Bitter gourd
Momordica charantia L.
A boon to
Human being on the globe
Presented by
Dr. Sudhakar Kokate
Director PPRC, Ind...
PPRC/INDIA 01
 Family: Cucurbitaceae
 Momordica : a genus of 42 species
 Annual climbers
 It grows in tropical countries Africa, Asi...
 Name from Latin meaning : “to bite”
 Some species: Momordica widely cultivated in India.
 Recorded species : 5
 Speci...
 To enhance beta cells (Ahmed et. al. 1998)
 To promote insulin release (Welihinda et. al. 1986)
 To increase glucose u...
 Inhibition of G-6-P, F-6-P in Liver stimulation of red
cell and hepatic G-6-P dehydrogenase (Shibib et. al.
1993)
 To i...
PPRC/INDIA 06
 Fruits are tonic, stomachic, carminative and cooling
 Useful in diseases such as:
* Diabetes mellitus
* Gout and other ...
* Wounds
* Management of worms
* Management of parasites
* Measles & hepatitis
* Peptic ulcer
* Contraceptive
* Rheumatism...
PPRC/INDIA 09
 Also known as ……… bitter cucumber
bittermelon
balsam pear
karela
 A monoecious climber, stem slender, leaves sub -
orbi...
 Pendulous fusiform beaked ribbed with numerous
tubercles, brown seeds 13 – 16 mm long compressed,
embedded in red pulp
...
 Bitter melon has a long history of use as a
hypoglycaemic agent in Asia, Africa, Latin America
where plant extract consi...
PPRC/INDIA 13
 Seed: A clear, reddish brown oil yield …. 26.5 %
 Fatty acid of oil: alpha-elacostearic acid …. 46.7 %
linoleic …. 7.7 ...
 Albumin …. 6.1 %
 ɑ globulin …. 6.1 %
 Glutelin …. 1.2 %
 Seed also contains an alkaloid &an anti-helminthic
principl...
 Fruit: Moisture …. 83.2 %
Protein…. 2.9 %
Fat …. 1.0 %
Carbohydrates …. 9.8 %
Fibre …. 1.7 %
Mineral matter …. 1.4 %
PPR...
 Fruit: Calcium …. 50 mg / 100 g
Phosphorus …. 140 mg / 100 g
Iron …. 9.4 mg / 100 g
Carotene(Vit A) …. 210 i.u.
Thiamine...
* Anti-diabetic
* Anti-cancer
* Anti-viral
* Anti-oxidant
* Anti-obesity
* Anti-helminthic
* Immuno-modulatory
* Hepato-re...
* Glycosides
* Saponins
* Alkaloids
* Fixed oils
* Triterpenes
* Protein
* Steroids
* Kara compounds
* Vitamin C
* Vitamin...
* Inulinomimitic lectins
* Charantin
* Steroidalglycosides
* Oleanolic acid 3-0-monodesmoside
* Oleanolic acid 3-0-glucuro...
Bitter gourd recipes
PPRC/INDIA 21
* Masala Bharwan karela
* Bittergourd curry
* Bittergourd pitlai
* Karela bhindi masala
* Karela chips
PPRC/INDIA 22
PPRC/INDIA 23
PPRC/INDIA 24
PPRC/INDIA 25
PPRC/INDIA 26
PPRC/INDIA 27
* Karela rice
* Khatta meetha karela
* Yammy karela
* Green glow
* Hot karela achaar
PPRC/INDIA 28
* Fried karela boat
* Crispy bittergourd
* Stuffed karela in makhani gravy
* Chatpati bittergourd bhujia
* Karela mussalam...
PPRC/INDIA 30
PPRC/INDIA 31
PPRC/INDIA 32
PPRC/INDIA 33
 Wash karela fruit under running water
 Slice with knife and scoop out the seeds & white
flesh
 Make small cubes with k...
 Sieve juice through wire mesh
 Early morning drink this green juice (50 – 100 ml) on
empty stomach
 Use honey, black p...
PPRC/INDIA 36
 Lowers blood glucose due to chemical “charantin”
 It purifies blood, curing blood boils, itching due to
blood poisoning...
 To lose body weight
 For curing pile, a painful disease
 To treat cholera in early stage
 To strengthen the immune sy...
 To alleviate eye problems and improve eyesight
 In Africa, Asia Karela fruit is used against
gastrointestinaldisorders
...
Thank You!!
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Bitter gourd: A boon to human being on the globe

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Annual climbers which mean "to bite" in Latin are widely cultivated in India. Useful in dreaded diseases such as diabetes, colic fever, rheumatism, kidney stones, etc.

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Bitter gourd: A boon to human being on the globe

