Project Management National Conference 2011                                  PMI India  Innovative use of Project  Managem...
Project Management National Conference 2011                                                             PMI India         ...
Project Management National Conference 2011                                           PMI India                 The Projec...
Project Management National Conference 2011                                         PMI India                 practices to...
Project Management National Conference 2011                                          PMI India                 2.1.2 Scope...
Project Management National Conference 2011                                        PMI India                 (PMO) is esta...
Project Management National Conference 2011                                           PMI India                 3.1.1 Esta...
Project Management National Conference 2011                                                 PMI India                     ...
Project Management National Conference 2011                                         PMI India                 4      Innov...
Project Management National Conference 2011                                          PMI India                            ...
Project Management National Conference 2011                                       PMI India                            Tab...
Project Management National Conference 2011                                        PMI India                              ...
Project Management National Conference 2011                                                 PMI India                     ...
Project Management National Conference 2011                                             PMI India                         ...
Project Management National Conference 2011                                              PMI India                 •    Fi...
Project Management National Conference 2011                                             PMI India                 3.   Gar...
Project Management National Conference 2011                                  PMI India                 R.T.Sundari working...
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  1. 1. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India Innovative use of Project Management practices to overcome the challenges in Government Organizations Shalu Gupta, R.T.Sundari2|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  2. 2. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India Contents 1 Introduction......................................................................................................... 4 2 Major Challenges in government organization................................................ 5 2.1.1 Rough order of Magnitude Estimation....................................................... 5 2.1.2 Scope Creeping............................................................................................. 6 2.1.3 Project Management as Uninspired Taskmaster...................................... 6 3 Establishing the Project Management Office (PMO)....................................... 6 3.1.1 Establishing the processes for smooth flow of the projects................... 8 3.1.2 Quantitative measurement of Organization Process Performance......... 8 4 Innovative ideas implementation.................................................................... 10 4.1.1 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Based Effort tracking tool........10 4.1.2 Project tracker and highlighter..................................................................11 4.1.3 Team Performance measurement using Balanced score card ............. 11 4.1.4 Implementation of Agile Project Management Methodology................. 12 4.1.5 Reusable component library and Knowledge Bank ............................... 13 4.1.6 Process and Project Management trainings ........................................... 14 5 Conclusion and Lesson................................................................................... 15 6 References......................................................................................................... 16 7 About Authors................................................................................................... 173|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  3. 3. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India The Project Management practices are critical in every sector – Private, Government or NGO. Due to the absence of concrete project management practices and fear of failures many projects in Government organizations are outsourced. Therefore establishing proven project management practices have become a necessity in the government sector and are essential for delivering successful projects. However, in relation to certain key factors like scope creeping, ROI estimation and planning, the people in charge of the projects do not take accountability due to fear of associated implications. As such the task of establishing sound Project Management practices is quite challenging and difficult in government organizations. An attempt is made in this paper to present the challenges faced in establishing project management practices. This paper also explains the agile project management methodology used for on time delivery while maintaining the quality of the project deliverables. It also gives an idea how the process performance baselines and process performance models are established initially, analyzed and improved upon. This explores the innovative thoughts implemented like RFID based effort tracking, balance score card, earned value management, reusable component core library and quantified improvements in the metrics. We have tried to show how these techniques helps the project managers in estimation, planning, identifying the critical factor for the project using PPM, issue management, change management, knowledge management, use of existing best practices established in the organization and so on. Finally this paper presents some of the lessons learnt and the major benefit achieved in cost, schedule, quality, customer satisfaction by the organization. Keywords Project Management office (PMO), Process Performance Baseline (PPB), Process Performance Model (PPM), Balanced score card, Earn Value 1 Introduction Information technology has made a significant impact in the private and government organization. Organization wide established best project management techniques and proven maturity models has been already used in most of the private sectors to manage and on time delivery IT projects. But managing such IT Projects in government organizations are still lacking in using project management practices. Due to this most of the IT projects in government organization are either outsourced or failed. This paper is not only to highlight the major challenges in IT government projects, but it also explore the use of innovative and proven project management tools and techniques to overcome the challenges. It also highlights the role of project management office and its necessity in the government organization and use of Project Management4|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  4. 4. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India practices to assist project managers with the direction and information about the project. This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 describes the major challenges faced in establishing project management practices. Section 3 describes the establishing a project management office in the organization and how to implement these practices in the organization. Section 4 gives the conclusion and lessons learnt. 2 Major Challenges in government organization Most of the critical challenges in government organization are common. Some of the critical challenges are • Rough order of Magnitude Estimation • Scope creeping • Project Management as Uninspired Taskmaster 2.1.1 Rough order of Magnitude Estimation Most of the projects in government organizations are needed to develop from scratch e.g in areas of e-governance, health informatics and research based project etc. Sometimes requirements are very vague at the initial stage of the project. Projects in government sectors are very huge in size but the initial estimation of cost and schedule is is not done correctly due to ineffective due diligence and estimation model on the project. Cost is also determined by available resources rather than by objective assessment and by the analogy of similar completed projects. There are no established processes of using the historical data which relates to used software metric and inputs from subject matter experts. The projects are not properly sized with standard established estimation techniques like FP estimation or COCOMO model. No bottom up estimation technique is used to determine the prior completed steps and then reconciliation with top down approach. The initial ball park value of estimates is not effectively revised during the project execution. Because of lack of precise estimation technique, project gets exceeded from budgeted estimation of cost and schedule. This led to poor requirement analysis cascaded its effect to poor design, high defect densities at deliverable stage, much more rework and virtually endless testing. Due to this many times project get delayed, cancelled or sometime outsourced.5|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  5. 5. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India 2.1.2 Scope Creeping Scope creep refers to uncontrolled changes. This issue generally occurs when scope of the project is not properly defined or controlled. Scope creep is the one of the major challenge in delivering the large development projects in government IT projects. Initially requirements are not very clear and limited amount of time is used for requirement feasibility study. Customers of these organizations are also from non IT sectors. They don’t understand the complete requirement initially but later they come up much critical functionality and these add to enormous scope creep. These impacts hugely on the cost and schedule of deliverables milestone. Many new features are added to project without proper impact analysis of changes. There is no established mechanism for handling the change request. These change requests obscure the ultimate goal of the project and fail to yield the desired outcome. More often users have different perspective about the requirements and their end results. This also creates the problem of scope creeping, which delays the project implementation and completion. Lack of stakeholder involvement at initial stage of the project is also contributed in scope creeping. 2.1.3 Project Management as Uninspired Taskmaster Software lifecycle development methodologies like waterfall model, spiral model etc grew out of a need to control larger development projects. The difficulties of estimating efforts and managing the project to deliver results is much complex. While these methodologies may have worked for some organizations in the past and may still work in some circumstances, for many companies these methodologies only added cost and complexity while providing a false sense of security that management was “doing something” by exhaustively planning, measuring, and controlling. Project manager are seen as Taskmaster who plans and control the document. Allocate the resource and try to deliver the project. He has to maintain the stress of predictability for planning the last details of development before it is delivered and looks into linear development lifecycle – requirement led analysis leading to designs which in turn lead to development. Manager has to be dependent on deterministic, reductionist approach that relied on task breakdown, and was predicated on stability – stable requirements, analysis and stable design. In realistic sense, the requirements are not stable, which calls for re-design in coding phase. 3 Establishing the Project Management Office (PMO) PMO plays a vital role to establish and manage project management practices in most of the organizations. To overcome the challenges faced in government IT sectors in the Project management practices a Project Management Office6|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  6. 6. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India (PMO) is established. The main role of PMO is to provide the status to the management continuously about the running projects. The objective of PMO is to improve project delivery in terms of schedule, budget and quality. To meet the organization’s goal, PMO is involved throughout lifecycle of the projects. The new projects are imitated in PMO through the PIN (Project Initiation Note) creation. The projects estimation is done by using different well proven estimation techniques like function point estimation or process based estimation. In function point estimation sizing mechanism is done during the life cycle of the application development or enhancement mainly in the initiation requirements phase where raw users requirements are gathered and converted to initial technical and then final functional requirements. Thereafter based on the type of projects, identify the counting scope and application boundary and again adding the value adjustment factor to calculate the adjusted FP count to get the size of project. In process based estimation total number of processes in each module is identified as Simple, medium and complex. Subsequently conversion of complex and medium process into simple process to be undertaken to get aggregate size of the project. This is done to improve the estimations. PMO should also establish the strategy to measure the project progress using Earned Value Measurement. The earned value is calculated at regular intervals and project estimations are revised if required. The earn value analysis can be invoked at any stage of project to check the health of project and helps to control schedule variance and cost overrun. PMO shall do some strategic planning to make the project management practices successful such as • Establishing the processes for smooth flow of the projects using CMMI framework. • Quantitative measurement of Organization Process Performance (OPP) to control the projects. • Innovative tools implementation such as RFID based effort tracking tool , Project tracker and highlighter , Team performance measurement using Balanced score card • Implementation of Agile Project Management Methodology • Establishing the reusable component library and Knowledge bank • Process and Project Management trainings7|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  7. 7. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India 3.1.1 Establishing the processes for smooth flow of the projects PMO initially establishes the processes in the organization. These processes help in planning the project, for management of requirements, configuration, scheduling, costs, risks involved, communication and control of the project. Process owners are identified for each process so that each process can be effectively established and used in the organization. The processes effectiveness is evaluated by PMO and processes are improved as per the recommendations received by process owners. The PMO also introduces the requirement traceability matrix. The requirement traceability matrix is a very good tool for forward and backward requirement mapping. It also helps in full coverage of requirement and controlling the scope creep challenge. The PMO also introduce the practice of identifying all key stakeholders at the initial phase of the projects. The requirements are discussed with identify stakeholders so that they have common understanding about the same. This will help in controlling the scope creep challenges. 3.1.2 Quantitative measurement of Organization Process Performance The projects are followed the established processes in the organizations. PMO with the help of Quality Assurance team measure the current performance of the organization to identify strengths and weakness of processes. For this purpose metrics are identified initially. The different project metrics are derived from projects data. But in order to measure the organization performance, Process Performance Baselines (PPBs) are established. PPB measure the organizational performance. Figure 1 represents the sample chart of effort and schedule variance PPB.8|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  8. 8. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India Figure 1 Effort variance and Schedule variance PPB For controlling the project, different tools and method are followed. Process control is based on a comparison of what is happening today with what happened previously. How the process typically performs or builds a model of how we think the process will perform and calculate control limits for the expected measurements of the output of the process. Then we collect data from the process and compare the data to the control limits. The majority of measurements should fall within the control limits. Measurements that fall outside the control limits are examined to see if they to belong to the same population as our initial model. If not the points that fall outside the limits are investigated. To control the project the Project Performance Models (PPM) is derived from organizational process performance data. Using PPM the project managers are able to predict the outcome of the projects. Table 1 represents the sample PPM established in the organization. Table 1: Sample PPM Established PPM June 2010 Sep. 2010 Schedule -0.0651-0.988 SRS Review 0.213 - 1.53 Design Review variance Effectivness+0.665Design Review Effectiveness + 0.0556 DD at SIT Effectivness+0.180 DD at SITEffort Variance 2.04 + 0.956 SRS Review Efficiency + 2.54 1.42 - 3.75 Design Review Design Review Efficiency - 3.61 Design Efficiency + 5.91 Design Rework Rework Effort - 6.04 Code Rework Effort Effort Defect Density 1.34 - 13.9 SRS Review Effectiveness + 2.16 10.0 - 7.82 SRS Rev. Effectiveness Design Review Effectiveness - 1.40 Code - 5.02 Design Rev. Effectiveness Review EffectivenessRework at 0.114 + 0.229 SRS Review Efficiency+ 0.150 0.431 - 0.109 Design Reviewcoding phase Design Review Efficiency Efficiency+ 0.0437 Defect Density PPB and PPM help the PMO further to measure the Project level goal setting. The PPM is also used by the Project Managers to quantitatively control the projects in terms of schedule variance, effort variance, defect density and rework. These models give the indications of strengths and weakness of overall projects performance running under the umbrella of the organization. Metrics provide project tracking and control the performance at project level.9|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  9. 9. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India 4 Innovative ideas implementation By establishing the project management tools and best practices through PMO facilitates the automation of manual process to track efforts, measuring productivity and performance of functional groups. 