Hypertension - I

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Hypertension also known as high blood pressure is an effect of fast paced life. This presentation discusses various medicines used to cure hypertension.

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Hypertension - I

  1. 1. Advanced findings in Phytochemicals for control of HYPERTENSION (HTN – I) Presented by Dr. Sudhakar Kokate Director PPRC, India
  2. 2. Hypertension Also known as high blood pressure / arterial hypertension One of the most prevalent disorder Chronic medical condition, Silent killer Primary cause of stroke, kidney failure and blindness PPRC/INDIA 01
  3. 3. Hypertension Common disease in today’s fast life Disease of many symptoms Two types:  1. Primary hypertension  2. Secondary hypertension PPRC/INDIA 02
  4. 4. Primary Hypertension Most common form of hypertension 90 – 95 % cases of hypertension BP arises with ageing & due to environmental factors PPRC/INDIA 03
  5. 5. Blood Blood, a bodily fluid delivers nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste from same cells pH: 7.35 – 7.45 slightly basic below 7.35 too acidic above 7.45 too basic PPRC/INDIA 04
  6. 6. Composition: blood cells suspended in blood. Plasma which constitutes 55% of body fluid, is mostly water (92% of volume) contains proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones and carbon dioxide Blood cells constitute RBC (erythrocytes) & WBC (leucocytes and platelets) Blood PPRC/INDIA 05
  7. 7. Albumin: main protein in blood RBC: most abundant containing haemoglobin, an iron containing protein WBC: Soldiers of the body Blood circulated through blood vessels by pumping action of the heart Blood PPRC/INDIA 06
  8. 8. Supply of oxygen to tissues Supply of nutrients Removal of waste Circulation of WBC Functions of Blood PPRC/INDIA 07
  9. 9. Coagulation Regulation of body pH Transportation of hormones and signalling of tissue damage Regulation of core body temperature Functions of Blood PPRC/INDIA 08
  10. 10. Quantity: one micro litre 1. Male: 4.7 – 6.1 million erythrocytes 2. Female: 4.2 – 5.4 million erythrocytes 3. 4,000 – 11,000 leukocytes 4. 200,000 – 500,000 thrombocytes Contents of Blood PPRC/INDIA 09
  11. 11. Anaemia Aplastic anaemia Deep vein thrombosis Fanconi anaemia Haemochromatosis Blood diseases PPRC/INDIA 10
  12. 12. Haemolytic anaemia Haemophilia Pernicious anaemia Thalassemia Thrombocytopenia Von willebrand disease Blood diseases PPRC/INDIA 11
  13. 13. Classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited anti-genic substances on the surface of RBCs 33 major blood group systems are recognised by ISBIT in Oct. 2012 Blood group PPRC/INDIA 12
  14. 14. Blood Pressure (B.P.) Arterial blood pressure The pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels One of the principal vital signs During each heartbeat, blood pressure varies between maximum (Systolic) and minimum (Diastolic) pressure PPRC/INDIA 13
  15. 15. Blood Pressure (B.P.) Arterial blood pressure B.P. in Circulation is principally due to the pumping action of the heart B.P. varies as in healthy people and animals Blood volume, resistance and viscosity are physical factors that influence B.P. PPRC/INDIA 14
  16. 16. Blood Pressure (B.P.) Arterial blood pressure Blood pressure pathologically is: 1. Low – hypotension 2. High – hypertension PPRC/INDIA 15
  17. 17. Blood pressure in children AGE SYSTOLIC (mm Hg) DIASTOLIC (mm Hg) 1 – 12 months 75 - 100 50 – 70 1 – 5 years 80 – 110 50 – 80 6 – 12 years 85 – 120 50 – 80 13 – 18 years 95 – 140 60 – 90 PPRC/INDIA 16
  18. 18. B.P. in Adult CATEGORY SYSTOLIC (mm Hg) DIASTOLIC (mm Hg) Hypotension < 90 < 60 Desired 90 – 119 60 – 79 Pre-hypertension 120 – 139 80 – 89 Stage 1 hypertension 140 – 159 90 – 99 Stage 2 hypertension 160 – 179 100 – 109 Hypertensive emergency ≥ 180 ≥ 110 PPRC/INDIA 17
  19. 19. Prevalence of Age factor & BP. YEAR - AGE % B.P. 20 – 30 4 31 – 40 5 41 – 50 10 51 – 60 14 > 61 16 PPRC/INDIA 18
  20. 20. Secondary Hypertension Can be caused by endocrine conditions such as Cushing’s syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, Conn’s syndrome or hyperaldosteronism, hyparathyroidism and pheochromocytoma PPRC/INDIA 19
  21. 21. Secondary Hypertension Reasons to contribute: obesity, sleep apnea, caratation of the aorta, excessive liquorice and heavy dose of medicines PPRC/INDIA 20