  1. 1. Bitter gourd Momordica charantia L. A boon to Human being on the globe Presented by Dr. Sudhakar Kokate Director PPRC, India
  2. 2. PPRC/INDIA 01
  3. 3.  Family: Cucurbitaceae  Momordica : a genus of 42 species  Annual climbers  It grows in tropical countries Africa, Asia, Amazon, South America PPRC/INDIA 02
  4. 4.  Name from Latin meaning : “to bite”  Some species: Momordica widely cultivated in India.  Recorded species : 5  Species : M. balsamia M. charantia M. cochinchinensis spreng. PPRC/INDIA 03
  5. 5.  To enhance beta cells (Ahmed et. al. 1998)  To promote insulin release (Welihinda et. al. 1986)  To increase glucose utilization in the Liver and Muscle (Sarkar et. al. 1996)  Ability to inhibit cell growth, guanylate cyclase activity & ribosomal activity(West et. al. 1973) PPRC/INDIA 04
  6. 6.  Inhibition of G-6-P, F-6-P in Liver stimulation of red cell and hepatic G-6-P dehydrogenase (Shibib et. al. 1993)  To inhibit glucose transportat the brush border of the small intestine(Matsuda et. al. 1998) PPRC/INDIA 05
  7. 7. PPRC/INDIA 06
  8. 8.  Fruits are tonic, stomachic, carminative and cooling  Useful in diseases such as: * Diabetes mellitus * Gout and other diseases of the liver & spleen * Colic and fever PPRC/INDIA 07
  9. 9. * Wounds * Management of worms * Management of parasites * Measles & hepatitis * Peptic ulcer * Contraceptive * Rheumatism * Jaundice * Kidney stones * Piles * Malaria * Eczema PPRC/INDIA 08
  10. 10. PPRC/INDIA 09
  11. 11.  Also known as ……… bitter cucumber bittermelon balsam pear karela  A monoecious climber, stem slender, leaves sub - orbicular, flowers – yellow, fruits – 5 – 25 cm PPRC/INDIA 10
  12. 12.  Pendulous fusiform beaked ribbed with numerous tubercles, brown seeds 13 – 16 mm long compressed, embedded in red pulp  Plant cultivated as Vegetable crop  Two types: hot season – Jethuya rainy season – Baramasiya PPRC/INDIA 11
  13. 13.  Bitter melon has a long history of use as a hypoglycaemic agent in Asia, Africa, Latin America where plant extract considered as vegetable insulin which appears to have structural similarities to animal insulin (Dr. Ethan et. al. 2003) PPRC/INDIA 12
  14. 14. PPRC/INDIA 13
  15. 15.  Seed: A clear, reddish brown oil yield …. 26.5 %  Fatty acid of oil: alpha-elacostearic acid …. 46.7 % linoleic …. 7.7 %, oleic …. 15.8 % stearic …. 29.8 %  Seed cake: 13.4 % totalproteins containing …….. PPRC/INDIA 14
  16. 16.  Albumin …. 6.1 %  ɑ globulin …. 6.1 %  Glutelin …. 1.2 %  Seed also contains an alkaloid &an anti-helminthic principle in the germ. They also contain urease PPRC/INDIA 15
  17. 17.  Fruit: Moisture …. 83.2 % Protein…. 2.9 % Fat …. 1.0 % Carbohydrates …. 9.8 % Fibre …. 1.7 % Mineral matter …. 1.4 % PPRC/INDIA 16
  18. 18.  Fruit: Calcium …. 50 mg / 100 g Phosphorus …. 140 mg / 100 g Iron …. 9.4 mg / 100 g Carotene(Vit A) …. 210 i.u. Thiamine …. 72 mg Nicolinic acid …. 0.5 mg PPRC/INDIA 17
  19. 19. * Anti-diabetic * Anti-cancer * Anti-viral * Anti-oxidant * Anti-obesity * Anti-helminthic * Immuno-modulatory * Hepato-renal * Hypolipidemic PPRC/INDIA 18
  20. 20. * Glycosides * Saponins * Alkaloids * Fixed oils * Triterpenes * Protein * Steroids * Kara compounds * Vitamin C * Vitamin A * Phosphorus * Iron PPRC/INDIA 19
  21. 21. * Inulinomimitic lectins * Charantin * Steroidalglycosides * Oleanolic acid 3-0-monodesmoside * Oleanolic acid 3-0-glucuronide PPRC/INDIA 20
  22. 22. Bitter gourd recipes PPRC/INDIA 21
  23. 23. * Masala Bharwan karela * Bittergourd curry * Bittergourd pitlai * Karela bhindi masala * Karela chips PPRC/INDIA 22
  24. 24. PPRC/INDIA 23
  25. 25. PPRC/INDIA 24
  26. 26. PPRC/INDIA 25
  27. 27. PPRC/INDIA 26
  28. 28. PPRC/INDIA 27
  29. 29. * Karela rice * Khatta meetha karela * Yammy karela * Green glow * Hot karela achaar PPRC/INDIA 28
  30. 30. * Fried karela boat * Crispy bittergourd * Stuffed karela in makhani gravy * Chatpati bittergourd bhujia * Karela mussalam PPRC/INDIA 29
  31. 31. PPRC/INDIA 30
  32. 32. PPRC/INDIA 31
  33. 33. PPRC/INDIA 32
  34. 34. PPRC/INDIA 33
  35. 35.  Wash karela fruit under running water  Slice with knife and scoop out the seeds & white flesh  Make small cubes with knife  Put all cubes in blender with some water PPRC/INDIA 34
  36. 36.  Sieve juice through wire mesh  Early morning drink this green juice (50 – 100 ml) on empty stomach  Use honey, black pepper, chaat masala if required PPRC/INDIA 35
  37. 37. PPRC/INDIA 36
  38. 38.  Lowers blood glucose due to chemical “charantin”  It purifies blood, curing blood boils, itching due to blood poisoning  Being high in fibre prevents constipationand many stomach disorders PPRC/INDIA 37
  39. 39.  To lose body weight  For curing pile, a painful disease  To treat cholera in early stage  To strengthen the immune system PPRC/INDIA 38
  40. 40.  To alleviate eye problems and improve eyesight  In Africa, Asia Karela fruit is used against gastrointestinaldisorders  Leaves juice is helpful in Jaundice, Malaria  R & D proves that Karela may be useful in solving leukemia problems PPRC/INDIA 39
  41. 41. Thank You!!

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