CHAPTER-I INTRODUCTION An electronic newspaper is a self-contained, reusable, and refreshable version of atraditional newspaper that acquires and holds information electronically. (The electronicnewspaper should not be confused with newspapers that offer an online version at a Website.) The near-future technology - researchers expect to have the product available as soon as2003 - will use e-paper (electronic paper) as the major component. Information to bedisplayed will be downloaded through a wireless Internet connection. A number of versionsof the future technology are in development, although there are two frontrunners: XeroxsPalo Alto Research Center (PARC) is working on a newspaper that would consist of a singlesheet of their e-paper (called Gyricon), while Lucent, in partnership with a company called EInk, is working on a multi-page device (also called E Ink) technology. In the 1970s, Xerox Palo Alto Research Centre (Xerox PARC) was a powerhouse ofinnovation. Many aspects the modern computer, namely the mouse, laser printer, Ethernet,GUI, computer-generated color graphics, as well as a number of important computerlanguages, were invented at PARC around that time. Yet another development, nearly lostamong those important breakthroughs, was invented in 1974 by PARC employee Nicholas K.Sheridon. The Gyricon, a Greek term for rotating image, was to be new display technologyfor the Alto personal computer; eventually, it became the basis for modern e-paper Nearly 35 years later, TFOT sat down with Nick Sheridon to ask him about hishistoric invention. In the late 60s and early 70s, Xerox PARC was developing and attempting to getXerox management to appreciate the Alto personal computer; they never did. It was theworlds first office and word-processing computer, but this remarkable machine had oneserious drawback: the cathode-ray tube display it used-the best available-was not brightenough, and the contrast was not great. People that used the machine did so in a darkenedroom, with the lights turned off and the window shades drawn. Several of us scientists wereasked to try to find a better display, hopefully one that could permit operation in a brightly litambient. I invented the Gyricon rotating-ball display and a display based on a physicalphenomenon I called “electrocapillarity.” The electrocapillarity display worked by movingcolored liquids against a white background. The rest of the group worked on electrophoreticdisplays (eventually dropped due to lifetime problems).
A piece of history: one of the first pieces of Gyricon material to be made, about 22centimeters on a side from the 1974 era. The imagewas produced by placing an "X" shapedelectrode on the Gyricon sheet and applying a voltage. Normally, the Gyricon does not saveimages for 30+ years, but a special procedure was used in this case to save the image.How was e-paper born: I realized the need for e-paper in 1989. At Xerox PARC, we had long predicted theadvent of the paperless office, with the widespread adoption of the personal computer wepioneered. The paperless office never happened. Instead, the personal computer caused morepaper to be consumed. I realized that most of the paper consumption was caused by adifference in comfort level between reading documents on paper and reading them on theCRT screen. Any document over a half page in length was likely to be printed, subsequentlyread, and discarded within a day. There was a need for a paper-like electronic display — e-paper! It needed to have as many paper properties as possible, because ink on paper is the“perfect display.” Subsequently, I realized that the Gyricon display, which I had invented inthe early 70s, was a good candidate for use as e-paper. I set about developing amanufacturing process for the Gyricon and solving its early problems. At this time, I wasworking alone, with a very good technician. Gyricon material
CHAPTER-II TECHNOLOGY USEDTechnologiesGyricon Electronic paper was first developed in the 1970s by Nick Sheridon at Xerox’s PaloAlto Research Center. The first electronic paper, called Gyricon , consisted of polyethylenespheres between 75 and 106 micrometres across. Each sphere is a janus particle composed ofnegatively charged black plastic on one side and positively charged white plastic on the other(each bead is thus a dipole). The spheres are embedded in a transparent silicone sheet, witheach sphere suspended in a bubble of oil so that they can rotate freely. The polarity of thevoltage applied to each pair of electrodes then determines whether the white or black side isface-up, thus giving the pixel a white or black appearance. At the FPD 2008 exhibition,Japanese company Soken demonstrated a wall with electronic wall-paper using thistechnology.ElectrophoreticAppearance of pixels In the simplest implementation of an electrophoretic display, titaniumdioxide (titania) particles approximately one micrometer in diameter are dispersed in ahydrocarbon oil. A dark-colored dye is also added to the oil, along with surfactants andcharging agents that cause the particles to take on an electric charge. This mixture is placedbetween two parallel, conductive plates separated by a gap of 10 to 100 micrometres. When avoltage is applied across the two plates, the particles will migrate electrophoretically to theplate bearing the opposite charge from that on the particles. When the particles are located atthe front (viewing) side of the display, it appears white, because light is scattered back to theviewer by the high-index titania particles. When the particles are located at the rear side of