4.1.1 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Based Effort tracking tool Earlier, there was no automated process to capture the actual efforts and schedule delay. In such cases manual process was used for capturing the efforts and deriving different metrics. The physical copy of data sheet was sent to different projects manager to fill the project data. Based on data received, Process performance baseline and Process Performance models were generated. When these baselines and models were analyzed, many times it was observed that data received was not accurate. The need for an automation process thus arises. Based on this requirement RFID based effort tracking system tool has been developed. The employee attendance is capture through the RFID card. RFID antenna records the each in/out entry of the employees in the log file. The log files are read by effort tracking software. The software calculates the effort spent on each project. The different projects PERT data from MS Project are linked with the effort tracking tool. The employees fill the daily activities based on their project activities. This tool captures the efforts of individual employee. The Quality assurance group uses this tool to generate the report at project level. The different reports are generated from the tool like summary effort report, detail effort report, schedule variance reports. These reports are sent to PMO and senior management. The PMO analyze the reports and take necessary corrective / preventive action based on the organization business objectives. The major gain achieved with this tool is that it reflects the actual project performance, helps in improving the productivity, schedule and effort. This tool also helps the PMO to improve the resource utilization. Figure 2 represents the improvement in schedule variance in each quarter.10|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  10. 10. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India Figure 2 Improvement in schedule variance 4.1.2 Project tracker and highlighter The PMO also stress upon need of automated tool which track and highlight the overall project status. It will provide high level summary of milestone status, change request status, major blocking issues and achievements in the projects. It also highlights the status in green (on time) and in red (delay). This tool helps in controlling the schedule, scope and budget. It also helps in motivating the team by highlighting the team achievements. 4.1.3 Team Performance measurement using Balanced score card Balanced score card is a strategic management method used by PMO to determine team performance based on target set for future. This method links the organization strategy and action. This method helps in setting the long term and short term goal and measuring the goal on monthly basis. Table 2 represent the sample Balanced score card used in the organization. Targets are fixed by team members. Team members have to achieve minimum 3 targets and this is also linked with the annual performance of team members.11|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  11. 11. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India Table 2: Sample Balanced score card used Sl. No. Measure Target 1. Value Proposed 140 L 2. Value Confirmed 70 L 3. Value Realized 50 L 4. Value Earned 20 L 5. Number of reported bugs from field 60 6. Mean Time to repair reported bugs in days 2 7. Deviation in Milestone 20 % 8. % Peer Reviewed Code / Design Document, etc. 50% 9. Modules Submitted to Library 12 10. % of Library Modules Used 30% 11. % of Code Generated with HLD and LLD 70% 12. Number of workshops/seminar conducted/attended 3 13. Copyright 9 14. Publications 2 15. Training 3 16. Patent 2 Balanced score card implementation in organization measure the financial expenses in the projects on monthly basis, improved the contribution towards the organization and increased the rate of individual learning and research oriented work environment. It helps to align everyone’s goal in the organization so that each employee can understand his/ her role to achieve organizations’ objectives. The Balanced score card also works as a performance feedback tool for senior management to give the employee his / her accomplishments. 4.1.4 Implementation of Agile Project Management Methodology The past data of various organizations shows that agile development is consistently delivering meaningful and measurable business results. Strong management is absolutely critical to the successful adoption and application of agile methodologies. The use of Agile methodology plays a vital role for various organizations; small, medium and large enterprises. The key drivers for adopting agile project were to manage changing priorities and to accelerate time to market. 90% of the organizations reported increased productivity. 85% of the organizations reported reduced software defects. 83% of the organizations reported accelerated time to market and a 66% reported reduced cost.12|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  12. 12. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India Figure 3 Agile methodology workflow Organizations have also initiated the adaptive project management of agile methodology with emphasis on Scrum programming and have found that many established project management practices still apply to agile development projects – with some adaptation and a strong dose of leadership. Agile methodology is applied to handle scope creeping. All deliverables module of the project is indentified as backlog. Projects are divided into smaller groups named Sprint lasting1-4 weeks. Figure 3 represents the agile methodology lifecycle. In each iteration of Sprint minimum testing is done and application is deployed. Limited functionality is delivered in each iteration. Large projects especially in the areas like e-governance and health, showed products were improved in quality performance, cost, productivity, on time delivery and customer satisfaction. 4.1.5 Reusable component library and Knowledge Bank Generally, components developed under one project are not being re-used in other projects thus resulting in duplication of work and more effort. Similar defects found in different projects. Reusable component library may be established in organization to utilize the components already developed under different projects. Defect density can be improved with the use of Reusable components as the components were tested already. Use of reusable components generates less rework in debugging and customization. This will help in delivering high quality product which increases the customer satisfaction index.13|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  13. 13. