Liver diseases - Part I

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Worldwide extensive research on liver disorders in herbal medicine is done till date. There are numerous plants that show hepato-protective activity and thus safeguard as well as repair against liver damages.

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Liver diseases - Part I

  1. 1. Development of Novel Phyto-drugs in Curing LIVER Diseases Presented by Dr. Sudhakar Kokate Director PPRC, India
  2. 2. Liver ‽ Largest organ in the human body ‽ Pivotal role in maintenance of health and homeostasis ‽ Involved in vital functions – - Metabolism - Secretion - Storage - Detoxification of drugs & xenobiotics PPRC/INDIA 01
  3. 3. Origin of Liver diseases (Acute & Chronic) ‽ Viruses ‽ Toxins ‽ Drugs ‽ Metabolic disorders ‽ Exposure to solvents ‽ Genetic disorders ‽ Hydrocarbons ‽ Alcohol consumption PPRC/INDIA 02
  4. 4. Stat of Diseases ‽ Hepatitis A….In children 85 – 95 % in SE Asia ‽ Hepatitis B….5 – 7 % ‽ Hepatitis C….2 % ‽ Cirrhosis & Cancer….20 – 30 % ‽ Alcoholic hepatitis….60 % ‽ Hepato-toxicity….1 in 10,000 – 1 in 100,000 PPRC/INDIA 03
  5. 5. Phyto-Stat for Cure ‽ Hepato-protective plants….101 plants of Globe….150 phyto-constituents ‽ India….87 plants….33 patented herbal formulations ‽ A number of poly-herbal mixtures ‽ In U.S. >13 % patients on herbal remedy ‽ Other countries range 18 – 65 % PPRC/INDIA 04
  6. 6. Classification of Liver disorders ‽ Hepatitis ‽ Hepatosis ‽ Liver cirrhosis ‽ Liver injury ‽ Acute hepatitis PPRC/INDIA 05
  7. 7. Classification of Liver disorders ‽ Chronic active Hepatitis B ‽ Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) ‽ Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) ‽ Alcoholic fibrosis ‽ Alcoholic hepatitis PPRC/INDIA 06
  8. 8. Well characterised phyto-drugs ‽ Silybum marinum ‽ Picrorhiza kurroa ‽ Liv. 52: - Capparis spinosa - Cassia occidentalis - Achillea millefolium - Tamarix gallica - Cichorium intybus - Solanum nigrum - Terminalia arjuna PPRC/INDIA 07
  9. 9. Well characterised phyto-drugs ‽ T J 9: Prescribed in China, Japan as “Sho-saiko-to” – an aqueous extract from the roots of Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Bupleurum, Ginseng, Pinella tuber, Jujube fruit & ginger ‽ Compound 861: Chinese medicine with 10 defined herbs, main plants – Salvia miltiorrhiza, Astragalus membranaceous, Spatholobus suferectus PPRC/INDIA 08
  10. 10. Emerging research trend On Phyto-medicine
  11. 11. Andrographis paniculata PPRC/INDIA 09
  12. 12. Andrographis paniculata ‽ Habitat: Plains of India ‽ Extensively used in Unani and Ayurveda ‽ Aqueous extract of leaves …. Effective ‽ The extract inhibited BHC induced Liver toxicity in Swiss male mice …. Trivedi & Rawal, 2000 PPRC/INDIA 10
  13. 13. Boerhavia diffusa PPRC/INDIA 11
  14. 14. Boerhavia diffusa ‽ Commonly known as “Punarnava” ‽ Perennial creeping herb found in waste lands of India ‽ Roots effective in Liver Diseases …. Kirtikar & Basu 1933, Chopra 1956 PPRC/INDIA 12
  15. 15. Boerhavia diffusa ‽ Whole plant extract potent in cure …. Chakraborti & Handa 1989 ‽ Compounds Punarnavin, Beta-sitosterol from roots Beta-D-glucoside, tetracosanoic, hexacosanoic, stearic, palmitic, arachidic acid, hentriacontane, ursolic acid punarnavoside PPRC/INDIA 13
