Management1.6

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Management1.6

  1. 1. MANAGEMENT GROUP 1 Lena Affaneh, Paul Bujak, Lindsay Iwan, Ewa Jaszczyk, and Christianne Montgomery
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Culture and Design </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Charting </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul>
  3. 3. Management <ul><li>A Brief A process that is used to accomplish organizational goals; that is, a process that is used to achieve what an organization wants to achieve. Overview of Management needs to be explained and defined. </li></ul>
  4. 4. “ SUCCESS IS TO BE MEASURED NOT SO MUCH BY THE POSITION THAT ONE HAS REACHED IN LIFE AS BY THE OBSTACLES WHICH HAVE BEEN OVERCOME WHILE TRYING TO SUCCEED.” BOOKER T. WASHINGTON
  5. 5. Leadership & Management <ul><li>Distinction between Management and Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Perception in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Currently viewed in society </li></ul><ul><li>“Leaders promote new directions; management implements them.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Leadership Styles
  7. 7. BE KNOW DO <ul><li>BE a professional </li></ul><ul><li>BE a professional who possess good character traits </li></ul><ul><li>KNOW the four factors of leadership </li></ul><ul><li>KNOW yourself </li></ul><ul><li>KNOW human nature </li></ul><ul><li>KNOW your job </li></ul><ul><li>KNOW your organization </li></ul><ul><li>DO provide direction </li></ul><ul><li>DO implement </li></ul><ul><li>DO motivate </li></ul>
  8. 8. FEAR STOPS YOU IN YOUR TRACKS.
  9. 9. Structure <ul><li>Is the system tasks, workflows, reporting relationships, and communication channels that link the diverse parts of an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of structures in an organization: </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Structure </li></ul>
  10. 10. Organizing- To create Structures Organizing- To create structures. -Divide up the work -Arrange resources -Coordinate activities Leading- To inspire effort Controlling- To ensure results Planning- To set the direction
  11. 11. Benefits of Structure <ul><li>Structure dictates how objectives and policies will be established. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives and policies established under a geographic organizational structure are couched in geographic terms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives and policies are stated largely in terms of products in an organization whose structure is based on product groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure dictates how resources will be allocated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex.. if an organization structure is based on customer groups, then resources will be allocated in that manner. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If an organizations structure is set up along functional business lines, then resources are allocated by functional areas. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Strategy & Structure <ul><li>Lead to changes in organizational structure. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure should be designed to facilitate the strategic pursuit of a firm and follow the strategy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without a strategy or a mission, companies find it difficult to design an effective structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure can and does influence strategy. Strategies formulated must be utilized and workable. </li></ul><ul><li>If a certain new strategy required massive structural changes it would be an attractive choice. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure can shape the choice of strategies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is by determining what types of structural changes are needed to implement new strategies and how these changes can be best accomplished. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Management & Structure <ul><li>Organizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arranging people and your resources working together to accomplish a goal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves both dividing up the tasks to be performed and coordinating results to achieve a common purpose. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Organizational Culture & Design <ul><li>Competition, problems and opportunities in the market place require a flexible and well-integrated workforce in order to deliver high-quality products/services while achieving innovation for the future of the company. </li></ul><ul><li>The key to success is finding the best design to master the needs and challenges of an organization. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Organizational Culture <ul><li>System of shared beliefs and values that develop within an organization </li></ul><ul><li>and guide the behavior of it members. </li></ul><ul><li>Shape Attributes. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce Common Beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Performance Expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Create Motivation. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Organizational Culture
  17. 17. Organizational Design <ul><li>Bureaucratic Design </li></ul><ul><li>The process of aligning organizational structures and cultures to best serve the </li></ul><ul><li>organization’s mission, strategy and objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>An organizational form that is based on logic, order and formal authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Design (Organizational Design) </li></ul><ul><li>Clear-cut division of labor, strict hierarchy of authority, formal rules and procedures, </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul><ul><li>A culture that encourages worker empowerment and participation, a culture that </li></ul><ul><li>encourages worker empowerment and participation </li></ul>
  18. 18. Organizational Design <ul><li>I.E stories, Heroes, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>The culture that is seen and heard when walking around and organization from </li></ul><ul><li>customer’s viewpoint. </li></ul><ul><li>Core Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize values, innovation, social responsibility, worker involvement, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The culture that is seen and heard when walking around and organization from a </li></ul><ul><li>customer’s viewpoint. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Organizational Design
  20. 20. Organizational Charting <ul><li>What type of Organization is it? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Structure of the Organization? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this Structure Function? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this the appropriate Organizational Structure? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Types of Organizations Traditional <ul><li>Functional Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Divisional </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix Structure </li></ul>
  22. 22. Functional Organization <ul><li>Defined-Members with similar skills creating and performing like task while being grouped together. </li></ul><ul><li>Description- Each section whether finance, marketing, operations etc is in a silo of it own. </li></ul><ul><li>Each unit is works separately in achieving organizational goals. </li></ul><ul><li>In theory if each silo is doing its job then the business will be operating successfully. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Functional Chart
  24. 24. Advantages vs. Disadvantages <ul><li>Advantages- </li></ul><ul><li>a. Efficient use with economies of scale. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Training and expertise consistent with assignments. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Quality of technical problem is high. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Training and development within function is superb. </li></ul><ul><li>e. One travels via one career path. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages- </li></ul><ul><li>a. No communication, coordination or problem solving. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Each Function develops narrow view point. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Problems are referred to upper management slows decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Responsibility of cost containment can be blurred. </li></ul><ul><li>e. Slow organization unable to move quickly to seize opportunity. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Divisional Chart <ul><li>Defined- Different departments work together on a similar product, task or customer. </li></ul><ul><li>Description- Groups work within similar tasks whether it be a process, geographic area. Finance, marketing, sales work within this unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Unit doesn’t have silos but specific tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Divisions allow companies that have basket approach to business limiting decline in an economy that is down. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Divisional Chart
