IPV6-THE NEXT GENERATION                PROTOCOLSession NumberPresentation_ID   © 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights res...
Introduction        • What is IP?                        The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or protocol             ...
Do We Really Need a Larger Address     Space?                  • Internet Users or PC                                  ~53...
Explosion of New Internet Appliances© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   4
Techniques to reduce address shortage       in IPv4            • Subnetting            • Network Address Translation (NAT)...
Subnetting                 • Three-level hierarchy: network, subnet,                   and host.                 • The ext...
Subnetting Example                                                                128.10.1.1       H1      128.10.1.2 H2  ...
Network Address Translation                • Each organization-                  single IP address                 3 Reser...
NAT Example                                                              10.0.0.4CB                                       ...
Classless Inter-Domain Routing                 • Eliminates traditional classful IP routing.                 • Supports th...
Features of IPv6                                    • Larger Address Space                                    • Aggregatio...
128-bit IPv6 Address                    3FFE:085B:1F1F:0000:0000:0000:00A9:12348 groups of 16-bit hexadecimal numbers sepa...
Basic Address Types                     unicast:                                             for one-to-one       U       ...
IPv6 Stateless Auto-configuration© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   14
Major Improvements of                                                        IPv6 Header                  • No option fiel...
IPv6: Security Issues                                    • Provision for                                                  ...
Mobility Support in IPv6                • Mobile computers are becoming commonplace.                • Mobile IPv6 allows a...
Much Still To Do               though IPv6 today has all the functional capability of IPv4,               • implementation...
Conclusion                                      IPv6 is NEW …                          – built on the experiences learned...
Session NumberPresentation_ID   © 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   20
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Ipv6 the next generation protocol

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Ipv6 the next generation protocol

  1. 1. IPV6-THE NEXT GENERATION PROTOCOLSession NumberPresentation_ID © 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 1
  2. 2. Introduction • What is IP? The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet. • History In 1978, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) mandated the use of IPv4 for all “host-to- host” data exchange enabling IPv4 to become the mechanism for the military to create integrated versus stovepiped communications.© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 2
  3. 3. Do We Really Need a Larger Address Space? • Internet Users or PC ~530 million users in Q2 CY2002, ~945 million by 2004 (Source: Computer Industry Almanac) Emerging population/geopolitical and Address space • PDA, Pen-Tablet, Notepad,… ~20 million in 2004 • Mobile phones Already 1 billion mobile phones delivered by the industry • Transportation 1 billion automobiles forecast for 2008 Internet access in Planes • Consumer devices Billions of Home and Industrial Appliances© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 3
  4. 4. Explosion of New Internet Appliances© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 4
  5. 5. Techniques to reduce address shortage in IPv4 • Subnetting • Network Address Translation (NAT) • Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR)© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 5
  6. 6. Subnetting • Three-level hierarchy: network, subnet, and host. • The extended-network-prefix is composed of the classful network-prefix and the subnet-number • The extended-network-prefix has traditionally been identified by the subnet mask Network-Prefix Subnet-Number Host-Number© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 6
  7. 7. Subnetting Example 128.10.1.1 H1 128.10.1.2 H2 Sub-network 128.10.1.0 Internet G All traffic to 128.10.0.0 128.10.2.1 H3 128.10.2.2 H4Net mask 255.255.0.0 Sub-network 128.10.2.0© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Subnet mask 255.255.255.0 7
  8. 8. Network Address Translation • Each organization- single IP address 3 Reserved ranges 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255 (16,777,216 hosts) • Within organization – each host with IP 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255/12 (1,048,576 hosts) unique to the orgn., 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255/16 (65,536 from reserved set of hosts) IP addresses© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 8
  9. 9. NAT Example 10.0.0.4CB 10.0.0.1 Source Source NAT Routers Source NAT Routers Computers Computers Assigned Computer IP Address IP Address Port Port Number A 10.0.0.1 400 24.2.249.4 1 B 10.0.0.2 50 24.2.249.4 2 C 10.0.0.3 3750 24.2.249.4 3 D 10.0.0.4 206 24.2.249.4 4© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 9
  10. 10. Classless Inter-Domain Routing • Eliminates traditional classful IP routing. • Supports the deployment of arbitrarily sized networks • Routing information is advertised with a bit mask/prefix length specifies the number of leftmost contiguous bits in the network portion of each routing table entry • Example: 192.168.0.0/21© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 10
  11. 11. Features of IPv6 • Larger Address Space • Aggregation-based address hierarchy – Efficient backbone routing • Efficient and Extensible IP datagram • Stateless Address Autoconfiguration • Security (IPsec mandatory) • Mobility© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 11
  12. 12. 128-bit IPv6 Address 3FFE:085B:1F1F:0000:0000:0000:00A9:12348 groups of 16-bit hexadecimal numbers separated by “:” Leading zeros can be removed 3FFE:85B:1F1F::A9:1234:: = all zeros in one or more group of 16-bit hexadecimal numbers © 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12
  13. 13. Basic Address Types unicast: for one-to-one U communication M multicast: M for one-to-many M communication A anycast: A for one-to-nearest communication A13 © 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 13
  14. 14. IPv6 Stateless Auto-configuration© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 14
  15. 15. Major Improvements of IPv6 Header • No option field: Replaced by extension header. Result in a fixed length, 40-byte IP header. • No header checksum: Result in fast processing. • No fragmentation at intermediate nodes: Result in fast IP forwarding.© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 15
  16. 16. IPv6: Security Issues • Provision for Authentication header Guarantees authenticity and integrity of data Encryption header Ensures confidentiality and privacy • Encryption modes: Transport mode Tunnel mode • Independent of key management algorithm. • Security implementation is mandatory requirement in IPv6.IIT 2005AprKanpur 16 © 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 16
  17. 17. Mobility Support in IPv6 • Mobile computers are becoming commonplace. • Mobile IPv6 allows a node to move from one link to another without changing the address. • Movement can be heterogeneous, i.e., node can move from an Ethernet link to a cellular packet network. • Mobility support in IPv6 is more efficient than mobility support in IPv4. • There are also proposals for supporting micro- mobility.IIT 2005AprKanpur 17 © 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 17
  18. 18. Much Still To Do though IPv6 today has all the functional capability of IPv4, • implementations are not as advanced (e.g., with respect to performance, multicast support, compactness, instrumentation, etc.) • deployment has only just begun • much work to be done moving application, middleware, and management software to IPv6 • much training work to be done (application developers, network administrators, sales staff,…) • many of the advanced features of IPv6 still need specification, implementation, and deployment work18 © 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 18
  19. 19. Conclusion  IPv6 is NEW … – built on the experiences learned from IPv4 – new features – large address space – new efficient header – autoconfiguration  … and OLD – still IP – build on a solid base – started in 1995, a lot of implementations and tests done© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 19
  20. 20. Session NumberPresentation_ID © 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 20

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