the display, it appears dark, because the incident light is absorbed by the colored dye. If therear electrode is divided into a number of small picture elements (pixels), then an image canbe formed by applying the appropriate voltage to each region of the display to create apattern of reflecting and absorbing regions. Electrophoretic displays are considered prime examples of the electronic papercategory, because of their paper-like appearance and low power consumption. Examples of commercial electrophoretic displays include the high-resolution activematrix displays used in the Amazon Kindle, Barnes & Noble Nook, Sony Librie, SonyReader, kobo eReader and iRex iLiad e-readers. These displays are constructed from anelectrophoretic imaging film manufactured by E Ink Corporation. The EPD technology has been developed also by Sipix and Bridgestone/Delta. SiPixImaging Inc. is now part of AU Optronics Corp, a LCD-panel manufacturers. SiPix usesMicrocup architecture with flexible PET material, instead of microcapsule. Other than E-Inks 0.04mm-diameter microcapsule structure, Sipixs is 0.15mm-diameter Microcup On theother side, Bridgestone Corp.s Advanced Materials Division has been cooperating with DeltaOptoelectronics Inc. in developing the Quick Response liquid Powder Display (QR-LPD)technology. The Motorola MOTOFONE Electrophoretic displays can be manufactured usingthe Electronics on Plastic by Laser Release(EPLaR) process developed by PhilipsResearch to enable existing AM-LCD manufacturing plants to create flexible plastic displays.Electrophoretic displayScheme of an electrophoretic display. Scheme of an electrophoretic display using color filters.
An electrophoretic display forms visible images by rearranging charged pigmentparticles using an applied electric field. Macro photograph of Kindle 3 screen; microcapsules are evident at full size. In the 1990s another type of electronic paper was invented by Joseph Jacobson, wholater co-founded the E Ink Corporation which formed a partnership with PhilipsComponents two years later to develop and market the technology. In 2005, Philips sold theelectronic paper business as well as its related patents to Prime View International. This usedtiny microcapsules filled with electrically charged white particles suspended in a coloredoil. In early versions, the underlying circuitry controlled whether the white particles were atthe top of the capsule (so it looked white to the viewer) or at the bottom of the capsule (so theviewer saw the color of the oil). This was essentially a reintroduction of the well-knownelectrophoretic display technology, but the use of microcapsules allowed the display to beused on flexible plastic sheets instead of glass. One early version of electronic paper consists of a sheet of very small transparentcapsules, each about 40 micro metres across. Each capsule contains an oily solutioncontaining black dye (the electronic ink), with numerous white titanium dioxide particlessuspended within. The particles are slightly negatively charged, and each one is naturallywhite. The microcapsules are held in a layer of liquid polymer, sandwiched between twoarrays of electrodes, the upper of which is made transparent. The two arrays are aligned sothat the sheet is divided into pixels, which each pixel corresponding to a pair of electrodessituated either side of the sheet. The sheet is laminated with transparent plastic for protection,resulting in an overall thickness of 80 micrometres, or twice that of ordinary paper. The network of electrodes is connected to display circuitry, which turns the electronicink on and off at specific pixels by applying a voltage to specific pairs of electrodes.Applying a negative charge to the surface electrode repels the particles to the bottom of localcapsules, forcing the black dye to the surface and giving the pixel a black appearance.Reversing the voltage has the opposite effect - the particles are forced to the surface, giving
the pixel a white appearance. A more recent incarnation of this concept requires only onelayer of electrodes beneath the microcapsules.Electrowetting Electro-wetting display (EWD) is based on controlling the shape of a confinedwater/oil interface by an applied voltage. With no voltage applied, the (coloured) oil forms aflat film between the water and a hydrophobic (water-repellent) insulating coating of anelectrode, resulting in a coloured pixel. When a voltage is applied between the electrode and the water, the interfacial tensionbetween the water and the coating changes. As a result the stacked state is no longer stable,causing the water to move the oil aside. This results in a partly transparent pixel, or, if a reflective white surface is used underthe switchable element, a white pixel. Because of the small size of the pixel, the user onlyexperiences the average reflection, which means that a high-brightness, high-contrastswitchable element is obtained, which forms the basis of the reflective display. Displays based on electro-wetting have several attractive features. The switchingbetween white and coloured reflection is fast enough to display video content. It is a low-power and low-voltage technology, and displays based on the effect can bemade flat and thin. The reflectivity and contrast are better than or equal to those of otherreflective display types and are approaching those of paper. In addition, the technology offers a unique path toward high-brightness full-colourdisplays, leading to displays that are four times brighter than reflective LCDs and twice asbright as other emerging technologies. Instead of using red, green and blue (RGB) filters or alternating segments of the threeprimary colours, which effectively result in only one third of the display reflecting light inthe desired colour, electro-wetting allows for a system in which one sub-pixel is able toswitch two different colours independently. This results in the availability of two thirds of the display area to reflect light in anydesired colour. This is achieved by building up a pixel with a stack of two independentlycontrollable coloured oil films plus a colour filter. The colours used are cyan, magenta and yellow, which is a so-called subtractivesystem, comparable to the principle used in inkjet printing for example. Compared to LCDanother factor two in brightness is gained because no polarisers are required.