  27. 27. Advantages vs. Disadvantages <ul><li>Advantages- </li></ul><ul><li>a. Flexibility in responding to environmental changes. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Improved coordination among departments. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Responsibility is clear in regards to product or service. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Focus of expertise is on specific customers, regions, or products. </li></ul><ul><li>e. Greater flexibility In diversification. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages- </li></ul><ul><li>a. Economies of Scale is reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Unhealthy competition between divisions c. Divisions may not focus on the greater good of organization. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Costs increase through duplications of resources. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Matrix Organization <ul><li>Defined- Brings together Functional and divisional structure to emphasize project and program teams. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy use of permanent cross functional teams integrate cross functional expertise within a divisional structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Members usually are part of two formal groups and have two bosses. </li></ul><ul><li>Teams are cross functional and work together in solving problems . </li></ul>
  29. 29. Matrix Organization
  30. 30. Advantages vs. Disadvantages <ul><li>Advantages- </li></ul><ul><li>a. Large amounts of inter-functional cooperation. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Considerable amounts of flexibility in meeting changing demands. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Customer service is championed. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Better accountability and performance through the usage of project Managers. </li></ul><ul><li>e. Improved problem solving at team level, because of best information. </li></ul><ul><li>f. Strategy formulation by top brass is focused on because they are freed from battling escalating issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages- </li></ul><ul><li>a. Two boss system set for possible power struggle. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Task confusion can arrive because of two bosses. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Teams may have strong loyalties focusing inward no entire organization. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Recent Developments <ul><li>Besides the traditional forms newer structures have been formed. </li></ul><ul><li>Team Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Team whether permanent or temporary are used without hierarchy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>b. There isn’t a formal manager but a team lead </li></ul><ul><li>Network Structure </li></ul><ul><li>a. Relationships and work is done with outside contractors. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Organization small but has almost all items outsourced. </li></ul><ul><li>Boundary-less Structure </li></ul><ul><li> a. Combination of Team and Network structures. </li></ul><ul><li> b. Organization changing one day from the other. </li></ul><ul><li>These are the future of our respective organizations. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Motivation <ul><li>Ability </li></ul><ul><li>Effort </li></ul><ul><li>Desire </li></ul>
  33. 33. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  34. 34. Frederick Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory <ul><li>Motivators </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>The work itself </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Salary </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision technical </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal relations </li></ul><ul><li>Company policies and administration </li></ul>
  35. 35. Decision Making <ul><li>Identify the purpose of your decision </li></ul><ul><li>Gather information </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the principles to judge the alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm and list different possible choices </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate each choice in terms of its consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the best alternative </li></ul><ul><li>Put the decision into action/execute your plan </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the outcome of your decision and action steps </li></ul>
  36. 36. Planning <ul><li>Planning: is the process of setting objectives and determining what should be done to accomplish them. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Steps in Planning Process <ul><li>Step 1. Define your objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2. Determine where you stand vis-à-vis objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3. Develop premises regarding future conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4. Analyze possible action alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5. Implement the plan and evaluate results </li></ul>
  38. 38. Types of Planning <ul><li>Strategic planning </li></ul><ul><li>Tactical planning </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency planning </li></ul>
  39. 39. Control <ul><li>Controlling: is the process of measuring performance and taking action to ensure desired results </li></ul>
  40. 40. Steps in Control Process <ul><li>Step 1. Establish objectives and standards </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2. Measuring actual performance </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3. Comparing results with objectives and standards </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4. Taking corrective action </li></ul>
  41. 41. Types of Controls <ul><li>Feed forward controls </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrent controls </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback controls </li></ul>
  42. 42. Ethics <ul><li>What is Ethics? </li></ul><ul><li>Moral Principles that set standards of good or bad, or right, or wrong in a person’s conduct or a firms conduct as a whole. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Four Views of Ethical Behavior Individualism view Does a decision or behavior promote one’s long term self-interests? Moral-rights view Does a decision or behavior maintain the fundamental rights of all human beings? <ul><li>Utilitarian view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does a decision or behavior do the greatest good for the most people? </li></ul></ul>Justice View Does a decision or behavior show fairness and impartiality?
  44. 44. Ethics in Management’s Decision Making <ul><li>Recent Years has been growing recognition of the need to consider ethical issues in decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated that Two-Thirds of large firms have a code of ethics and 44% of larger firms provide some form of ethics training for their managers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This interest in being ethical stems partly from a desire to avoid legal action. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethics training programs include statements from the top officer emphasizing the importance of ethical decision making, corporate code of ethics. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Conclusion <ul><li>All topics involved are part of management </li></ul><ul><li>Not all are used on a daily bases. </li></ul><ul><li>If a manager is able to use and execute these subjects then they maybe considered good at managing. </li></ul><ul><li>Its an art not a science. </li></ul>

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