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India Table 3: Improvement in schedule and effort variance Metrics June 2010 Dec 2010 Mean SD Mean SD Improvement in mean Effort Variance 19% 12% 10% 8% -9% Schedule Variance 27% 6% 9% 6% -18% Defect Density 2.53 1.75 1.14 -0.78 After establishing the component library, PMO could measure the improvement in metrics. Table 3 reflects the improvement in Effort Variance, Schedule Variance and Defect density by 9%, 18% and 0.78. The Knowledge Bank is established in organizations to share best practices from different projects, training reference material to share the knowledge between all employees. PMO may start to maintain previous and current project documents to use as a reference material for estimation, planning, risk identification. The aim of establishing knowledge bank is to improve the estimation for future projects, adopt the best practices and communicate the lessons learnt from the past experience. 4.1.6 Process and Project Management trainings To successfully implement project management practices, employees in the organization should also be made aware of the processes. To achieve this objective, the process awareness trainings are organized by the PMO at regular intervals for individual employees. Internal audits are also conducted periodically. During internal audits it was observed that project managers are still lacking in project planning, tracking and controlling the projects, process and components. PMO decides to organize the project management professional training for different project managers. There was tremendous improvement observed in internal audits findings after the project management training was imparted. The data shows the significant improvement in the schedule and effort variance. Figure 4 represents the improvement in project planning and controlling before and after the PMI training.14|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  14. 14. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India Figure 4 Improvement in Project management practices 5 Conclusion and Lesson With the effective implementation of proven project management techniques and best practices, the organization has recently achieved CMMI Level 5 maturity. This certification is one of the key milestones towards the consistency and continuous improvement in processes with the implementation of new innovative ideas. This is the benchmark step for many other Government IT organizations, PSU’s etc Process can be redefined and automated to reduce the challenges in grabbing and managing the products development and services of different sectors of e- governance, healthcare and embedded systems. Many organizations still bear a huge burden of cost in premature planning, without the rapid iterative development and continuous feedback from customers that an organization has come to realize are prerequisites for success today. Tools like RFID effort tracking, Project tracker and highlighter and Balanced Score Card has significantly contributed in streamlining the established processes and significantly reducing the redundancy and discrepancy of manual data by capturing the actual data. The data are now effectively used to measure and monitor the overall health of the projects. This results in optimum utilization and continuous improvement in productivity of organization resources, which leads to deliver the quality product and services with high customer satisfaction. This helps the organization to manage the project with high predictability. It is pertinent to highlight some of the major lessons learnt during the establishing project management practices and implementation of innovative ideas in the organization, as set out below:-15|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  15. 15. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India • Fit the PMO to the organization culture not the other way round. • Strengthening the estimation process by developing the guidelines for effective use of estimation. • Implementation of automated tools in turning the stable process to mature capable process. • Capturing actual project data increase the visibility and helps to improve the product or service quality. • Strengthening the process of identifying the risk at earlier stage of project with appropriate action plan to mitigate them. • Improvement in stakeholder involvement at the beginning stage of the project. • Establish strong communication channels between all stakeholders. • Focus on deliverables that gives value to the customer. • Create environment for project management for the team members i.e. bottom up approach. • Ensure senior management support throughout the project. Senior management should be “kept in the loop” so they have an understanding of the need for change and the goals of the project. • Process and project management trainings helped in improving productivity and understanding of the practitioners. 6 References 1. R.T.Sundari, P.N.Barwal, Rishi Prakash, Rajiv Yadav, Chinmay Garg, D.K.Jain “An analysis of factors influencing success and failure of IT Projects” ASCNT 2009 C-DAC Noida 2. Abhijit Sinha “Balanced Score Card : A Strategic Management Tool” Vidyasagar University Journal of Commerce ,vol. 11, March 200616|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  16. 16. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India 3. Gary Humphreys, Margo Visitacion “Mastering Project Management Fundamentals Critical for Successful Earned Value” Oracle Corporation USA Sep.2009 4. Falbo R.A., Borges L.S.M, Valente F.F.R , “Using Knowledge management to improve software process performance in a CMM level 3 organization” page 162- 169,International conference on QSIC, 2004 5. A guide to Project Management Body of Knowledge , Project Management Institute 7 About Authors Ms. Shalu Gupta working as Scientist-‘C’in C-DAC Noida. She is certified Project Management Professional. She has nine years of experience in software development. She has worked in the field of NMS, SNMP, Optical comm., DSLAM OCR and Quality Assurance. She has worked in various companies like C-DoT, Wipro Technology and Flextronics Software Systems. Currently she is associated with the Quality Assurance Group. She has published 6 international and national research papers. Her area of interest includes Software Quality Assurance and Software Metrics. shalugupta@cdacnoida.in17|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management
  17. 17. Project Management National Conference 2011 PMI India R.T.Sundari working as a consultant in C-DAC Noida. She has a post graduation in management and more than 30 years of experience in designing, development, testing and quality assurance. She has published 3 national research papers. She is currently heading the PMO and Quality assurance division. sundari@cdacnoida.in18|P a g e Application of Select Tools of Psychology for Effective Project Management

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