern Sudan, as humanitarian needs graduallydiminished, slowly but markedly turning over control to the recoveryand development activities of NGOs and community-basedorganizations.Famine reportedly led to deaths in Northern Bahr el Ghazal and Warrap states in mid-2011, though the state governments of both deniedhunger there was severe enough to cause fatalities.In Pibor County in Jong lei State in December 2011 and January 2012,cattle raids led to border clashes that eventually resulted in widespreadethnic violence, with thousands of deaths and tens of thousands ofSouth Sudanese being displaced, and hundreds of Doctors withoutBorders staff went missing. The government declared the area adisaster zone and took control from local authoritiesThe conflict, which pitted the central government whit the movementfor the liberation of Sothern Sudan only, ended in 1972 whit the signingof peace protocol in Addis Ababa that creation of an autonomousgovernment in Southern Sudan So to developed the state of prevention, after the peaceagreement signed in 2005, was promulgated a provisional constitutionof the autonomous government of southern Sudan worked as thesupreme law of the territory, together whit the constitution After that southern Sudan became one of the world´s poorestcountries.
  • 4. After the referendum on the independence of South Sudancarried out between September and January 15, 2011, the governmentpromulgated a transitional constitution autonomous, effective as of July9, 2011, when independence was officially declared In human rights, whit respect to membership in the sevenagencies of the international bill of humans rights, including the humanrights committee (HRC), southern Sudan has signed and ratified While the United States lifted all economic and political sanctionsagainst South Sudan as of July 2011, the sanctions imposed againstneighboring Sudan, especially those relating to oil and financial sectortransactions, are likely to continue to impact the new nation. A 2011Congressional Research Service report, “The Republic of SouthSudan: Opportunities and Challenges for Africa’s Newest Country",identifies outstanding political and humanitarian issues as the countryforges its futureThe oilfields in the South have kept the regions economy alive since1999. However, after South Sudan became an independent nation inJuly 2011, southern and northern negotiators were not immediatelyable to reach an agreement on how to split the revenue from thesesouthern oilfields. It is estimated that around 80% of the untapped oildeposits in Sudan are in South Sudan. The oil revenues, according tothe Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), were split equally for theduration of the agreement period.Since South Sudan relies onpipelines, refineries, and Port Sudans facilities in Red Sea state inSudan, the agreement stated that the government of Sudan inKhartoum would receive a 50% share of all oil revenues.This arrangement was maintained during the second period ofautonomy from 2005 to 2011. A similar arrangement is likely tocontinue during the independence era of South Sudan, with northernnegotiators reportedly pressing for a deal maintaining the 50–50 split ofoil revenues and the South Sudanese holding out for more favorableterms. Oil revenues constitute more than 98% of the government ofSouth Sudans budget according to the southern governments Ministry
  • 5. of Finance and Economic Planning and this has amounted to morethan $8 billion in revenue since the signing of the peace agreement.South Sudans economy is under pressure to diversify away from oil asoil reserves will likely halve by 2020 if no new finds are made,according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF)However, President Kiir had "suspected figures were being deflated insome regions and inflated in others, and that made the final tallyunacceptable." He also claimed the Southern Sudanese population toreally be one-third of Sudan, while the census showed it to be only22%.Many Southern Sudanese were also said to not have been counted"due to bad weather, poor communication and transport networks, andsome areas were unreachable, while many Southern Sudaneseremained in exile in neighboring countries, leading to unacceptableresults, according [to] southern Sudanese authorities." The chiefAmerican technical adviser for the census in the South said thecensus-takers probably reached 89% of the population.In May 2011, the SPLA allegedly set fire to over 7,000 homes in UnityState. The UN reports many of these violations and the frustrateddirector of one Juba-based international aid agency calls them "humanrights abuses off the Richter scale". In 2010, the CIA issued a warningthat "over the next five years...a new mass killing or genocide is mostlikely to occur in southern Sudan.The Near White Army has stated it wished to "wipe out the entire Murletribe on the face of the earth as the only solution to guarantee long-term security of Nuer’s cattle" and activists, including Minority RightsGroup International, warn of genocide in the current Jonglei conflict.
  • 6. Questions: 1. What position doesyourdelegationon this issue? 2. -What measureshas yourdelegationon thisissue? 3. -Does yourdelegationdo somethingto counterthe problem? 4. - Whatactionswould proposeyourdelegationtothis?Bibliography: http://www.un.org/es/sg/ www.securitycouncilreport.org www.cinup.org/.../1376-security-council-press-statement- http://www.debatepress.com/?p=verNoticia&idNoticia=14380&idCategoria=1