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  1. 1. MANAGEMENT GROUP 1 Lena Affaneh, Paul Bujak, Lindsay Iwan, Ewa Jaszczyk, and Christianne Montgomery
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Culture and Design </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Charting </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul>
  3. 3. Management <ul><li>A Brief A process that is used to accomplish organizational goals; that is, a process that is used to achieve what an organization wants to achieve. Overview of Management needs to be explained and defined. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Leadership & Management <ul><li>Distinction between Management and Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Perception in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Currently viewed in society </li></ul><ul><li>“Leaders promote new directions; management implements them.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Leadership Styles
  7. 7. BE KNOW DO <ul><li>BE a professional </li></ul><ul><li>BE a professional who possess good character traits </li></ul><ul><li>KNOW the four factors of leadership </li></ul><ul><li>KNOW yourself </li></ul><ul><li>KNOW human nature </li></ul><ul><li>KNOW your job </li></ul><ul><li>KNOW your organization </li></ul><ul><li>DO provide direction </li></ul><ul><li>DO implement </li></ul><ul><li>DO motivate </li></ul>
  9. 9. Structure <ul><li>Is the system tasks, workflows, reporting relationships, and communication channels that link the diverse parts of an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of structures in an organization: </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Structure </li></ul>
  10. 10. Organizing- To create Structures Organizing- To create structures. -Divide up the work -Arrange resources -Coordinate activities Leading- To inspire effort Controlling- To ensure results Planning- To set the direction
  11. 11. Benefits of Structure <ul><li>Structure dictates how objectives and policies will be established. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives and policies established under a geographic organizational structure are couched in geographic terms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives and policies are stated largely in terms of products in an organization whose structure is based on product groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure dictates how resources will be allocated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex.. if an organization structure is based on customer groups, then resources will be allocated in that manner. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If an organizations structure is set up along functional business lines, then resources are allocated by functional areas. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Strategy & Structure <ul><li>Lead to changes in organizational structure. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure should be designed to facilitate the strategic pursuit of a firm and follow the strategy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without a strategy or a mission, companies find it difficult to design an effective structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure can and does influence strategy. Strategies formulated must be utilized and workable. </li></ul><ul><li>If a certain new strategy required massive structural changes it would be an attractive choice. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure can shape the choice of strategies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is by determining what types of structural changes are needed to implement new strategies and how these changes can be best accomplished. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Management & Structure <ul><li>Organizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arranging people and your resources working together to accomplish a goal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves both dividing up the tasks to be performed and coordinating results to achieve a common purpose. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Organizational Culture & Design <ul><li>Competition, problems and opportunities in the market place require a flexible and well-integrated workforce in order to deliver high-quality products/services while achieving innovation for the future of the company. </li></ul><ul><li>The key to success is finding the best design to master the needs and challenges of an organization. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Organizational Culture <ul><li>System of shared beliefs and values that develop within an organization </li></ul><ul><li>and guide the behavior of it members. </li></ul><ul><li>Shape Attributes. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce Common Beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Performance Expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Create Motivation. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Organizational Culture
  17. 17. Organizational Design <ul><li>Bureaucratic Design </li></ul><ul><li>The process of aligning organizational structures and cultures to best serve the </li></ul><ul><li>organization’s mission, strategy and objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>An organizational form that is based on logic, order and formal authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Design (Organizational Design) </li></ul><ul><li>Clear-cut division of labor, strict hierarchy of authority, formal rules and procedures, </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul><ul><li>A culture that encourages worker empowerment and participation, a culture that </li></ul><ul><li>encourages worker empowerment and participation </li></ul>
  18. 18. Organizational Design <ul><li>I.E stories, Heroes, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>The culture that is seen and heard when walking around and organization from </li></ul><ul><li>customer’s viewpoint. </li></ul><ul><li>Core Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize values, innovation, social responsibility, worker involvement, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The culture that is seen and heard when walking around and organization from a </li></ul><ul><li>customer’s viewpoint. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Organizational Design
  20. 20. Organizational Charting <ul><li>What type of Organization is it? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Structure of the Organization? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this Structure Function? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this the appropriate Organizational Structure? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Types of Organizations Traditional <ul><li>Functional Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Divisional </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix Structure </li></ul>
  22. 22. Functional Organization <ul><li>Defined-Members with similar skills creating and performing like task while being grouped together. </li></ul><ul><li>Description- Each section whether finance, marketing, operations etc is in a silo of it own. </li></ul><ul><li>Each unit is works separately in achieving organizational goals. </li></ul><ul><li>In theory if each silo is doing its job then the business will be operating successfully. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Functional Chart
  24. 24. Advantages vs. Disadvantages <ul><li>Advantages- </li></ul><ul><li>a. Efficient use with economies of scale. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Training and expertise consistent with assignments. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Quality of technical problem is high. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Training and development within function is superb. </li></ul><ul><li>e. One travels via one career path. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages- </li></ul><ul><li>a. No communication, coordination or problem solving. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Each Function develops narrow view point. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Problems are referred to upper management slows decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Responsibility of cost containment can be blurred. </li></ul><ul><li>e. Slow organization unable to move quickly to seize opportunity. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Divisional Chart <ul><li>Defined- Different departments work together on a similar product, task or customer. </li></ul><ul><li>Description- Groups work within similar tasks whether it be a process, geographic area. Finance, marketing, sales work within this unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Unit doesn’t have silos but specific tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Divisions allow companies that have basket approach to business limiting decline in an economy that is down. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Divisional Chart
