Climate change


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Climate change

  1. 1. Content I. Introduction II. Causes of the climate change 1. Deforestation 2. Agriculture 3. The combustion of fossil fuels 4. Population growth III. The affective of the climate change 1. Health 2. Natural disaster 3. Water quality and quantity 4. Infectious diseases 5. Air pollution
  2. 2. IV. How to prevent/reduce climate change 1. Cleaner alternative energy sources 2. Energy saving tips 3. Green driving tips 4. Reduce Reuse Recycle practices 5. Re-forestation 6. Organic farming 7. Green shopping tips 8. Education V. Climate change in Cambodia VI. Summary and conclusion
  3. 3. I. Introduction  Climate change is caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere.  It happed around the world even the rich country or the poor country; moreover, it is very likely to affect the frequency and intensity of weather event, such as storms and floods, around the world.  The climate change can cause sea level rise due to the thermal expansion of the oceans and the melting of the mountain glaciers.
  4. 4. II. Causes of the climate change
  5. 5. Deforestation  It is important, first to understand what a precious resource rainforests play in our world. They form part of a delicate ecosystem that has taken millions of years to evolve.  Rainforests every year help to absorb almost 20% of man made CO2 emissions therefore deforestation can be classed as a major contributor to the causes of climate change.
  6. 6.  Cutting down rainforests faster than they can be replaced has a devastating effect on the carbon emission cycle producing an extra 17% of greenhouse gases.  Remember trees absorb CO2. More deforestation means more CO2 build up in the atmosphere.  Deforestation by means of cutting down and burning these tropical rainforests usually pave the way for agriculture and industry which often produce even more CO2.
  7. 7. Agriculture • According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the three main causes of the increase in greenhouse gases observed over the past 250 years have been fossil fuels, land use, and agriculture. • Agriculture has been shown to produce significant effects on climate change, primarily through the production and release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.
  8. 8.  Another contributing cause of climate change is when agriculture alters the Earth's land cover, which can change its ability to absorb or reflect heat and light.  Land use change such as deforestation and desertification, together with use of fossil fuels, are the major anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide.
  9. 9. The combustion of fossil fuels • Fossil fuel combustion (FFC) wastes are the wastes produced from the burning of fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, natural gas). • This includes all ash, slag, and particulates removed from flue gas. • FFC wastes are categorized by EPA as a "special waste" and have been exempted from federal hazardous waste regulations under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).
  10. 10. Human influences • There are a number of anthropogenic factors that are responsible for change in the Earth's environment. • The result of human influence on the climate is not only direct, but also unambiguous. • Increase in carbon dioxide levels arising from fossil fuel combustion, release of aerosols or particulate matter, extensive land use and deforestation have resulted in severe climatic change.
  11. 11.  Factors known as 'feedbacks' either amplify or reduce the effect of climate change on human life.  These feedbacks comprise a number of interconnected processes that trigger a shift in related or subsequent changes in the Earth's climate.  Among the most significant indicators of climate change on the planet are glaciers, vegetation, permafrost regions, fossil palynomorphs and global average sea levels.
  12. 12. III. The affective of the climate change
  13. 13. Health  To assess the potential impacts of climate change on health, it is necessary to consider both the sensitivity and vulnerability of populations for specific health outcomes to changes in temperature, rainfall, humidity, storminess, and so on.  Vulnerability is a function both of the changes to exposure in climate and of the ability to adapt to that exposure
  14. 14. • Science classically operates empirically, via observation, interpretation, and replication. However, having initiated a global experiment, it would not be advisable to wait decades for sufficient empirical evidence to describe the health consequences. • It is important to distinguish between "climate and health" relationships and "weather and health" relationships. Climate variability occurs on many time scales. Weather events occur at daily time scale and are associated with many health impacts (e.g., heatwaves and floods). Climate variability at other time scales also affects health.
  15. 15. Natural disaster • Climate change will increase the risk of both floods and droughts. Ninety percent of disaster victims worldwide live in developing countries, where poverty and population pressures force growing numbers of people to live in harm's way —on flood plains and on unstable hillsides. Unsafe buildings compound the risks. • The vulnerability of those living in risk-prone areas is perhaps the single most important cause of disaster casualties and damage.
