CONTENTSINTRODUCTIONTYPES OF MAGLEV TECHNOLOGYBASIC STRUCTURECOMPARISON WITH COMMERCIAL TRAINSADVANTAGESCONCLUSION
INTRODUCTIONMaglev is a system of transportation that suspends, guides and propels vehicles, predominantly trains, using magnetic levitation from a very large number of magnets for lift and propulsion.The highest recorded speed is 581 km/h achieved in Japan in 2003.
TYPES OF MAGLEV TECHNOLOGYThere are 2 notable types of maglev technology:-• Electromagnetic suspension(EMS)• Electrodynamic suspension(EDS)• Induct rack
ELECTROMAGNETIC SUSPENSION Electromagnets attached to the train Has ferromagnetic stators on the track and levitate the train. Has guidance magnets on the sides A computer changes the amount of current to keep the train 1 cm from the track. Max speed - 438km/hr Has on-board battery power supply.
ELECTRODYNAMIC SUSPENSION The first major difference between EDS and EMS is the type of track. EDS uses superconducting magnets (SCM) located on the bottom of the train to levitate it off of the track. The repulsive forces between the magnets and coils lift the train, on average, about 4 to 6 inches above the track, Requires retractable wheels at low speed , max speed – 522km/hr
A NEW TRACK IN THE RUNNING (INDUCTRACK)This system uses an “arrangement of powerful permanent magnets, known as a Halbach array, to create the levitating force”. MODEL OF THE INDUCTRACK
BASIC STRUCTUREMaglev Consist of Three parts1)Levitation2)Guidance3)Propulsion
LEVITATIONIn EDS , levitation coils levitate the train 10cm above the track. Levitates when speed reaches 100km/hrIn EMS , stator & support magnet levitate the train 1cm above the track. Levitates even when train is not moving.
GUIDANCESome systems use Null Current systemIn EDS when the vehicle is in straight line , no current flows When it moves off the line this creates changing flux, generating a field that pushes and pulls it back to the line.Some systems use coils that try to remain in the null flux point between repulsive magnets and reduces eddy current losses.
PROPULSIONEMS systems provide levitation & propulsion using onboard linear motor. EDS system and Train rapid systems levitate using onboard magnets & use propulsion coils for propulsion .Cost of propulsion coils increase over long distances.
COMPARISION WITH COMMERCIAL TRAINSMaglev trains produce less noise than a conventional train at equivalent speeds.Maglev is atmosphere friendly not produce toxic SmokeRelatively very high speed than Commercial trains.No resistance between the rail and Track so very high speed is attainable, thats why some times Maglev is compared with aeroplanes.
ADVANTAGESElimination of wheel and track wear providing consequent reduction in maintenance cost.The absence of wheels removes much noise and vibration.It needs less power supply.It is more safety.It is fire resistance.
CONCLUSIONMaglev will have a positive impact on sustainability. Using superconducting magnets instead of fossil fuels, it will not emit greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.Maglev will contribute more to our society and our planet than it takes away. Considering everything Maglev has to offer, the transportation of our future is on very capable tracks.