  27. 27. Advantages vs. Disadvantages <ul><li>Advantages- </li></ul><ul><li>a. Flexibility in responding to environmental changes. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Improved coordination among departments. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Responsibility is clear in regards to product or service. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Focus of expertise is on specific customers, regions, or products. </li></ul><ul><li>e. Greater flexibility In diversification. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages- </li></ul><ul><li>a. Economies of Scale is reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Unhealthy competition between divisions c. Divisions may not focus on the greater good of organization. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Costs increase through duplications of resources. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Matrix Organization <ul><li>Defined- Brings together Functional and divisional structure to emphasize project and program teams. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy use of permanent cross functional teams integrate cross functional expertise within a divisional structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Members usually are part of two formal groups and have two bosses. </li></ul><ul><li>Teams are cross functional and work together in solving problems . </li></ul>
  29. 29. Matrix Organization
  30. 30. Advantages vs. Disadvantages <ul><li>Advantages- </li></ul><ul><li>a. Large amounts of inter-functional cooperation. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Considerable amounts of flexibility in meeting changing demands. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Customer service is championed. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Better accountability and performance through the usage of project Managers. </li></ul><ul><li>e. Improved problem solving at team level, because of best information. </li></ul><ul><li>f. Strategy formulation by top brass is focused on because they are freed from battling escalating issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages- </li></ul><ul><li>a. Two boss system set for possible power struggle. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Task confusion can arrive because of two bosses. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Teams may have strong loyalties focusing inward no entire organization. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Recent Developments <ul><li>Besides the traditional forms newer structures have been formed. </li></ul><ul><li>Team Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Team whether permanent or temporary are used without hierarchy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>b. There isn’t a formal manager but a team lead </li></ul><ul><li>Network Structure </li></ul><ul><li>a. Relationships and work is done with outside contractors. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Organization small but has almost all items outsourced. </li></ul><ul><li>Boundary-less Structure </li></ul><ul><li> a. Combination of Team and Network structures. </li></ul><ul><li> b. Organization changing one day from the other. </li></ul><ul><li>These are the future of our respective organizations. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Motivation <ul><li>Ability </li></ul><ul><li>Effort </li></ul><ul><li>Desire </li></ul>
  33. 33. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  34. 34. Frederick Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory <ul><li>Motivators </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>The work itself </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Salary </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision technical </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal relations </li></ul><ul><li>Company policies and administration </li></ul>
  35. 35. Decision Making <ul><li>Identify the purpose of your decision </li></ul><ul><li>Gather information </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the principles to judge the alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm and list different possible choices </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate each choice in terms of its consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the best alternative </li></ul><ul><li>Put the decision into action/execute your plan </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the outcome of your decision and action steps </li></ul>
  36. 36. Planning <ul><li>Planning: is the process of setting objectives and determining what should be done to accomplish them. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Steps in Planning Process <ul><li>Step 1. Define your objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2. Determine where you stand vis-à-vis objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3. Develop premises regarding future conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4. Analyze possible action alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5. Implement the plan and evaluate results </li></ul>
  38. 38. Types of Planning <ul><li>Strategic planning </li></ul><ul><li>Tactical planning </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency planning </li></ul>
  39. 39. Control <ul><li>Controlling: is the process of measuring performance and taking action to ensure desired results </li></ul>
  40. 40. Steps in Control Process <ul><li>Step 1. Establish objectives and standards </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2. Measuring actual performance </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3. Comparing results with objectives and standards </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4. Taking corrective action </li></ul>
  41. 41. Types of Controls <ul><li>Feed forward controls </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrent controls </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback controls </li></ul>
  42. 42. Ethics <ul><li>What is Ethics? </li></ul><ul><li>Moral Principles that set standards of good or bad, or right, or wrong in a person’s conduct or a firms conduct as a whole. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Four Views of Ethical Behavior Individualism view Does a decision or behavior promote one’s long term self-interests? Moral-rights view Does a decision or behavior maintain the fundamental rights of all human beings? <ul><li>Utilitarian view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does a decision or behavior do the greatest good for the most people? </li></ul></ul>Justice View Does a decision or behavior show fairness and impartiality?
  44. 44. Ethics in Management’s Decision Making <ul><li>Recent Years has been growing recognition of the need to consider ethical issues in decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated that Two-Thirds of large firms have a code of ethics and 44% of larger firms provide some form of ethics training for their managers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This interest in being ethical stems partly from a desire to avoid legal action. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethics training programs include statements from the top officer emphasizing the importance of ethical decision making, corporate code of ethics. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Conclusion <ul><li>All topics involved are part of management </li></ul><ul><li>Not all are used on a daily bases. </li></ul><ul><li>If a manager is able to use and execute these subjects then they maybe considered good at managing. </li></ul><ul><li>Its an art not a science. </li></ul>