  22. 22. Complications of high B.P. Thickening of the heart muscle Increased workload of the heart May lead to – heart attack stroke renal failure loss of vision PPRC/INDIA 21
  23. 23. DRUG THERAPY Allopath treatment a list of 107 synthetic chemicals for Hypertension PPRC/INDIA 22
  24. 24. High B.P. drugs  Acebutolol  Acetazolamide (Aceact 250 mg)  Aliskiren (Rasilez 300 mg)  Aliskiren and Amlodipine  Aliskiren and hydro chlorothiazide  Aliskiren and valsartan PPRC/INDIA 23
  25. 25.  Aliskiren, amlodipine & hydrochlorothiazide  Amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide  Amlodipine  Amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide and olmesartan  Amlodipine and benazepirl High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 24
  26. 26.  Amlodipine and enalapril  Amlodipine and lisinopril  Amlodipine and losartan  Amlodipine and olmesartan  Amlodipine and valsartan  Amlodipine, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 25
  27. 27.  Atenolol  Atenolol and chlorthialidone  Azilsartan medoxomil  Azilsartan medoxomil and chlorthalidone  Benazepril  Benazepril HCl and hydrochlorothiazole High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 26
  28. 28.  Benidipine  Bisoprolol  Bumetanide  Candesartan  Candesartan cilexetil hydrochlorothiazide  Captopril High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 27
  29. 29.  Captopril and hydrochlorothiazide  Carvedilol  Chlorothiazide  Chlorthalidone  Clevidipine  Clonidine High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 28
  30. 30.  Diltiazene  Doxazosin  Enalapril  Enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide  Epinephrine  Eplerenone High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 29
  31. 31.  Eprosartan mesylate hydrochlorothiazide  Esmolol  Ethacrynic acid  Felodipine  Fenoldopam mesylate  Flosequinan High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 30
  32. 32.  Fosinopril  Furosemide  Furosemide and Amiloride  Guanabenz  Guanethidine monosulfate  Guanfacine High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 31
  33. 33.  Hydralazine  Hydrochlorothiazide  Hydrochlorothiazide and spironolactone  Hydrofluemethiazide  Imidapril  Indapamide High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 32
  34. 34.  Irbesartan  Irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide  Isradipine  Ketamine  Labetalol  Lacidipine High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 33
  35. 35.  Lisinopril  Lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide  Losartan  Mannitol  Mecamylamine  Methyclothiazide High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 34
  36. 36.  Methyldopa  Metolazone  Metoprolol  Minoxidil oral  Moexipril HCl hydrochlorothiazide tablets  Moexipril hydrochloride High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 35
  37. 37.  Nebivolol  Nicardipine  Nitrendipine  Olmesartan  Olmesartan medoxomil and hydrochlorothiazide  Perindopril High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 36
  38. 38.  Perindopril and Indapamide  Phenoxybenzamine  Phentolamine mesylate  Pindolol  Procainamide  Propranolol High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 37
  39. 39.  Quinapril  Quinapril HC-hydrochlorothiazide tablets  Reserpine  Spironolactone  Telmisartan  Telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 38
  40. 40.  Terazosin  Timolol ophthalmic  Timolol oral  Torsemide  Trandolapril  Trandolapril - verapamil High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 39
  41. 41.  Ubiquinone  Valsartan  Valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide  Verapamil  Xipamide High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 40
  42. 42. Trying to lower blood pressure too much can actually increase your risk of both heart problems and death – Dr. Mercola Hypertension: Just cure it within some weeks, leaving behind you all medications and all side effects PPRC/INDIA 41
  43. 43. “Allopathic medicine will not find the cure to any heart related ills because they are not really looking for them. They are looking for new ways to manage diseases perpetually and to keep their patients sick enough to require drugs, but still live” - The Health Wyze Report USA PPRC/INDIA 42
  44. 44. Side-effects of Medications used to treat Hypertension PPRC/INDIA 43
  45. 45. DIURETICS  Extra urination  Erection problems  Weakness, leg cramps / fatigue  Decrease the body’s levels of the mineral potassium  Intense and sudden foot pain PPRC/INDIA 44