Examples of commercial electrowetting displays include Liquavista, ITRI, PVI andADT. Miortech’s 2nd generation electrowetting display technology solves a number ofissues of 1st generation electrowetting display technology and large-area devices are easy tomanufacture since the pixel walls act as spacers. Miortech develops rearview mirrors usingits 2nd generation EWD technology.Electrofluidic Electrofluidic displays are a variation of an electrowetting display. Electrofluidicdisplays place an aqueous pigment dispersion inside a tiny reservoir. The reservoir comprises<5-10% of the viewable pixel area and therefore the pigment is substantially hidden fromview. Voltage is used to electromechanically pull the pigment out of the reservoir and spreadit as a film directly behind the viewing substrate. As a result, the display takes on color andbrightness similar to that of conventional pigments printed on paper. When voltage isremoved liquid surface tension causes the pigment dispersion to rapidly recoil into thereservoir. As reported in the May 2009 Issue of Nature Photonics, the technology canpotentially provide >85% white state reflectance for electronic paper. The core technology was invented at the Novel Devices Laboratory at the Universityof Cincinnati. The technology is currently being commercialized by Gamma Dynamics.
CHAPTER-III WORKING OF E-NEWSPAPER E-paper comprises two different parts: the first is electronic ink, sometimes referredto as the "frontplane"; and the second is the electronics required to generate the pattern oftext and images on the e-ink page, called the "backplane". Over the years, a number of methods for creating e-ink have been developed. TheGyricon e-ink developed in the 70s by Nick Sheridon at Xerox is based on a thin sheet offlexible plastic containing a layer of tiny plastic beads, each encapsulated in a little pocket ofoil and thus able to freely rotate within the plastic sheet. Each hemisphere of a bead has adifferent color and a different electrical charge. When an electric field is applied by thebackplane, the beads rotate, creating a two-colored pattern. This method of creating e-inkwas dubbed bichromal frontplane. Originally, bichromal frontplane had a number oflimitations, including relatively low brightness and resolution and a lack of color. Althoughthese issues are still being tackled, other forms of e-ink, with improved properties comparedto the original Gyricon, have been developed over the years. One such technology is electrophoretic frontplane, developed by the E InkCorporation. Electrophoretic frontplane consists of millions of tiny microcapsules, eachapproximately 100 microns in diameter-about as wide as a human hair. Each microcapsule isfilled with a clear fluid containing positively charged white particles and negatively chargedblack particles. When a negative electric field is applied, the white particles move to the topof the microcapsule, causing the area to appear to the viewer as a white dot, while the blackparticles move to the bottom of the capsule and are thus hidden from view. When a positiveelectric field is applied, the black particles migrate to the top and the white particles move tothe bottom, generating black text or a picture. E Ink displays are Electrophoretic (a science which was actually discovered back in1807 and deals with particle motion as influenced by electric field): they are made of tinycapsules (0.04mm in diameter) that contain two kinds of particles: black and white. Usingelectricity you can choose whether the white or black particles will rise to the top of thecapsule - and so change the color of the pixel. Those particles remain in place when noelectricity is used - and so the displays do not need power when the image does not change. EInk also offers color e-paper which uses color filters on top of the black and white display.