  16. 16. Water quality and quantity • By reducing fresh water supplies, climate change may affect sanitation and lower the efficiency of local sewer systems, leading to increased concentrations of pathogens in raw water supplies. • Climate change may also reduce the water available for drinking and washing. In developed countries, the anticipated increase in extreme rainfall events, which may be associated with the outbreaks of diarrheal diseases, may overwhelm the public water supply system. Flooding is likely to become more frequent with climate change and can affect health through the spread of
  17. 17. Infectious diseases • Climate change may alter the distribution of important vector species, and this may increase the risk of introducing disease into new areas. • Temperature can also influence the reproduction and survival of the infective agent within the vector, thereby further influencing disease transmission in areas where the vector is already present. However, the ecology and transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases are complex.
  18. 18. Air pollution • The air is full of particles and gases that may affect human health, such as pollen, fungal spores, and pollutants from fossil fuel emissions. • Weather conditions influence air pollution via pollutant (or pollutant precursor) transport and/or formation. • Exposures to air pollutants have serious public health consequences. • Climate change, by changing pollen production, may affect timing and duration of seasonal allergies.
  19. 19.   IV. How to prevent/reduce climate change 1. Cleaner alternative energy sources • Some of these cleaner sources of renewable energy include wind energy, solar energy, water or hydropower, biomass, and geothermal energy. • By reducing our reliance on and usage of fossil fuels, and tapping on alternative and greener sources of energy, not only are we helping to reduce the release of greenhouse gases (especially carbon dioxide) into the atmosphere, and hence helping to reduce global warming and fight climate change, we are also helping to ensure the sustainability of
  20. 20. 2. Energy saving tips • we need to learn how to conserve our energy sources. (Even if we discover the green energy sources to last us forever, it is still a good value to not be wasteful). • To do so, we can adopt energy saving tips like using energy-saving appliances like the compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs, switching off our electrical appliances when they are not in use.
  21. 21. 3. Green driving tips  In fact, after coal-burning power plants, automobiles are the second largest source of carbon dioxide. Which is why cutting greenhouse gas emissions from automobiles is a critical strategy to fighting global warming and climate change.  The best strategy on how to reduce climate change is definitely to reduce the use of automobiles.  Use public transport or carpool if you can, instead of driving your own car.
  22. 22. 4. Reduce Reuse Recycle practices  The culture of consumerism today encourages people to buy and throw, with little consideration for the impact of such unsustainable consumption on the world. For each item that we purchase and use, energy and resources are used in its manufacture, packaging, transportation and retail, and ultimately its disposal. Pollution is created each step of the process, and substantial greenhouse gases are also released. It is time we think twice about the way we are living life.
  23. 23. 5. Re-forestation • The cleanest and most efficient remover of carbon dioxide from our atmosphere actually comes free. • This remover is a gift from nature – our green plants and trees. Unfortunately, we have taken this gift for granted. • The rate at which we are cutting down our trees and forests to make way for human developments has greatly reduced the earth’s ability to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. • This has in turn contributed to a faster rate of
  24. 24. 6. Organic farming • Soils are an important sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. • Sustainable and organic agriculture helps to counteract climate change by restoring soil organic matter content as well as reduce soil erosion and improve soil physical structure. • Organic farming also does not use chemical fertilizers that release substantial nitrous oxide and methane (greenhouse gases) into the environment, and as such reduces global warming, while at the same time maintaining crop yields.
  25. 25. 7. Green shopping tips  One point on how to reduce climate change through green shopping tips is to buy local products instead of those produced overseas.  Transporting exotic fruits and vegetables from one destination to another requires a lot of energy, usually from the burning of fossil fuel, which contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and global warming.
  26. 26. 8. Education  While it is important that we start practicing green living tips and fight climate change from this moment, it is not enough.  In fact, schools and institutions also have an important part to play in this process of education – educating our children on the importance of protecting the earth will help us (and them) secure the future of the planet.
  27. 27. V. Climate change in Cambodia  The average temperature in Cambodia has increased since 1960 by 0.8°C, and with it the frequency of unusually hot days and nights has increased as well.  A further 0.3-0.6°C increase is expected by 2025.  Temperature increases will be more severe from December to June.
  28. 28. VI. Summary and conclusion