  16. 16. Peumus boldus PPRC/INDIA 14
  17. 17. Peumus boldus ‽ Indigenous to Chile ‽ Small tree: 8 cm long, coriaceous texture, strong odour ‽ Family: Monimiaceae ‽ Chemicals: Boldine, Ascaridole, Linalool, P-cymene cineole PPRC/INDIA 15
  18. 18. Fumaria indica PPRC/INDIA 16
  19. 19. Fumaria indica ‽ The whole plant: Constituent of Unani, Ayurvedic and Medicinal preparations ‽ Family: Fumariaceae ‽ Anti-hepatotoxic against thioacetamide in vitro & carbon tetrachloride, paracetamol, rifampicin ‽ Active principle: similar to Silymarin PPRC/INDIA 17
  20. 20. Fumaria indica ‽ The plant is useful in: - Blood purification - Cutaneous diseases - Obstructions of Liver PPRC/INDIA 18
  21. 21. Curcuma longa PPRC/INDIA 19
  22. 22. Curcuma longa ‽ Hepato-protective against carbon tetra chloride, paracetamol and Aspergillus aflatoxin ‽ Effective due to anti-oxidant property ‽ Major metabolite of Curcumin – tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) ‽ THC prevents erythromycin estolate induced Liver disease PPRC/INDIA 20
  23. 23. Picrorhiza kurroa PPRC/INDIA 21
  24. 24. Picrorhiza kurroa ‽ Family: Scrophulariaceae ‽ Small perennial herb ‽ Grows in northwest India ‽ Active principle: irioid glycoside, Picrosides I, II, III, Kutkoside ‽ Hepato-protective effect superior to that of Silymarin in many cases PPRC/INDIA 22
  25. 25. Picrorhiza kurroa ‽ Protects Liver cells from a wide variety of injuries including: - Carbon tetrachloride (Santra et. al 1998) - - Galactosamine (Dwivedi 1992) - Ethanol (Rastogi et. al 1996) - Acetaminophen (Singh et. al 1992) - Thioacetamide (Dwivedi et. al 1991) PPRC/INDIA 23
  26. 26. Phyllanthus amarus PPRC/INDIA 24
  27. 27. Phyllanthus amarus ‽ Family: Euphorbiaceae ‽ Widespread throughout tropic and subtropics in sandy regions or cultivated & wastelands ‽ The plant is bitter, astringent, cooling, diuretic, stomachic, febrifuge & antiseptic ‽ Butanol fraction of the whole plant exhibited potent activity (Tripathi et. al 1992) PPRC/INDIA 25
  28. 28. Phyllanthus amarus ‽ Whole plant powder 0.66 gm/kg in rat showed hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride (Sane et. al 1955) ‽ Albino rats treated with ethanol were orally given whole plant powder 200 mg/rat per day for 45 days showed significant activity PPRC/INDIA 26
  29. 29. Glycyrrhiza glabra PPRC/INDIA 27
  30. 30. Glycyrrhiza glabra ‽ Glycyrrhizin, main component of Licorice root ‽ Found to be effective for chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis ‽ It showed hepato-protective effect against toxicity by carbon tetrachloride and Gal N ‽ Antioxidant properties of glycyrrhizin & glycyrrhetinic acid responsible for anti-hepatotoxic activity PPRC/INDIA 28
  31. 31. Silybum marianum PPRC/INDIA 29
  32. 32. Silybum marianum ‽ Most characterised useful important plant ‽ Mixture of Silvbin, Silvdianin & Silychristin ‽ Significant action against induction by carbon tetrachloride of Liver damage in rats ‽ It reduces the prolongation of hexa-harbital sleeping time produced by carbon tetrachloride PPRC/INDIA 30
  33. 33. Cichorium intybus PPRC/INDIA 31