  46. 46. BETA-BLOCKERS  Asthma symptoms  Cold hands and feet  Depression  Erection problems  Insomnia and sleep problems PPRC/INDIA 45
  47. 47. ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME (ACE)  A dry, hacking cough that does not go away  Skin rash  Loss of taste ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTOR BLOCKERS (ARBs)  Dizziness PPRC/INDIA 46
  48. 48. CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS (CCBs)  Constipation  Dizziness  Headache  Irregular or very rapid heartbeat (Palpitations)  Swollen ankles PPRC/INDIA 47
  49. 49. ALPHA-BLOCKERS  Dizziness  Fast heartbeat ALPHA - 2 RECEPTOR AGONIST  Dizziness ALPHA BETA-BLOCKERS  Dizziness  Weakness PPRC/INDIA 48
  50. 50. CENTRAL AGONISTS  Anaemia  Constipation  Drowsiness  Dizziness  Dry mouth  Erection problems  Fever PPRC/INDIA 49
  51. 51. PERIPHERAL ADRENERGIC INHIBITORS  Diarrhoea  Dizziness  Weakness  Erection problems  Heartburn  Stuffy nose PPRC/INDIA 50
  52. 52. VASODILATORS  Excessive hair growth  Fluid retention  Headaches  Irregular, very rapid palpitations  Joint aches and pains  Swelling around the eyes PPRC/INDIA 51
  53. 53. RENIN INHIBITOR  Cough  Diarrhoea  Stomach pain  Heartburn  Rash PPRC/INDIA 52
  54. 54. “KELP” SIDE EFFECTS (FUCUS VESICULOSUS)  Thyroid problem  Nausea  Diarrhoea  Allergic reactions  Watery itchy eyes  Shortness of breath PPRC/INDIA 53
  55. 55. TOPROL XL  Chest pain  Heart failure  Drowsiness  Diarrhoea  Dizziness PPRC/INDIA 54
  56. 56. FLOMAX  Back pain  Blurry vision  Cough  Diarrhoea  Drowsiness  Trouble sleeping  Weakness PPRC/INDIA 55
  57. 57. NORVASC  Swelling of hands, feet, ankles, lower legs  Headache  Upset stomach  Stomach ache  Dizziness  Drowsiness PPRC/INDIA 56
  58. 58. NORVASC  Excessive tiredness  Feeling of warmth  Chest pain  Irregular, rapid pounding heartbeat  Fainting PPRC/INDIA 57
  59. 59. TEVETEN  Runny nose  Sore throat  Cough  Excessive tiredness  Stomach pain  Joint pain PPRC/INDIA 58
  60. 60. TEVETEN  Depression  Swelling of face, throat, tongue, feet and hands  Hoarseness  Difficulty in breathing  Fainting  Decreased sexual ability PPRC/INDIA 59
  61. 61. DIOVAN HCT  Headache  Fatigue  Dizziness  Breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue  Kidney failure  Dry mouth PPRC/INDIA 60
  62. 62. DIOVAN HCT  Jaundice  Dry cough  Skin rash  Back pain  Stuffy nose, tired feeling  Dizziness PPRC/INDIA 61
  63. 63. ZESTORETIC (Lisinopril & hydrochlorothiazide)  Dizziness  Headache  Cough  Fatigue  Serious effect – hypotension (Low B.P.) PPRC/INDIA 62
  64. 64. Hypertension recognised as a main risk factor for deadly consequences 1. Micardis (Telmisartan):  Swelling of face, lips, tongue or throat  Difficulty in breathing  Rare cases – kidney failure PPRC/INDIA 63
  65. 65. 2. Tirofiban (Aggrastat):  Nose bleeding  Black bloody stools  Cough Vomiting  Chest pain  Sudden weakness PPRC/INDIA 64
  66. 66. 3. Altace (Ramipril) tablets:  During pregnancy, foetal toxicity  Slow heart rate, muscle weakness  Dry mouth, thirst, swelling, urinating less  Jaundice, bleeding in urine 4. Accupril (Quinaprilhydrochloride) tablets:  Foetal toxicity  Swelling of face, lips, tongue, throat PPRC/INDIA 65
  67. 67. 5. Cupoten:  Severe stomach ache  Breathing difficulty  Swelling of face, lips, tongue / throat 6. Isoptin:  Difficulty breathing  Swelling of face, lips, tongue, throat PPRC/INDIA 66
  68. 68. 7. Cardizem:  A red blistering skin rash  Swelling feet / hands Trouble breathing  Slow heartbeats  Dizziness, Fever, Sore PPRC/INDIA 67
  69. 69. 8. Dopamine:  Chest pain  Heartbeat  Shallow breathing  Burning pain 9. Plendil:  Heartbeat, Chest pain  Short breathing PPRC/INDIA 68
  70. 70. 10. Lopressor:  Short breath  Nausea  Hand & Feet swelling  Fainting  Dark urine  Itching PPRC/INDIA 69
  71. 71. 11. Corzida:  Swelling  Heartbeat Weakness 12. Coreg:  Chest pain  Slow heartbeat  Loss of bladder PPRC/INDIA 70
  72. 72. Treatment of hypertension PROTOCOL Lifestyle modifications Introduction of drug therapy Change or addition in drugs More drug modifications PPRC/INDIA 71
  73. 73. Sequence of treatment Education Diet, Exercise, massage Yoga and meditation Brisk walking Maintain body weight Regular check-up Use of phytochemicals & Home remedies PPRC/INDIA 72
  74. 74. Thank You!! “BE WITH US”

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