The brightness and resolution of electrophoretic-based e-ink is better than that ofbichromal-based e-ink, but both are monochromatic in nature. To create color, E Ink joinedhands with the Japanese company Toppan Printing, which produces color filters. Another drawback of electrophoretic e-ink is its low refresh rate, makingelectrophoretic e-ink unsuitable for displaying animation or video. Since it takes time for theparticles to move from one side of the microcapsule to the other, drawing a new text or imageis too slow and creates a flicker effect. A colorful illustration of the way ChLCD technology works A completely different solution for creating e-paper, known as cholesteric liquidcrystal (ChLCD), is being developed by such companies as IBM and Philips, as well as HPand Fujitsu, which have demonstrated actual devices. ChLCD technology is based on thewell-known and widespread technology of liquid crystal displays (LCDs), which work byapplying a current to spiral-shaped liquid-crystal molecules that can change from a vertical toa horizontal position. Although other potential technologies for developing advanced color electronic paperexist such as photonic crystals(P-Ink) recently covered by TFOT, many analysts believe thatChLCD technology could become the dominant e-paper technology of the next decade. Thisassessment relates to the high level of maturity exemplified by the current LCD industry, aswell as to the fact that ChLCD technology currently offers what many analysts see as theideal list of features for e-paper: flexibility and even bendability; thinness, at approximately0.8 millimeters; lightness; a bi-stable nature, requiring no power to maintain an image andvery little power to change it; good brightness, contrast, and resolution; as well as vivid colorand a decent refresh rate capable of displaying animation and possibly even video.
CHAPTER-III APPLICATIONS An e-paper display on a watch refreshes to remove ghosts. Several companies are simultaneously developing electronic paper and ink. While thetechnologies used by each company provide many of the same features, each has its owndistinct technological advantages. All electronic paper technologies face the followinggeneral challenges: 1. A method for encapsulation 2. An ink or active material to fill the encapsulation 3. Electronics to activate the ink Electronic ink can be applied to flexible or rigid materials. For flexible displays, thebase requires a thin, flexible material tough enough to withstand considerable wear, such asextremely thin plastic. The method of how the inks are encapsulated and then applied to thesubstrate is what distinguishes each company from others. These processes are complex andare carefully guarded industry secrets. Nevertheless, making electronic paper promises to beless complex and costly than making traditional LCDs. There are many approaches to electronic paper, with many companies developingtechnology in this area. Other technologies being applied to electronic paper includemodifications of liquid crystal displays, electrochromic displays, and the electronicequivalent of an Etch A Sketch at Kyushu University. Advantages of electronic paperincludes low power usage (power is only drawn when the display is updated), flexibility andbetter readability than most displays. Electronic ink can be printed on any surface, includingwalls, billboards, product labels and T-shirts. The inks flexibility would also make itpossible to develop rollable displays for electronic devices.
The Motorola F3 uses an e-paper display instead of an LCD.Wristwatches In December 2005 Seiko released the first electronic ink based watch called theSpectrum SVRD001 wristwatch, which has a flexible electrophoretic display and in March2010 Seiko released a second generation of this famous e-ink watch with an active matrixdisplay In 2013, the pebble wristwatch will also use e-paper technology.e-Books In 2004 Sony released Librie EBR-1000EP in Japan, the first e-book reader with anelectronic paper display. In September 2006 Sony released the PRS-500 Sony Reader e-bookreader in the USA. On October 2, 2007, Sony announced the PRS-505, an updated version ofthe Reader. In November 2008, Sony released the PRS-700BC which incorporated abacklight and a touchscreen. In late 2007, Amazon began producing and marketing the Amazon Kindle, an e-bookreader with an e-paper display. In February 2009, Amazon released the Kindle 2 and in May2009 the larger Kindle DX was announced. In July 2010 the third generation Kindle wasannounced, with notable design changes. The fourth generation of Kindles wereannounced in September 2011. This generation was unique as it marked the Kindles firstdeparture from keyboards in favor of touchscreens. In September 2012, Amazon announcedthe fifth generation of the Kindle which incorporates a LED frontlight and a higher contrastdisplay.In November 2009 Barnes and Noble launched the Barnes & Noble Nook, runninganAndroid operating system. It differs from other big name readers in having a replacablebattery, and a separate touch-screen color LCD below the main electronic paper readingscreen.