  34. 34. Cichorium intybus ‽ Family: Compositae ‽ Aqueous extract showed hepato-protective toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride & paracetamol (Gadgoli & Mishra 1995) ‽ Scientists conducted several experiments on this plant PPRC/INDIA 32
  35. 35. Tinospora cordifolia PPRC/INDIA 33
  36. 36. Tinospora cordifolia ‽ Commonly known as Guduchi or Amrita ‽ Most valuable medicinal herb in Ayurveda ‽ Plant has ability to impart youthfulness vitality & longevity ‽ Also quite effective in Liver injury PPRC/INDIA 34
  37. 37. Tinospora cordifolia ‽ In modern times it is well known as hepatoprotective, adaptogenic & immuno-modulatory activities ‽ Clinical studies in patients of hepatitis showed that Guduchi plays an important role in relieving the symptoms of Liver disease PPRC/INDIA 35
  38. 38. Wedelia calendulacea PPRC/INDIA 36
  39. 39. Wedelia calendulacea ‽ Family: Compositae ‽ Perennial herb with light camphor-like odour ‽ Traditionally used as tonic, spleen enlargement and skin diseases ‽ Showed protective action in Paracetamol induced Liver damage PPRC/INDIA 37
  40. 40. Wedelia calendulacea ‽ The alcoholic extract of whole plant exhibited protection against carbon tetrachloride ‽ The extract increased bile flow in rats. ‽ Min. lethal dose was greater than 200 mg/kg P.O. in mice PPRC/INDIA 38
  41. 41. Tephrosia purpurea PPRC/INDIA 39
  42. 42. Tephrosia purpurea ‽ Locally known as “Sarapunkha” ‽ Most important ingredient of formulations available in Indian market for liver ailments ‽ Good results in Cirrhosis & vital Hepatitis in clinical trials ‽ It prevents cellular leakage & loss of functional integrity of Liver cell membranes, release in hepatic regeneration PPRC/INDIA 40
  43. 43. Protium heptaphyllum PPRC/INDIA 41
  44. 44. Protium heptaphyllum ‽ Family: Burseraceae ‽ Active principle: alpha & beta amyrin, a triterpene mixture ‽ Folk medicinal plant ‽ It protects acetaminophen induced Liver injury PPRC/INDIA 42
  45. 45. Buddleja officinalis PPRC/INDIA 43
  46. 46. Buddleja officinalis ‽ Family: Loganiaceae ‽ Flowers, buds effective ‽ Active principle: Acteoside, a phenylethanoid glycoside ‽ Possesses antioxidant property ‽ Protects against carbon tetrachloride PPRC/INDIA 44
  47. 47. Anastatica hierochuntica PPRC/INDIA 45
  48. 48. Anastatica hierochuntica ‽ Egyptian medicinal herb ‽ Chemicals: Anastatins A & B from Methanolic extract ‽ Protective against d-galactosamine induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse ‽ Activity is stronger than that of commercial Silybin PPRC/INDIA 46
  49. 49. Tilia argentea PPRC/INDIA 47
  50. 50. Tilia argentea ‽ Methanolic ext. showed protection against dgalactosamine, Lipopolysaccharide induced Liver injury in mice ‽ Flowers are effective hepato-protectors PPRC/INDIA 48
  51. 51. Garcinia kola PPRC/INDIA 49
  52. 52. Garcinia kola ‽ Extract of seeds of this plant showed protection against carbon tetrachloride induced Liver injury ‽ Extensively studied plant PPRC/INDIA 50
  53. 53. Hymenaea martiana PPRC/INDIA 51
  54. 54. Hymenaea martiana ‽ Active principle: Astibin ‽ Protects against carbon tetrachloride induced Liver injury ‽ One of the important useful herb PPRC/INDIA 52
  55. 55. Thank You !! “BE WITH US”

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