Newspapers In February 2006, the Flemish daily De Tijd distributed an electronic version of thepaper to select subscribers in a limited marketing study, using a pre-release version of theiRex iLiad. This was the first recorded application of electronic ink to newspaper publishing. The French daily Les Echos announced the official launch of an electronic version ofthe paper on a subscription basis, in September 2007. Two offers were available, combininga one year subscription and a reading device. The offer included either a light (176g) readingdevice (adapted for Les Echos by Ganaxa) or the iRex iLiad. Two different processingplatforms were used to deliver readable information of the daily, one based on the newlydeveloped GPP electronic ink platform from Ganaxa, and the other one developed internallyby Les Echos.Displays embedded in smart cards Flexible display cards enable financial payment cardholders to generate a one-timepassword to reduce online banking and transaction fraud. Electronic paper offers a flat andthin alternative to existing key fob tokens for data security. The world’s first ISO compliantsmart card with an embedded display was developed by Innovative Card Technologies andnCryptone in 2005. The cards were manufactured by Nagra ID.Status displays USB flash drive with E Ink-implemented capacity meter of available flash memory Some devices, like USB flash drives, have used electronic paper to display statusinformation, such as available storage space. Once the image on the electronic paper has beenset, it requires no power to maintain, so the readout can be seen even when the flash drive isnot plugged in.
Mobile phones Motorolas low-cost mobile phone, the Motorola F3, uses an alphanumeric black-and-white electrophoretic display. The Samsung Alias 2 mobile phone incorporates electronic ink from E Ink into thekeypad, which allows the keypad to change character sets and orientation while in differentdisplay modes.Electronic shelf labels E-Paper based electronic shelf labels (ESL) are used to digitally display the prices atretail stores.Electronic paper based labels are updated via two-way infrared or radiotechnologyE-BOOK Fujistu prototype color e-book reader Clearly, great progress has been made in the field of e-paper since the invention ofGyricon.
CHAPTER-IV ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGESADVANTAGES Its easy to access at many points during the day. Its mostly free. Its more environmentally friendly than getting a printed newspaper. Its faster to access. Its convenient to users that are not able to receive the printed version. Wastage of paper will be reduced. No problem for recycling. Fast update of news. Easy reading while carrying.DISADVANTAGES The newspaper companies are not receiving as much money. People will use their computers more and more. This could become the only source of newspapers. More jobs are being cut (ex: delivery services).
FUTURE SCOPE TFOT interviewed Nick Hampshire, an analyst at AFAICS Research, which focuseson publishing and media-related technology. Nick has been following the e-paper industryfor many years, and his insights can shed light on both the current and future state of theindustry. The initial Gyricon technology proved expensive and had poor resolution; it wasreally only usable in the sort of message-board-display systems that were produced byGyricon Media. The development of true e-paper really only dates from about 1998, when E-Ink first demonstrated their electrophoretic frontplane display technology; this gave a higherresolution and was potentially much cheaper. Plastic Logic e-paper Since then, other companies, such as SiPix, have come out with electrophoreticdisplay technologies. In the last four years, we have also seen companies like HP and Fujitsubring out flexible displays that use cholesteric LCD technology. (Cholesteric refers to thephase of a liquid crystal in which the molecules are aligned in a specific manner. In Fujitsuscase, for example, up to 50 percent of incident light in specific wavelengths and colors isreflected). E-paper has to be a cheap, reflective, low power, and preferably bendable, or haverollable display technology, and we are only just seeing the development of the technologiesthat can deliver this, namely an electrophoretic frontplane bonded to a flexible organicelectronic backplane. These are the displays currently on the verge of being launched byPlastic Logic E-paper.
CONCLUSION IBM is also working on an electronic ink-based device. IBMs electronic newspaper isin a book-like format, and is constructed of 16 pages of flexible, fiberglass-reinforced paper,each about 8.5" by 11." The lightweight pages are bound by a rigid metallic bar, and coveredwith a clear, protective cover sheet. Charged dye particles move either up or down within thecapsules - causing light or dark areas to appear in the display - when exposed to an electriccharge . The whole device could be rolled or folded similarly to a traditional newspaper. Likethe E Ink-based electronic newspaper, IBMs version is several years away. The challenge involved in creating a viable electronic newspaper is to develop adevice that has the desirable characteristics of traditional paper in addition to its own inherentbenefits (such as being automatically refreshable). Like traditional paper, the electronicnewspaper must be lightweight, flexible, high-resolution, glare-free, and affordable, if it is togain consumer approval. Sheridon proposes that the Gyricon version could cost about thesame as a years subscription to a regular newspaper.